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BOSTON CHAMBER OF COMMKRrE 



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FIFTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS 

OF CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

AND COMMERCIAL AND 

INDUSTRIAL ASSOCIATIONS 



SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER. 1912 



POBUSHID BT 

BOSTON CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 

BOSTON. U.S.A. 



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■^v. 



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deface 

The growth and increase of international oi^anizations is one of the most 
important developments of recent years. Among these evidences of an in- 
creasmg internationalism, no association is entitled to a place of higher stand- 
ing or gives promise of greater constructive results than the International 
Congress of Chambers of Commerce. 

The official sesdons of the Congress, held every two years, bring together 
business men from practically every commercial nation on the globe, and ac- 
complish very definite results for the unification of international commercial 
practices. The personal acquaintanceships made at the meetings among prom- 
inent men of different nations also furnish the occasion for the b^innings of 
many transactions in international commerce, resulting to the mutual advan- 
tage of both parties. 

And finally, beyond these practical results, the friendship and good will 
which follow acquaintanceship and a better understanding of each other's point 
of view, make of the Congresses a living force for the promotion of international 
peace.' 

For these reasons the Boston Chamber of Commerce took pleasure in un- 
dertaking the organization of the Fifth Congress which met in Boston in Sep- 
tember, 1912, the first time that this great international organization ever held 
its sessions in the Western hemisphere. It takes this occasion to express grati- 
tude for the co-operation of the Govenmient of the United States, the commercial 
oig&nisations in all parts of the country, and the citizens of Boston generally. 
It is naturally a source of great pleasure that the Boston Congress should have 
been the first at which there were in attendance a considerable number of dis- 
tinguished business men not only from North America, in which the Congress 
was held, but also from South America and the Far East. 

The usual official report of the V^th Congress, principally in the French 
language, will be issued by the Permanent Committee from Brussels. In the 
Appendix to this book will be found the stenographic report of the official ses- 
(dons, and the text- of the addresses at the final banquet — principally in the 
EngliBh language, although in cases where the speaker used another language, 
the original language as well as the English translation is given. 

As it is generally agreed that the larger benefits of these Congresses are 
brought about outside the official sessions, we have endeavored to make avail- 



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2919o.'J 



iv INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS 

able in this report material not readily accessible, which, it is hoped, will in- 
terest and help beyond the reading of the printed speeches. 

To this end, the first part of this book is devoted to telling briefly the his- 
tory of the previous Congresses, the story of the Boston Congress, and con- 
cluding with material which will be valuable to the foreign delegates in helpii^ 
them to refresh their recollections of some of the things which they saw on their 
trip to America. 

And this part of the book has been interspersed with illustrations in the 
hope of making it still more interestii^. Of course, the narrow limits of this 
volume make impossible the inclusion of the photc^aphs of all who bad a prom- 
inent place in the promotion of this international movement, or even of the 
Boston Coi^ress. The Boston Chamber of Commerce has included photographs 
of those Government Delegates and members of the Permanent Committee and 
American Committees of the Boston Congress which were readily available. 
It extends apolc^es to the many who lent their co-operation whose photographs 
were not in its possession at the time of printing. 

And just as each of the Congresses aheady held has been more aucce^ful 
than the preceding, the Boston Chamber of Commerce hopes that this publi- 
cation may to some extent help to increase interest in and attendance at the 
Sixth Coi^ress, which is to meet in Paris in June, 1914. 

Boston, U.S.A., 1913. 



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Contents 

Pbetacx iii 

CoN^rENTB ^ ....... ^ .,......,.,..,...... y 

Lm OF IiiUBTBATioNS vii 

GBEZTiNa Facing 1 

Pttbposb anp Scopk of the Intkbkationai. Congbess 1 

OmczBa or Fittb Intcbmatiomal CoKOBEas 3 

Intkbkational CoNORBSOca or Chahbkbs or Cohmsbce 6 

Brief History 5 



Permanent Cranmittee 9 

Programa of the CoDgressea 10 

Acre AND RxeoLDTioNB or thb Boston CoNOBEes 13 

OmcuL SBeaiONB at Bostoh 17 

Te« Etenib at Boston 25 

TouB or THB Untted Statbs 31 

Boston 41 

Facts abottt ibb Citibs Vibitid on the Amkkican TotiB 51 

Snienbix 

Dbuoateb to thb Fdth International Conobbss op Chaubers or Coumbbcb . . 63 

Fbrmamknt Couotteb 91 

OmcBBS AND Akxbican CoionTTEEB 99 

LiBT or CoMHBBcui. Oboanuations Affiliatbd with Pbbmanbht CoiaaTrsE . . 117 

SixNOGBAPHic Rbpobt Or OmciAL Sessions 131 

Addreases at Official Opening of the Congress 131 

TheEstaUiehmentof a Fixed Date for Eaat«r, and the Reform of the Calendar . . 144 

The Regulation of Intematioaal Ezpoeitioiia 152 

EstablishiDent of an International Court of Arbitral Justice for Suits between In- 

drridnala and Foreign States 153 

The Unification of Legislation Relating to Checks 190 

Cramneraal Btatistice, and the Immediat« Institution of an International Office . 231 

Validation oi Through-order-notify Bills of Lading 230 

Intematioiial Postal Reforms in View of the Next Conference of the Universal 

Postal Union in 1913 244 



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vi INTERNATIONAL C0N0RES8 

Tlie Desirability of Intemational Umformity of Action in the Msttw of C 

Invoicee 

The Desirability of an latemational Conferenoe on Priees And the Cost of living . 

IntenutioDo] Atbitration 

The Banquxt: Stxnogbaphic Rxpobt or ts> AsDBBasBB 

RUI.BB 



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lisst of 3niii8ttattotul 

Boston Cbaubeb of Comuerce Frontiipket 

Hon. WnjjAH H. Taft, Premdent of the United States of America; Preeideiit of Amer- 
ican Honorary Committee 6 

HoM. PfliLAMniJi C. Knox, Secretary of State for the United States of America ... 7 

Hon. Chakleb Naoel, Secretary of Commerce and Labor for the United BtBtee of 

America 7 

Loms Canon-Lboband, President of the Fifth International Congreaa of Chambers of 



£iai.E JoTTRAND, General Secretary of the Fifth International CoDgreai of Chambers 

(rf Commerce 8 

Hon- Ecobne N. Fobs, Governor of Massachusetts 9 

Hon. Josn F. FiTZOEaAU), Mayor of Boston Et 

JoBBPH B. RxTBSELL, President Boston Chamber of Conmierce 10 

James A. McKibben, Secretary Boston Chamber of Commerce 10 

Georob S. Suith, Chairman Boston Executive Committee 10 

KoBEBT J. BoTTOULT, Secretary Boston Executive Committee 10 

William H. Bain, Director of the BosUin Chamber of Commerce; Member of B<»ton 

Executive Committee 11 

EuiBR J. Bliss, Chairman General Organizing Committee II 

JoBN H. Fabbt, Chairman Committee on Tour II 

Bernard J. Rotbwell, Chairman Committee on Entertainment II 

jAiae J. SroBBOw, Chairman Boston Honorary Committee 12 

Prof. F. W. Taussiq, Chairman Committee on Program 12 

James T. Wetherau), Chairman Committee on Publicity 12 

BoBEBT WiNBOK, Chairman Committee on Finance 12 

F. FAiTHPrLL Beoo, Chairman of Council of London Chamber of Commerce .... 13 

W. J. Tbompbon, London Chamber of Commerce 13- 

M. E. YoNKEB, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Amsterdam 13 

T. Edward Wildkh, Chicago ABBociation of Commerce 13 

Prof. Dr. Max Apt, Syndic of "Die SitcslenderKaufmannBchftft von Berlin". ... 14 

Dr. Alf. Gboko, Vice-President of Chamber of Commerce of Geneva, Switieriand . , 14 

EuoIne Allard, President Belgian Chamber of Commerce of Paris 14 

Charles S. Haioht, New York, N. Y 14 

Wilbur J. Cabr, Director American Consular Service 15 

Prof. IiiviNa Fibber, Yale University 15 

Dr. SoETBBER, General Secretary of " Der Deutscher Handelstag," Beriin 15 

Dr. Max von Tatxnthal, First Secretary Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 

Vienna 15 

Hon. John Barrbtt, Director-General of the Pan-American Union Ig 

H. E. F. a. Pesbt, Minister of Peru, Washington, D. C; Delegate of Commercial As- 
sociations of Lima and Callao 18 

Tii 



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viii INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

orromrrm faQS 

H. E. Dr. Cablob Mabu dk Pena, Ministw of Uruguay, WaahingtoD, D. C; Delegate 

of Uruguay 18 

H. E.ANTomoMABTTMRivzBo,Miniat«rofCubft,WMtiington,D.C.;DdegateofCuba 18 

Makttxl Jacintho Ftbrkiha da Cunba, Consul General of BruQ, New Yodc, N. Y. . 19 
Count Candido de Mbmdbb db Almkida, Director Commercial Mueeum of Rio de 

Janeiro 19 

Pedro Ratabl Rinconbs, Consul General erf Veneiuela, New York, N. Y 19 

Ai>OLPO Ballivi2k, Consul General of Bolivia, New York, N. Y 19 

Dr. Leonabd Hocbdobt, Seoretaiy to the Austrian Ministry ot Commerce 22 

Dr. Eoumn) KuNoei, Aaaistant Secretary Hungarian Miniatiy of Commerce .... 22 

Vicente Goneali», Ecuador 22 

Rahon AjtiAa-FEOAUD, Panamft 22 

Db. Abel Pardo, Consul General of Argentina, New York, N. Y 23 

RiCAXDO Banchbe Crue, Consul General of Chile, New Yc^, N. Y 23 

Horace N. Fibher, Consul of Chile, Boston, Mass 23 

Da. JoROB Vabqas, Consul of Columbia, Boston, Mass. 23 

DELBOATXa AT ONE OP THE OFFICIAL SESeiONB 26 

Special Editionb OF THE "BoeroN Chauber OP CoHMEBCE News" 29 

Gboup of Delxoates fbou Bbitibb Eupibb Saiukq fbom Boston 27 

Gboup of Delegates from Japan 27 

Gbouf of DELZOATxa in Front of the Coplet Plasa Hotel 28 

Grodf op DxiAiATXS AT THE Thouab O. Plant Shoe Factobt, September 27, 1912 29 
Grodp op Deuiqateb at Houb op Ex-Mator Jameb Looan, Worcester, Mass., 

September 30, 1912 34 

DiNNEB OP Mehbebb OP CoeHOPOUTAK Club, Pittsbu^Ji, PenDsylvania, October 

11, 1912 31 

Delegates at Factobt of Packabd Motob Coupant, Detboit, Michigan ... 3S 

LuiGi SoLABi, Fieaident Italian Chamber of Commerce of New York 38 

Chablbb C. Hott, President New England Shoe and Leather Association 38 

Dr. W. p. WneoN, Director Philadelphia Commercial Museum 38 

John H. Patiebbon, President National Cash Register Company 38 

DimiEB BT FOREION DBWlATXfi IM HOKOB OP BOBTON CbaMBBB OF COUUEBCE, NeW 

York City, October 19, 1912 39 

Bbd'b-Etx View of Boston 40 

CopLET Plaza Hotel, Coplet Squabe, Boston, Headquarters of Fifth International 

Congress 41 

Boston Public Libbabt, Coplet Square 41 

Steamship Docks at East Boston 42 

Head House, Coiihonweai/th Pibb, South Boston 42 

FiBHiNa Fleet at T Wharp, Boston 43 

State Bathhouse at Retebe in Metbofolitan Boston 43 

Plant op the Walthak Watch Cohpant in Metropolitan Boston 44 

Plant of the Thohab G. Plant Sboe Cohpant, Boston 44 

Plant of the United Shoe Macsinest Company 46 

Wood Wobsted Milu at Lawbence 45 

Hall of the Boston SmPHONT Obchbstba 46 

Boston Opera House 46 

Harvard Medical School, Boston 47 

Boston Mcbedm of Fine Arts 47 

West Boston BRmoB to Cahbriixib 48 

Strbjr Railwat Tbbional at Fobest Hills, Boston 48 

Public Gaboens in the Centbb of Boston 49 

OmaioNwSAioH Avenue, Boston 49 



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CEAMBEBS OF COMMERCE 

OFTOBin 

MAfiSACBiTBBTTa Statk Hoitbe, Boston 

SiATi Btrmbt, Boston, Showing Old State House 

South Tbbhinai. Railboas Station, Bostoh 

XJbion Station, WoaccsTEB 

McKiNixT MomnixHT, Butfalo 

Niagara Fallb 

Vnw or THfl Lakb Fboht, Cbicaoo 

PoBnoN of toe Chicaoo Stock-tabdb 

View of the RtviiK Fbont, Dztsoit 

ViKw Fsou THE Ohio Rivbb, Cimcinkati 

The Capitol, Wabhthoton, D. O 

White House, Wabhinoton, D. C 

The Skt Lnra of PnTSBUBOH 

Ihsependxnge Hall, Philuiblpbia 

The Setbcrapxbs of IiOwxb New Yobk 

Tbbee of thx Bridgis to Bboozlth, New York 

Official PHOTOORAf h or DzLEaATiB to Fittb Intbrkational Conqbess of Chah- 
sebs of Couukrcr dt Front of Coplbt Plaea Hotel, Boston, Sefteubeb 25, 
1912 



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gjit Jnttmational Congctttf 



The International Congress of Chambers of Commerce and 
Commercial and Industrial Associations is an organisation rep- 
resenting the business men of the entire vorld. 

The purpose of the Congress is to facilitate the commercial 
intercourse of nations and to promote cordial relationships be- 
tween them. At its biennial sessioiis the Congreea condders 
international commercial problems. It strives to secure har- 
moi^ of action on all international queetjons affecting commerce 
and trade by enlisting the co-operation of the various nations 
to obtain unifonn lawB with reference to commercial matten. 

-The recommendations adopted by the vote of the del^ates 
are carried out by a Permanent Committee with headquarters 
at Brussels which keeps in touch with the constituent organisa- 
tions and the Governments of alt countries. 

The delegates to the Confess are of two classes : first, the offi- 
cial del^ates designated to attend the Congress by the Govern- 
ments of the leading commercial nations; second, the del^ates 
s^ipointed by the leading buaness organizations of the world 
which are affiliated with the Congress. 

The Governments of all countries in which the Congresses 
have been held, have always vouchsafed their official recogni- 
tion. The broadly representative character of the delegates in 
attendance and the interest taken in the work of the Congress 
by the buainesB men of highest standing of all nationalities 
have given to these Congresses a notable place in the bunnesa 
life of the whole world. 

The Congresses have been held as follows: Liige, 1906; Milan, 
1906; Prague, 1908; London, 1910; Boston, 1912. 



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:f tftfi Intemational Congrttftf 

eatms 



Loms CAKON-LsaaAMD 

PruUml q^ fA« Permontfnl CommilUt of tht IiUtmatioruU Congrttt. President of the Federa- 

Hon tff the Commereial and Induttritd Aieoeiaiiona of Bdgium. Fretident of 

the Chamber of Commerce of M<mi 

Vic«-Presld«nt 

Edwakd a. Fiuura 

ViM-PTt»ideiU <if the Permatteni Committee of the ItOematumcd Congreei, Member of 

Boeton ChatrAer of Commerce 

Oftnonl S«crstatT 

CbOLS JonSAHTI ' 

Stnttary <^ Iha Chamber of Commerce <^ Mont. Secretary trf the Federation <4 *** Commercial 

and /fulvctrtaJ Auodaiioru ef Bel^ttm. Director qf the Commercial Imtitttle of Ute 

Maniifaeturen qf Hainavt 

Ihtfton tfxemtfbe Committct 

QxoBOB 8. Smtth, ChAiimAn 

Preeiietd Boaton Chamber iff Commerce, 1911 

WiLLUH H. Bain 

Dmetor Boeton Chamber ef Commerce 

F.i.MT.n J, Buss 

Chairman Oeneral Organiginf CommiUee 

WnxuM E. BonoB 

Second Yiee-PretideiU Botlon Chamber iff Commerce 

3. IUin>oLPH CoouiKis, Jr. 

Firet Yiee-Preeident Boeton Chancer qf Commerce 

JoHM E. Fahbt 

Chairman Committee on Tow 

Edwabd a. FiLun 

Yie^PretideiU IntemoHtmal Coagreu t^ Chamberi tif Commerce 

Jahbs a. McKibbxm 

Seeretary Boeton Chamber of Commerce 

Bbbhabd J. ROTEWXLL 

Chairifum Committee on BiOerlainmeni. Preeident Botton Chancer of Commerce, 1910 

loexra B. Rubssll 

Prteident Boeton Chamber of Commerce, 1912 

Jamxs J. Btobbow 

Chairman Boeton Honorary CommiOee. Preaident Boeton Chamber of Commerce, 1909 

F. W. Taussiq 

Chairmatt CommxUee on Program 

Jaub T. Wvibkrald 
Chairman Coirunitiee on Publieity 

ROBZBT WlKSOB 

Chatrnum CommiOee on Finance 
RoBEBT J. BoTTOiCLT, SccrOoTy 



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Sntemotionol CongrtStfesc of Cijamfaersc of Commerce 

The International Congress of Chambers of Commerce and Commercial 
and Industrial Aesociations is an organization repiesentii^ the business men 
of the entire world. The purpose of the Congress is to facilitate the conuuer- 
cial intercourse of nations and to promote cordial relationships between them. 
The Congress strives to secure harmony of action on all international ques- 
tions affecting commerce and trade by enlisting the co-operation of various 
nations to obtain uniform laws with reference to commercial matters. 

The idea of bringi:^ together these great international conferences of 
representatives of cbEimbers of commerce and business organizations of all 
countries originated in Belgium. The Federation of Commercial and Indus- 
trial Associations of Belgium took the initiative in 1904 by appointii^ an or- 
ganizing committee for the purpose of laying the idea before the governments 
and commercial organizations of all nations. The great International Ex- 
pomtJon at Li^e in 1905 suppUed a most excellent occasion for holding the 
I first sessions. The Federation of Commercial and Industrial Associations of 
j Bel^um from the start received the hearty co-operation of the government 
! officials of Belgium and of the Executive Committee of the Ei^Kwition at 
Ligge. Ab a result of the work of the organizing committee some two hundred 
bu^ess associations in many countries signified their wiUingnees to partici- 
pate in such a great international gathering. The chambers of commerce of 
I Austria, France, Germany, Great Britwn and Italy took the lead in offering 
their support. A little later commercial organizations in Argentina, Brazil, 
Bulgaria, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switz- 
erland extended assurances of their intention to co-operate. The governments 
of Belgium, China, Cuba, France, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, 
Russia, Sweden, Turkey and the United States of America appomted dele- 
gates to attend the first sessions. Assurances of kindly interest were received 
from the governments of Argentina, Austria, Deimiark, Germany, Great 
Britain, Greece, Hungary, Mexico and Roumania. 

The First International Congress of Chambers of Commerce was held 
under these happy auspices at Li^ge, Belgium, on September 7, 8 and 9, 1905. 
It enjoyed the patronage of the Belgian Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 
and of the Belpan Minister of Industry and Labor. At the close of the meeting 
the assembled delegates unanimously agreed to appoint a Permanent Com- 



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6 .■■.*.::.'";.*■■■..■ '?*^'nEaNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

mittee in order that the Coogresaea might be convened at regular intervals 
and continuity given to the work. As President of the Federation of Conuner- 
cial and Industrial Afisociations of Belgimn, M. Louis Canon-L^piiind served 
as President of the First Congress. He has continued as the presiding officer 
of the five Congresses which have already been held. £mile Jottrand, Secre- 
tary of the Federation of Conunerciai and Industrial Associations of Belgium, 
served as the General Secretary of the First Congress and has continued as 
General Secretary of the Permanent Committee up to the present time. 

The Second Congress was held on September 21, 25 and 27, 1906, at Milan 
under the patronage of His Majesty the King of Italy. The Honorary Presi- 
dents were the Itahan Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Agriculture, Industry 
and Commerce. This Coi^ress was held at the time of the International Ex- 
position at Milan. At this Congress the Rules' governing the organization 
' and procedure of these Congresses were adopted. It was determined to con- 
vene sessions of the Congress every two years. Pending any further decision 
in the matter, it was voted in confirmation of the decision of the Li^ Congress 
that the headquarters of the Permanent Committee should be at Brussels, Bel- 
gium. The Executive Committee of the Second Congress was appointed from 
tiie Chamber of Commerce of Milan and from the Union of Italian Chambers 
of Commerce, an organization compridi^ some ninety-six distinct associa- 
tions. Grand VS. Angelo Salmoiraghi, who was at that time President of 
both these organizations, served as Chairman of the Executive Committee of 
the Milan Congress. 

The Third Congress was held in Prague in 1908. It was opened in person 
by its Honorary President, His Imperial Highness the Archduke Charles Francis 
Joseph. The list of Honorary Presidents contained the names of some eight 
Ministers and Ex-Miuistera of Stat«, as well as the Imperial and Royal Gov- 
ernor of Bohemia, the Mayor of Prague and the President of the Chamber of 
Commerce and Industry of Prague. To this Congress some seventeen govem- 
mente officially accredited delegates. The Congress was held at Prague at the 
time of the Exposition organized in celebration of the Jubilee of His Majesty 
tiie Emperor Francis Joseph. The Executive Committee of this Congress was 
appointed from the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Prague and had 
as its President, Count Henri Clam-Martinic. 

The Fourth Congress was held at London June 21, 22 and 23, 1910, on the 
invitation of the London Chamber of Commerce. It was opened by Right 
Honorable Sidney Buxton, M. P., President of the Board of Trade, who served 
as Honorary President of the Congress. The Honorary Vice-Presidents in- 
cluded the governmental and commercial leaders of the British Empire, among 
them the Prime Minister, Right Honorable H. H. Asquith, K. C, M. P. 
Twenty-nine governments officially nominated delegates to the London Con- 
gress. One hundred and eighty-one commercial organizations in nineteen coun- 
tries were also represented. There were altogether in attendance some 435 
> Foi text of Rules adopted at Milan, eee Appendix, page 303. 



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HOX. WILLIAM H. TAP 
sidcnt of the United States of Amprica; President of A 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 7 

delegates. The Executive Committee having chaise of the arrangements of 
this Congress was appointed from the London Chamber of Commerce and had 
as its Ch^iman, Charles Charleton, Esq., Vice-President of the London Chantbei 
of Commerce. 

The Fifth Congress was held in Boston September 24, 25 and 26, 1912. 
The invitation to hold the liifth Congress in Boston was extended to the Lon- 
don Congress by the Boston Chamber of Conmierce and ninety-eight other 
commercial oi^anizations representing all parts of New England. During the 
summer of 1911 the Boston Chamber of Commerce arrai^ed for a party of 
one hundred American business men to tour some of the principal countries 
of Europe for the purpose of extending a formal invitation to the governments 
and commercial oiganizations of the countries visited to send representatives 
to the Boston Congress. From the outset the project of holding the Fifth 
Congress at Boston received the hearty support of the Government of the 
United States, as well as of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the City 
of Boston. On January 29, 1912, resolutions extending the governmental 
recognition to the Congress and providing that official invitations be extended 
by the Government of the United States were introduced into the Senate of 
the United States by Senator Lodge of Massachusetts, and into the House of 
Representatives by Congressman Peters of Boston. These resolutions were 
passed by both houses of Congress and signed by the President of the United 
States in the following form: 

JOINT RESOLUTION. 
62d CoNGBEss, 2d Session. 

"Besolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America m Congress Assembled, That the President of the 
United States be, and he is hereby, authorised and requested to extend 
to Governments of the commercial nations of the world an invitation 
to be represented officially at the Fifth International Congress of 
Chambers of Commerce and Commercial and Industrial Associations, 
to be held in Boston, Massachusetts, September twenty-fourth to 
twenty-eight, nineteen hundred and twelve. 

That the Secretary of State ifl hereby requested to ask the Govem- 
mente of the commercial nations of the world to notify the leading 
btudnees organizations of their respective countries of this action by the 
Congrees of the United States of America and suggest their co-operation." 

Official invitations were also passed by the Legislature of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts and by the City Government of Boston. Honorable 
WiUiam H. Taft, President of the United States, headed the American Hon- 
orary Committee, under whose auspices the Congress was held, and waa the 
principal speaker at the official dinner to all the delegates. The Vice-Presidents 
of the American Honorary Committee included the Secretary of State, the 



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8 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Secretary of Commerce and Labor, as weU as the Chairman of the Senate 
Committee on Foreiga Relations and the Churman of the House Committee 
OQ Foreign Affairs. The Ammcau Honorary Conmiittee included in its mem- 
bership the diplomatic representatives in the United States of the principal 
commercial nations, the governors of forty-seven of the states of the Union, 
the presidents of the principal commercial oi^anizations of the entire country, 
and about fifty of the business and industrial leaders of the nation. The 
Boston Honorary Committee comprised a notable list of the leaders in com- 
merce and industry of Metropolitan Boston. The official sessions of the Con- 
gress were opened by Honorable Charles Nagel, Secretary of Commerce and 
Labor for the United States of America. Thirty-three governments officially 
appointed delegates to the Boston Congress. Three hundred and twenty com- 
mercial organizations in 48 countries were represented. There were altogether 
in attendance 780 delegates from 55 countries. 



The delegates to these Congresses are of two classes: first, the official dele- 
gates designated to attend the Congresses by the governments of the leading 
commercial nations; second, the delegates appointed by the business organiza- 
tions of the world which are affiliated with the Congress. 

In the case of the five Congresses already held the government of the coun- 
try in which the Congress is to meet has extended official invitations to the 
other governments of the world to appoint delegates to the Congress and thus 
extend their official recognition. Government del^atee take precedence at 
the official sessions. 

Commercial and industrial oi^anizations in any nation in the world are 
welcome to membership in the Congress. In order to help defray the expenses 
of the Permanent Committee and the Permanent Headquarters at Brussels 
each affiliated organization pays a yearly subscription of fifty francs. This 
annual fee entitles the affiliated organization to name three delegates to each 
Congress. For each additional delegate which an organization may desire to 
send to a Congress, an additional fee of twenty franca is payable. Individual 
members of an affiliated business organization may be admitted to the Con- 
gress as participants upon a payment of a fee of twenty francs. Only delegates, 
however, are entitled to vote in the deliberations of a Congress. 

There are at present 480 commercial organizations in fifty countries affifiated 
with the Permanent Committee at Brussels and thus entitled to participate in 
the International Congresses of Chambers of Commerce.' 

) For list of affiliated orgtuuiatioiu, see ^pendix, page 117. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 



PBRUAHSNT COUHITTBE 



la order to give continuity to the work it was determined at the Li^e 
Congrese to organize a Pennanent Committee. This Committee is composed 
of not more than three regular members and three alternates from each coun- 
try. The members of the Permanent Committee are chosen by a vote of the 
del^ates to a Congress from each of the different countries represented and hold 
office for two years or until the time of the meeting of the succeeding Congress. 
In countries where there is a national federation of chambers of commerce or 
commercial and industrial associations the del^ates to a Congress may yield 
to such a national organization the right to choose the members of the Permanent 
Committee from that country. 

The Permanent Committee decides upon the place at which the' next Con- 
gress is to be held in the event of the previous Congress not having done BO. 
The duties of the Pennanent Committee also include the making of arrange- 
ments for the meetings and the carrying out of the decisions of the Congress. 

An official program of topics to be discussed at the official sessions of each 
Congress is determined by the Pennanent Committee. Each affiliated organiza- 
tion is requested to forward to the Pennanent Committee any questions which 
it may desire to have included in the official program, tc^ther with a report 
giving th§ essential facts with regard to each question. The Permanent Com- 
mittee gives careful confflderation and makes an investigation of all topics sug- 
gested and places upon the official program all those which are decided to be 
of sufficient international importance. For each topic placed upon the order 
of the day the Permanent Committee designates a reporter. £ach reporter 
prepares a report upon his topic, and this report is printed in various languages 
and mailed to all affiliated commercial oiganizatlons and nominated del^ates 
in advance of the Congress. At the sessions of the Congress the reporter opens 
the discusfflon by briefly summarizing the report which has been previously 
printed and distributed. The discussion is then thrown open to any delegate 
or participant. 

After the discusdoD of the topics upon the order of the day a vote of the 
Congress is generally taken. If the vote taken by the Congress calls for defi- 
nite action it then becomes the duty of the Permanent Committee to take 
steps to make the decision effective. This is taken either by interesting some 
govenmient to call a diplomatic conference of nations to consider the mattei- 
in question or by entering into negotiations (Urectly with the diSerent govern- 
ments in r^ard to it. The Permanent Committee has obtained its most notable 
successes by interesting governments to call diplomatic conferences for the 
purpose of security international co-operative action among the nations in har- 
mony with the opinion expressed by the Congress. The Permanent Committee 
has succeeded in this way in enlisting the support of five governments in ar- 
ran^g for diplomatic conferences of nations. The governments which have 
called such conferences and the topics considered at them are as follows: Hol- 



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10 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

laud, on Uniformity of Leg^latiou on BUIb of Exchange; Bel^um, on Uni- 
formity In CustomB Statistics; Switzerland, on a Fixed International Calendar 
and a Permanent Day for Easter; Italy, on the Organization and Institution 
of a Program for an International Maritime Union; and Germany, on the 
Begulation of International E^xwitJons. 

Pending any further deci^on of the matter by the Congress, the head- 
quarters of the Permanent Committee are located at Brussels, where the present 
office is at 10 rue de la Tribune. 

concLUsion 

In all countries the relations between commercial organizations which are 
affiliated with the International Congress and the govenunents have always 
been of an extremely cordial nature. The interest taken in the work of the Con- 
gress by business men of the highest standing of Tarious nationalities together 
with the official recognition vouchsafed by the governments of the leading 
commercial nations have made possible the bringing about of many very benefi- 
cial results affecting international commerce. The decisions of the Congress in 
the matter of the topics discussed at its official sessions receive everywhere the 
most serious consideration. 

Beyond this, however, the bringing together of so many business leaders 
from practically every nation of the globe and the intimate and cardial per- 
sonal relationships which are thus engendered constitute a powerful agency 
in the promotion of international understanding. And it is mutual understand- 
ing that forms the firmest basis for international friendship and good will. 
These great international commercial gatherings form one of the most potent 
forces at work in the world to-day in the promotion of the cause of international 
peace. They exemphfy and promote in a practical way the motto expressed 
at the opening of the Li^ge Congress, "Commerce is Peace." 



^rogranut of tfie ConBreftSuf 

The importance and wide variety of the subjects discussed by these great 
international commercial gatherii^ can be juc^ed from the prc^rams of the 
five Congresses already held. 

FIRST CONGRESS 

The First Coi^ess considered the foUowii^ questions : 

International Arbitration (extension of the powers of The Hague Arbi- 
tration Court with the object of preventing war and the incalculable loss caused 
thereby, not only to the belligerents, but to all commercial nations). 

Chambers of Commerce (advisability of Chambers of Commerce being 
ot^anized in every country). 



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GEORGE S. SMITH JOSEPH B. RUSSELL 

Cfaairrnaii Boston Executive Committee President Boston Chamber of Commerce 



ROBERT J. BOTTOMLV JAMES A. McKIBBEN 

eretary Boston Eierutive Committee Secretary Boston Chamber of Commeri 

MEMBERS OF BOSTON EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE' 



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ELMER J. BLISS BERNARD J. ROTHWELL 

n General OrganiEing Committee ChairrDaa Committee on EntertiuDmeiit 



JOHN H. FAHEY WILLIAM M. BAIN 

Chainuau Committee on Tour Director of the Boston Chamber of Corami 

MEMBERS OF BOSTON EXECtmVE COMMITTBB 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 11 

ChamberB of Commerce (establishment in all Chambers of Commerce of 
Committees on Imports, Exports, Transports, Industrial Legislation and Com- 
mercial Eklucation). 

Commercial Federations (establishment of such in all countries of the world, 
and the publication, by each, of a periodical te contain minutes and general 
information). 

Chambers of Commerce (advisability of records of the deliberations of 
Chambers of Commerce being interchimged). 

Chambers of Commerce (desirability of issuing a complete exposition of 
Chamber of Commerce oi^anization and of the federations formed by them). 

SECOBD CONGKESS 

The Second Cougress considered the foUowii^ questions: 

Postal Keform (reduction of ordinuy letter postage and that for printed 
matter, samples, etc., uniformity in conditions and rules, suppreseioQ of the 
surtax in cases of insufficient postage on letters). 

Telephonic Service (institution of a Universal Telephone Union on the lines 
adopted by the Universal Postal and Telegraph Unions). 

International Law relating to Bills of Exchange (the adoption of a univer- 
sal law). 

International Arbitration (recognition of arbitration awards by foreign 
Governments). 

Maritime Routes (constitution of an International Maritime Union, with a 
permanent executive). 

Regulations for Exhibitions (creation of permanent committees in each 
country to be federated as an international organization). 

Customs Statistics (uniform classification for all countries). 

Co-operation between Consulates and Chambers of Commerce. 



THIRD CONGRESS 

The Third Coi^re&s considered the following questions : 

International Law of Bills of Exchange (proposal of the Duteh Govern- 
ment to convene an International Conference for the purpose of preparing a 
scheme of uniform international legislation). 

Customs Formalities (reduction to what is strictly necessary and intemar 
tional uniformity therein). 

Customs Statistics (proposal of the Belgian Government to invite the ctuefs 
of the customs departments of the various nations to a conference, in order to 
secure international uniformity). 

Variability of the Date of Easter. 

Harmonization of Conmiercial Customs. 

Regulations governing Exhibitions (reiteration of previous resolution). 



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12 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS 

International Maritime Union (proposal of the Italian Government to found 
such an organization, draft program of the matters which might be considered 
by such an organization). 

Political Economy (institution of chairs of International Commercial Poli- 
tics at the universities, technical schools, etc., where not already in existence). 



FOURTH CONGRESS 

The Fourth Congress considered the followii^ questions: 

Establishment of a Fixed Date for Easter. Unification and simplification 
of the Gr^orian Calendar. 

Direct Eepresentation of Commerce and Industry at official conferences 
and international economic congresses. 

Development of Postal Unions and of the European Postal Union. 

Unification of the Law regarding Checks. 

Enforcement of Judgments (and Arbitration Awards) pronounced in for- 
eign countries. 

Advisability of all countries adhering to the Convention of Madrid, which 
deals with the suppression of false marks of origin on goods. 

Methods of Valuation for the compilation of Customs Statistics. 



nPTH CONGRESS 

The Fifth Congress considered the foUowii^ questions: 

The Establishment of a Fixed Date for Easter, and the reform of the Calen- 
dar. 

Regulation of International Expositions. 

The EstabUshment of an International Comt of Arbitral Justice for suita 
between individuals and foreign States. 

The Unification of Legislation relating to Checks. 

International Postal Refonns in view of the next conference of the Univer- 
sal Postal Union in 1913. 

Commercial Statistics and the immediate institution of an International 
Office. 

The derirability of an international conference upon the validation of 
Tbrough-order-notify Bills of Lading, and of legislation and other means for 
making the system more effective. 

The desirability of international uniformity of action in the matter of 
Consular Invoices. 

The desirability of an international conference on Prices and the Cost of 
Living. 

Arbitral Jurisdiction over all matters. 



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JAMES J. STORROW ROBERT WINSOR 

CbainnaD Boaton Honorary Committee Chairman Committee on Finance 



PROF, F. W. TAUSSIG JAMES T, WETHERALD 

Chairman Committee on Program Chairman Comroillee on Publicity 

IIEHBERS OF BOSTON EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



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F. FAITHFULL BEGG W. J. THOMPSON 

Cbairmati of Council of London Chamber ot London Chamber of Comme 



M. E. YONKER j, EDWARD WILDER 

Chicago Aissociatioii of Commerce 



MEMBERS OF PERHAITENT COMMITTEE 



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!3ctfif anb BSlesfolutiotuC of tfie Poaiton Congreaitf 

September 24, 25 and 26, 1912. 

I. The Establishment of a Fixed Date for Easter and a Unifoim Calendar 
Resolution: The Congress renews the resolutioQ which it 
passed at the preceding seseion in London in 1910 in favor of the 
establislunent of a fixed date for Easter and of a uniform calendar. 

H. An International Court of Arbitral Justice for Suits between Individuals 
and Foreign States 

Resoldtion: The Congress desires to record its opinion in favor 
of the creation of an international court of arbitral justice for suite 
between individuals and foreign States. It would be gratefiU to the 
Government of the United States if the latter would take the ini- 
tiative in calling a conference for this purpose. 

m. The TTniflcation of Legislation relating to Checks 

Resolution: The Congress is of the opinion that the unification 
of the laws relatii^ to checks is desirable. The Congress recom- 
mends to its members to organize a committee composed of one 
delegate from each country, which shall meet at London and prepare 
a report upon this question for consideration at the next Congress. 

IV. Intenifltional Postal Refonns 

Resolution: The Congress requests the Permanent Committee 
to call to the attention of the Universal Postal Union the postal re- 
forms formulated in the following propositions: 

1. The rate fixed by the Universal Postal Union for the car- 
riage of letters shall be reduced from 25 centimes to 10 centimes, 
that is, to the tariff rate for domestic postage. This tariff rate shall 
be collected by the weight or fraction of the weight of 20 grams 
throughout the extent of the Postal Union, the weight being cal- 
culated by the metric system. 
13 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

2. The States subscribing to the Universal Postal Convention 
of 1906, which, by virtue of item III of the final protocol of this 
agreement, have retained the limits of weight and the rates of the 
preceding postal agreement, shall renounce this exceptional prac- 
tice. 

3. In international postage the additional chaise collected by 
the postal service for the absence or insufficiency of postage on ar- 
ticles of letter mail shall be fixed uniformly at 5 centimes. 

4. The postal administrations of the States belongii^ to the 
Universal Union shall deliver to the addressees all sealed letters 
which come to them from abroad, even when the exterior of the 
letter does not conform to the postal r^ulations of the country of 
destination. 

5. The proviHOn of Article 55 of the Universal Postal Convention 
I, reading that samples of merchandise must have no merchantable 
value, shall be repealed. The limit of weight for samples shall be 
raised to 500 grams. 

6. For postal parcels the limit of weight shall be raised from 5 
to 10 kilograms. By way of exception, the States of the Postal 
Union whose domestic regulations forbid the sending of postal par- 
cels of more than 5 kilograms may maintain this limit of weight. 

7. The Universal Postal Convention shall establish a special 
category for postal parcels of a maximum weight of 1 kilogram, which, 
in coDsicJeration of a special rate, shall be shipped by a more rapid 
route. 

8. The Universal Postal Convention shall impose upon the 
States of the Union a reasonable period for the delivery of postal 
parcels varying according to the country of destination, beyond 
which the postal administrations shall be responsible. 

9. The administrations signing the agreement concerning postal 
parcels shall be bound to accept the parcels at the value declared. 

10. The rate for business papers shall be fixed as for printed 
matter at 5 centimes for each 50 grams or fraction thereof (with- 
out minimum rat«). 

11. The acceptance of packages for collection on delivery shall 
be obl^atory for all the countries of the Postal Union. 

12. The postal service is responsible for packages sent subject 
to collection on delivery which it has deUvered without having col- 
lected the amount of the charge. 



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PROF. DR. MAX APT DR. ALF. GEORG 

3I " Die Altcsten der Kaufmannschaft Viee-I 



Frcaident Belgian Chamber of Comiuerco of Xew York, X. Y. 

Poria 



EUGfeNE ALLARD CHARLES S. HAIGHT 

Tomiuerco of 

OFFICIAL REPORTERS 

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WILBUR J. CARR PROF. IRVING FISHER 

Director Ameripan Oonaular Service Yale University 

OFnCIAL REPORTERS 



DR. SOETBEER DR. MAX VON TAYENTHAL 



MEMBERS OF PERMANENT COMMITTBB 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 15 

V. Craniiiercial Statistics and tiie Immediate Listitution of an Intematioiial 
Office 

The Cokgbbss: 

Recognizing the initiative taken by the Belgian Government in 
bringing tt^ether at Brussels on September 19, 1910, delegates of 
twenty-two States to seek for the means of introducing more hannouy 
and unity in the tables of exchai^^ of the commerce of the whole 
world; 

Approving the decision taken at that conference to have estab- 
lished for each one of these States in addition to its own commercial 
statistics a t^mmon nomenclature under which may be grouped all 
merchandise imported or exported under the heading of both weight 
and value; 

Expresses the wish that this common nomenclature may appear 
with the briefest possible delay in the statistical tables of the govern- 
ments represented at the conference, and hopes that the Belgian 
Government may be willii^ to continue its co-operation for the 
realization of this program; 

Approves the proposition made at the Brussels Conference for 
the creation of an international bureau of commercial statistics for 
the purpose of centralizing information under al! useful headings to 
give to the commerce of the whole world an annual summary, and 
as soon as possible, a semi-annual summary and eventually, a 
monthly summary of the commercial movements of the different 
countries of the globe, arrtuiged in conformity with the grouping of 
merchandise adopted by the afores^d conference; 

Adopts the resolution that the Bel^pan Government invite 
without delay all the States to conclude a convention assuring the 
execution of the projected works. 

VI. Tbrough-order-notify Bills of Lading 

The Coi^ress approves the resolution now pending in the Con- 
gress of the United States for establishii^ the liability of carriers on 
bills of lading issued by their agents in international shipments. 

The Congress views with satisfaction the sj^tem of a Central 
Bureau for the validation of bills of ladii^ in international trans- 
actions. 

The Congress refers to the Permanent Conunittee the consid- 
eration of an international conference for the purpose of promoting 
uniformity in the laws governing the liability of international 



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16 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS 

Vn. Consular Invoices 

The Congress approves in principle the propc^al for the unifor- 
mity of consular invoices, and recommends to the interested States 
for their consideration the form of consular invoice prepared by the 
Fourth Conference of the Pan-Americaa Union. 

The Congress approves the reconmiendation for moderate con- 
sular fees and their strict limitation to amounts necessary to cover 
the cost of the consular service. 

Vm. The High Cost of Living 

The Congress approves the proposition of convoking an interna- 
tional congress on the question of the high coat of living, its increase, 
it8 causes, its results and the measures and remedies possible to 
improve the situation. 

The Congress transmits the project and report of the Hunga- 
rian National Commercial Association for the uniform compila- 
tion of statistics of prices to the Pennanent Committe with the 
. view of its taking it under consideration and referring it eventually 
to an international conference. 

IX. Arbitral Jurisdiction over all Matters 

The Congress affirms its deeire to see convene, as soon as pos- 
sible, official international conferences which will assmre between 
nations the existence of arbitral jurisdiction conceived in the widest 
sense of the term, and of a nature to assure an equitable solution of 
all international disputes either between individuals of different States 
or between the States themselves. 

The Congress declares its adherence to the principle of a combi- 
nation of nations, when and where possible, to endeavor to prevent 
the atrocities of war. 



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Official i^Mffiiomc at ISotfton 

ScPTEUBEB, 24, 25 and 26, 1912 

FIRST SESSION 

TcESDAT Morning 

The first official session of the Congress was opened by George S. Suith/ 
Chairman of the Boston Executive Committee, President of the Boston Chamber 
of Conunerce in 1911, who extended a hearty welcome to the delegates. He 
introduced Hon. Charles Nagel,^ Secretary of Commerce and Labor for the 
United States, who extended to the delegates a welcome on behalf of the Ckiv- 
eminent of the United States of America. Other welcomes followed. His 
Excellency Governor Eugene N. Fobs* spoke for the Commonwealth of Maasa- 
chusetts; Hon. John F. Fitzgerald* for the City of Boston; President Harrt 
A. Wheeler,* of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, for the com- 
mercial organizations of the United States. Edward A. Filene,* Vice-President 
of the International Congress, and a former director of the Boston Chamber of 
Commerce, extended his welcome and introduced Lotus Canon-Lbgeand,' 
President of the Fifth International Congress of Chambers of Commerce, who 
responded for the delegates. Then began the first official session of the Congress. 

President Louis Canon-Leorand presented the opening report upon the 
first topic: "The establishment of a fixed date for Easter and the reform of the 
calendar."* He called attrition to the fact that at the instance of the Per- 
manent Committee the Govenunent of Switzerland had taken the initiative 
in bringing about an official international conference upon this subject. He 
further called attention to the fact that in June, 1912, the Congress of Cham- 
bers of Commerce of the British Empire had unanimously passed a resolution 
upon this subject. The question of calendar reform was discussed by F. Faith- 

> For text of address of Chairman Smith, see Appendix, page 131. 

■ For text of address of Secretary Nagel, see Appendix, page 132. 

* For text of address of Governor Foss, see Appendix, page 134. 

* For text of address of Mayor Fitigerald, see Appendix, page 135. 

* For text of address of President Wheeler, see Appendix, page 138. 

* For text of address of Vice-President Filene, see Appendix, page 140. 

' For text of address of President Canon-Legrand, see Appendix, page 141. 

■ For text of report upon a fixed date for Easter and the reform of the calendar, see Appen- 
dix, p^e 144. 

17 



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18 INTEENATIONAL CONQKESS OF 

FULL Beqo,* Chairman of the Council of the London Chamber of Coounerce; 
Ebnst Krausb,'" Vice-President of the Lower Austrian Association for the 
Promotion of Handicraft; Alfbed Aslett" of the Barrow-in-Furness Cham- 
ber of Commerce. The vote of the London Congress in favor of a fixed date 
for Easter and of calendar reform was reaffirmed. Mr. Fileks presented a 
letter from the Chinese delegates assunng the Congress of their hearty accord 
with the vote taken. 



Tdesdat Afternoon 

The discussion of calendar reform was concluded in the early part of the 
second session. 

President CANON-LBQaAND submitted a report upon the regulation of in- 
ternational expositions," calling attention to the fact that the German Govern- 
ment was taking the initiative in calling an official international conference 
on this subject for October, 1912. 

Prof. Dr. Max Apt of Berhn submitted the official report on the second 
topic of the order of the day: "The establishment of an international court 
of arbitral justice for suits between individuals and foreign States," " and offered 
a resolution in favor of the establishment of such a court. The principal 
speakers upon this topic were R. S. Frasbb" of the London Chamber of Com- 
merce; Dr. Louis Varjasst," Secretary of the Chamber of Conunerce and In- 
dustry of Arad, Hungary; and EuotNE Allabd," Preadent of tb& Belgian 
Chamber of Commerce of Paris. Robebto Pozzi'^ then addressed the Con- 
gress on question of arbitration of suits between individuals of different States 
and offered the following motion: 

"The International Federation of the Patronal Associations of Weavers 
and Manufacturers of Cotton express the keenest approbation of the proposi- 
tion of "Die iiltest«n der Kaufmannschaft von Berlin" for the creation of an 
arbitral tribunal for the differences between individuals and foreign States, 
recommends to the attention of the executive committee of the Congresses the 
study of the question concerning the unification of the diEFerent systems of 
law, in the matter of arbitration between individuals, especially as regards the 
validity or otherwise of the clause of compromise, and requests the Congress 
to take into consideration this question, and to refer it to the desk so that it 
may be presented to the next Congress after instruction." 

■ For text of address o( Mr. Begg, see Appendix, page 145. 
" For text and traaslatioa of addnas of Mr. Krause, see Appendix, page 147. 
" For text of address of Mr. Aslett, see Appendix, page IfiO. 

» For text of report on the regulation of international expositions, see Appendix, page 152. 
■* For text and translation of the report of Dr. Apt upon an international aibitration 
court for suits between individuals and foreign States, see Appendix, page 154. 
" For text of address of Mr. Fraser, see Appendix, page 161. 
>* Pot text and translation of address of Dr. Varjassy, see Appendix, pass 162. 
X For text and translation of address of Mr. Allard, see Appendix, page 165. 
*' For text of address of Mr. Foxzi, see Appendix, page 16S. 



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HON. JOHN BARRETT H. E. F. A. PEZET 

Director- General of the Pan-American Union Ministerof Peru, WnshinKton. D, C; Delegate 
of commeroial asBociations of Lima and 
Callao 



H. E. DR. CARLOS MARIA DE PENA 



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COUNT CANDIDO DE MENDES DI 

ALMEIDA 

Director Commercial Muwum of Rio de 

Jaoeiro 



PEDRO RAFAEL RINCONES ADOLFO BALLIVIAN 

Connil Generul of Venciuela. Npw York, N. Y. Consul General of Bolivia, New York, N. Y. 

GOVEHKMEWT DELEGATES 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 19 

Lawrence V. Benet" of the American Chamber of Conimerce of Paris 
u^ed the adoption of a resolution to include the arbitration of suite between 
individuala of different countries. 

Edwin D. Mead" of Boston urged the consideration of the question of 
arbitration between the governments of different nations and submitted the 
following resolution: 

"The Fifth International Coi^ress of Chambers of Commerce, representing 
the great interests of industry and commerce which are increasing so rapidly 
the interdependence of nations and demand so imperatively for their advance- 
ment and prosperity the peace and order of the world, urges the commercial 
organizations of all countries to earnest efforts for the widest extension of ar- 
bitration to the settlement of international disputes and for the earliest pos- 
sible establishmrait of the Court of Arbitral Justice provided for by the last 
Hague Conference." 

This resolution was supported by Edwin Ginn" and Samuel B. Capbn" of 
Boston and Frank D. La Lanne** of Philadelphia, and was discussed at length. 
The Congress went on record in favor of the resolution proposed by Dr. Apt. 
The President of the Congress ruled that the other two resolutions were not 
admissible for action by the Congress as amendmente to the second question 
on the order of the day, but were really new questions not on the order of the 
day^ and therefore would have to be referred to the Permanent Committee to 
be considered for the program of the next Congress. 

The exact meanii^ of this ruling was discussed with the President by 
Bernard J. Shoninger and William J. Thomas of the American Chamber of 
Commerce of Paris.** 

THQtD SESSION 

Wednebdat Morninq 

The third session was opened by a statement in English of Vice-Preudent 
Filene" explaning the ruling of the President at the conclusion of the second 
session. This was discussed by Bernard J. Shoninqeb'* and explwted in 
German by Dr. Soetbeer,*' General Secretary of "Der Deutscher Handelstf^' 
of Berlin. The President then called attention to the fact that members of the 
Permanent Committee were elected by the delegates of the various countries 

** For t«xt of address of Mr. Benet, see Appeodix, page 170. 
*' For text of address of Mr. Mead, see Appendix, page 171. 
" For text of address of Mr. Giim, see Appendix, page 172. 
** For text of address of Mr. Oapen, see Appendix, page 175. 
** For text of address of Mr. La Laooe, see Appendix, page 176. 

" For t«xt of disousdon between the President and Measts. Sluininger and Thomas, see 
Appendix, pages 177-183. 

** For statement of Vice-Piesident Filene, see Appendix, page 185. 

" For statement of Mr. Shoninger, see Appendix, page 186, 

■* For text end translation of statement of Dr. Soetbeer, see Appendix, page 187. 



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20 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

represented at the Congreas, with the exception of those countries where there 
exists a national federation of chambers of commerce, to which this right can 
be granted. 

Prof. Dr. Max Aft of Berlin presented his report upon the third subject 
in the order of the day: "The unification of legislation relating to checks."" 
The princip^ speakers upon this question besides Dr. Apt were Dr. Candido 
DE Mendes de Alueida** of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; EuQiiNE Allabd" of 
Paris; Charles Chbistophb*" of Ghent; F. Faithfdll Begq*" of London; 
and Max Bjchtbr** of Berlin. General discussion followed which was par- 
ticipated in by delegates from many countries." The Congress went unani- 
mously on record in favor of the desirability of unification of the laws relating 
to checks. 

The second part of the resolution offered by Dr. Apt was as follows: 
"A necessary complement to the creation of a universal law on bills of 
exchange and checks is the creation of a high court at The Hague which will de- 
cide as a court of last appeal controversies regarding questions involving the 
universal law of bills of exchange and checks." 

This second proposition was not adopted as a resolution by the Congress. 
This session ended by a vote of the Coi^ress requesting that all motions 
should be repeated in three languages, — French, English and Gennan.** 

FOURTH SESSION 

Wednesday Aftebnoon 

At the opening of the fourth session on Wednesday afternoon it was agreed 
that the fourth topic oa the order of the day with reference to Postal Reforms 
should go over until Thursday morning. Euo£:ne Allaro then presented his 
official report upon the fifth topic: "Commercial statistics tuid the immediate 
institution of an international office."" This topic was discussed by W. M. 
Hats," Assistant Secretary of Agriculture for the United States, R. S. Fhaber" 

*' For text and translation of tlie report of Dr. Apt upon the unification of l^ialation 
relating to checks, see Appendix, page 190. 

>■ For text and tranelatioa of Dr. Almeida, see Appendix, page 204. 

*' For text and translation of addreaa of Mr. Allard, see Appendix, page 210. 

'* For text and translation of address of Mr. Christophe, see Appendix, page 212. 

■I For text of addreaa of Mr. Begg, see Appendix, page 214. 

■> For text and translation of tkddress of Mr. Richter, see Appendix, page 216. 

" For general diacUBsion of the unification of legislation relating to checks, see Appen- 
dix, pages 217-221. 

** For discussion of the need of the stat«inent of the votes in the different languages, 
see Appendix, pages 222-230. 

■* For text and translation of the report of Mr. Allard on commercial etatiatics, see Ap- 
pendix, page 231. 

X For text of address of Assistant Secretar7 Hays, see AppokUx, page 233. 

■* For text of address of Mr. Fraser, see Appendix, page 235. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 21 

of London, Dr. Sobtbbeb*" of Berlin and B. J. Shoninqeb'* of PariB. The 
Congrees unanimously went on record in approval of the initiative taken by 
(he Belgian Government in bringing together an international conference upon 
tlus subject at Bruasels in 1910, and expreeeed the wish that the Belgian Gov- 
emment should invite without delay all States to conclude a convention 
Bflsuring tmifonn international commercial statistics and the immediate insti- 
tution of an international office. 

Chableb S. Haiqht of New York then presented his official report upon the 
sixth topic of the order of the day: "The desirability of an international con- 
ference upon the validation of throi^-order-notify bills of lading, and of 
legation and other means for making the system more efEective."*" This sub- 
ject was discussed by Samdel E. Piza*> of Costa Rica. The Coi^ress went on 
record in approval of the legislation on this matter now pending in the Congress 
of the United States and referred to the Permanent Committee the consideration 
of the question of aji international conference to promote uniformity in the 
laws governing the liability of international carriers. 



fifth session 

Thdbsdat Morning 

The fifth seamon opened with the presentation by Alfbbd Geobq of Geneva, 
Switzerland, of his report upon the fourth topic on the order of the day: "In- 
ternational postal reforms in view of the next conference of the Universal 
Postal Union in 1913."" This topic was discussed by Hugo Manes" of the 
Association of Export Houses, Frankfort-on-the-Main; Bernard J. Shon- 
iNQBR** of Paris; A. Barton Kent" of London; E3duardo Aqdsti" of Bar- 
celona; and Dr. Candido de Mendbs db AiiicBiDA*' of Bio de Janeiro. The 
Congress adopted twelve specific propositions for postal reforms, and requested 
the Permanent Committee to call them to the attrition of the UniverBal Postal 
Union. 

Thomas Sauuons, American Consul General at Yokohama, Japan, pre- 
sented the official report prepared by Wilbur J. Carr, Director of the Ameri- 
can Consular Service, on "The desirability of international uniformity of action 

" For text and tr&nBlation of addreea of Dr. Soetbeer, see Appendix, page 236. 
" For text of address of Mr. Shoninger, see Appendix, page 236. 

'* For text of the report of Mr. Haight on through-order-notify bills of lading, see Appen- 
dix, page 239. 

*■ For text of address of Mt. Pita, tee Appendix, page 241. 

* For text <rf report of Dr. Qeorg on poet&l refonna, see Appendix, page 245. 

" For text and translation of address of Mr. Manes, see Appendix, page 253. 

** For text of address of Mr. Shoninger, see Appendix, page 266. 

<■ For text of address of Mr. Kent, see Apputdix, page 256. 

*• For text of remarks of Mr. Agurti, see Appoidix, page 257. 

" For text of lematb of Dr. Almeida, see Appendix, page 25$. 



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22 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

in the matter of consular inToices."** Williaii C. Downs/* an Americati 
exporter, presented a specially prepared supplementary report upon this topic. 
The question was further discussed by Dr. Edieuni) Kunobi/" Assistant Secre- 
tary in the Royal Himgarian Ministry of Commerce; IiAwremce V. Benet** 
of the American Chamber of Commerce of Paris; Honorable John Babbbtt," 
Director-General of the Pan-American Union; C. H. Catelli" of the Montreal 
Chamber of Commerce; C. D. Mobton" of the London Chamber of Com- 
merce; Dr. SoETBBEB** of Berlin; Dr. A. Kiesselbach "* of the Hamburg 
Chamber of Commerce; Hugo Manes" of Frankfort-on-the-Main; Paui 
Metbb'* of Nottingham; Joseph A. Lbckib'* of Walsall; His Excellency F. A. 
Pezbt,'" Minister of Peru at Washington; and EuoiMB Allabd" of Paris. 
The Congress adopted resolutions in favor of uniform consular invoices and 
recommended for consideration the form of consular invoice prepared by the 
Fourth Conference of the Pan-American Union. It approved the recommen- 
datioD for moderate consular fees and their limitation to amounts necessary 
to cover the coat of the consular service. On behalf of the Cuban delegation 
Hie Ebtcellency Antonio Mabttn Riveho," Minister of Cuba at Washington, 
stood sponsor for these resolutions. 

Prof. Ibvinq Fisheb of Yale Univendty presented the report upon the eighth 
topic of the order of the day: "The desirability of an international conference 
on prices and the cost of living."** This question was discussed by Dr. 
Editond Konosi** of Budapest; C. H. Canbt" of Chicago; Prof. F. W. 
Taussig** of Harvard University; F. W. Cook" of Dudley, England; and 
J. PiBEflON" of the Netherlands Chamber of Commerce of Paris. The Con- 
gress approved the proposition of convoking an international conference on 

** For text of oddrees of Mr. Sammoiu on consular inToicM, see Appendix, page 280. 
*■ For t«xt of report of Mr. Downs on consular invoices, see Appendix, page 262. 
" For text of address of Dr. Eunoai, see Appendix, page 261. 
** For t«xt of address of Mr. Benet, see Appendix, page 262. 
** For text of addresa of Directoi^^Jkneral Barrett, see Appendix, page 267. 
" For text and translation of address of Mr. Catelli, see Appendix, page 268. 
** For text of address of Mr. Morton, see Appendix, page 269. 
■* For text and translation of address of Dr. Soetbeer, see Appendix, page 269. 
*• For text and translation of addreas of Dr. Kiesselbach, see Appendix, page 271. 
" For text and translation of addresa of Mr. Manes, see Appendix, page 271. 
** For text of address of Mr. Meyer, see Appendix, page 272. 
** For text of address of Mr. Leckie, see Appendix, page 272. 
w For text of address of His Excellency F. A. Penet, see Appendix, page 273. 
*> For text and translation of statement of Mr. Allard, see Appendix, page 273. 
•• For statement of His Excellency A. M. Rivero, see Appendix, page 274. 
" For text of report of Professor Fisber upon an international conference on the coat 
of living, see Appendix, page 274. 

" For text of address of Dr. Eunosi, see Appmdix, page 277. 
** For text of address of Mr. Canby, see Appendix, page 277. 
•• For text of address of Professor Taussig, see Appendix, page 278. 
•' For text of address of Mr. Cook, see Appendix, page 278. 
" For text of address of Mr. Piereon, see Appendix, page 280. 



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VICENTE GONZALES RAMON ARIAS-FERAUD 

Ecuador Panama 

GOVERNMENT DELEGATES 



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DR. ABEL PARDO RICARDO SANCHEZ CRUZ 

Consul General of Argentina, New York. N. Y. Consul General of Chile, New York. N. Y. 



HOKACK N. FISHER DR. JORGE VARGAS 

onaiil of Chile, Boston, Mnsa. Consul of Ccloniliia, B.istim, Mi 

GOVERNMENT DELEGATES 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 23 

the bi^ cost of living, and transmitted the report of the Hungarian National 
CoDimercial Association for the harmonious compilation of statistics of prices 
to the Fenntuient Conmiittee vith a view of its taking it under consideration 
and referring it eventually to the proposed international conference. 

At the conclusion of this discussion Loms Caj^ on-Leqrand, " President of 
tbe Congrees, presented a further resolution upon the topic of international 
arbitration which was as follows: 

" The Congress affirms its desire to see convened as soon as possible official 
international conferences, assuring between nations the existence of arbitral 
jurisdiction in the widest sense of the term and of a nature to assure an equi- 
table solution of all international controversies, either between individuals of 
different States, or between the States themselves. 

The Congrees declares its adherence to the principle of a combination of 
nations when and where possible to endeavor to prevent the atrocities of war." 

This resolution was discussed by R. S. Feasee'" of London; Sir John E. 
BmOHAM" of London; Frank D. La Lanne" of Philadelphia; and Bbrnabd 
J. Shoninqeb" of Paris. It was unanimously adopted by the Congress. 

The question of the choice of the next place of meeting for the Congress 
was referred to the Permanent Committee for decision. Invitations were pre- 
sented from Barcelona, Spain; Geneva, Switzerland; Monaco; Amsterdam, 
Holland; Leipzig, Germany; and Lisbon, Porti^al. 

In appreciation of the hospitality extended to the delegates, Louis Lazabo ^* 
of Brussels proposed a contribution for the poor of Boston. The official sessions 
of the Congress concluded with expressions of appreciation for the welcome 
extended at Boston. On motion of Sir Joseph Lawrence of London, seconded 
by B. J. Shoninqer of Paris, a cordial vote of thanks was extended to the Presi- 
dent of the Congress, Loms Canon-Leqrand. 

On Wednesday, Thursday and Friday mornings Special Fifth International 
Congress editions of the "Boston Chamber of Conmierce News" were published 
and delivered to the delegates before the start of the day's activities. In addi- 
tion to the running account of the different events, these issues contained a com- 
plete stenographic report of the official proceedings of the preceding day, and 
on Friday morning contained the stenographic report of the addresses delivered 
at the concluding banquet. 

** For t«zt of addreaa of Pieeident Canon-Legrand on international arbitration, see 
Appendix, page 281. 

" For text of addreaa of Mr. Fraaer, see Appendix, page 283. 
^ For text of addreaa of Sir John E. Binghaifl, see Appendix, page 284. 
'* For text of addreaa of Mr. La Lanne, aee Appendix, page 285. 
" For text of addieaa of Mr. Shoninger, see Appendix, page 285. 
" For stateraent of Mr. Lazard, Bee Appendix, page 287. 



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d)e Cbenttf at Boston 

Thb official sessions of the Fifth International Congress of Chambers of 
Commerce were held in the hall of the Copley Flaza Hotel, Bi^ton, on Tuesday, 
Wednesday and Thursday, September twenty-fourth, twenty-fifth and twenty- 
sixth. The greater part of the delegates arrived in Boston on Sunday and 
Monday, September twenty-second and twenty-third. The special tr^us, 
which took a goodly share of the delegates from abroad on a tour of some of 
the principal commercial and industrial centers of the United States departed 
from Boston on Monday morning, September thirtieth. Thus slightly more 
than one week was devoted to the official sesaons and entertainment in Boston. 

The official headquarters and bureau of information were opened in the 
Copley Plaza Hotel on Sunday, September twenty-second. At the official 
headquarters there were constantly in attendance during the entire stay in 
Boston representatives of the various Boston committees, and a corps of secre- 
taries and interpreters entirely at the disposal of the delegates. During the 
days upon which the delegates were arriving, all the trains entering the city 
were boarded by representatives of the Boston committees at about the distance 
of one hour's journey from Boston. The representatives of the Boston commit- 
tees gave direcUons to the delegates on each train as to how to reach the offi- 
cial headquarters, and advised them specifically of the hotel reservations which 
had been secured for them by the Boston committees. Delegates who were 
not informed of their hotel reservations in this manner were taken promptly 
to their hotels upon application at the bureau of infonnation. 

In accordance with previous advices, all delegates were directed to proceed 
at once to official headquarters and register. During the first few days of the 
Congress 780 officially appointed delegates from 55 countries made their re^s- 
tration at headquarters. This number included delegates officially accredited 
from the governments of 33 countries. 

Immediately upon registration each delegate was presented with a large 
folder. In this folder was a complete set in French, English and German of 
the reports prepared by the official reporters upon each subject upon the order 
of the day of the Congress, as well as the order of the day itself in the sixteen 
languages which the cosmopolitan character of the Coi^ress made necessary. 
There were besides included a guide-book of Boston; a handsomely leather- 
bound book descriptive of the city, with the individual name of the det^ate in- 
scribed upon the cover; a booklet of taxicab coupons for the use of the delegates 

as 



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26 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

in joumeye about the city; cards admitting eacli del^ate to st least three 
clubs; a small leather booklet containing announcements and tickets to the offi- 
cial sessions and all entertainment events; booklets announcing the plans for 
Boston and for the tour; a booklet containing a list of the del^ates, numbered 
in the order of the receipt of the announcement of their appointmcait; and a 
badge identifying the delegate by country and number. 



Monday, Septbmbbb 23 

At six o'clock on Monday evening all members of the Permanent Committee 
met at dinner with members of the Boston Executive Committee, made and re- 
newed many personal acquuntanceshlps, and talked over the general outline 
of the plans for the official eessiona. 

On Monday evening the Boston Chamber of Commerce tendered a formal 
reception to all the delegates and their ladies who accompanied them. This re- 
ception was held in the ball-room of the Copley Plaza Hotel from eight until ten 
o'clock. It was a social occasion such as has seldom taken place. There were 
in attendance over one thousand men and women represenfii^ practically every 
country on tiie globe. The guests were received in the foyer of the ball-room 
by President and Mrs. Joseph B. Russell of the Boston Chamber of Commerce, 
Chairman and Mrs. Georqe: S. Smith of the Boston Executive Committee, 
Chairman and Mrs. Jameb J. Storbow of the Boston Honorary Conmiittee, 
Mayor and Mrs. John F. Fitzoerald of Boston, President and Mme. Loms 
Canon-Lbgrand of the International Congress, Vice-President EdwARD A. 
FiLENB of the International Congress, and Secretary and Mme. £!mile Jott- 
RAND of the International Congress. 

For two hours the delegates mingled and became acquainted with each 
other as a preliminary to the week of business sessions and entertainment. In 
the great ball-room a bufFet luncheon was served. 



TuESDAT, Septbuber 21 

The official opening of the Congress took place at 10.30 a.h. Tuesday morn- 
ing in the ball-room of the Copley Plaza Hotel, which had been rearranged and 
fitted out for this purpose. The first official session lasted until half past twelve 
o'clock. 

Between the morning and afternoon sessions of the Congress the delegates 
were taken in special cars as the guests of the B(»ton Elevated Railway to 
Cambridge by way of the subway and viaduct. The delegates were served a 
buffet luncheon in the shops of the Company at Cambridge, and returned to 
Boston by way of the new Cambridge tunnel. 

Durmg the morning session the visiting women were entertained by a com- 
mittee of women of Boston. They were taken on an automobile trip in 



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DELEGATES AT ONE OF THE OFFICIAL SESSIONS 



SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE "BOSTON CHAMBER OF COMMERCE NEWS" 



.gle 



GROUP OF DELEGATES FROM BRITISH EMPIRE SAILING FROM BOSTON 



GROl'P OF DELEGATES FROM JAPAN" 



.V, Google 



CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 27 

motor cars through the BoetoD Feus, through Cambrit^ and by the Paul 
Kevere route to Lexington and Concord. After the trip th^ whole party were 
the guests of Mrs. Joseph B. Russell, wife of the President of the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce, in her Cambridge home. 

The members of the Congress reassembled for the second official session 
at half past two in the afternoon and adjourned at five o'clock. 

In the evening the del^;ateB and their wives and daughters assembled in 
Sjnnpfaony Hall and listened to a concert by members of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra led by Gostav Stbube. The delegates enjoyed a most interesting 
program made up of selections from the composers of many coimtries. The 
delegates were seated at round tables on the floor of the hall and were served 
with light refreshments during the evening. In the galleries were members 
of the Boston Chamber of Commerce and their families. 



WnDNEsnAT, Septembeb 25 

On Wednesday the third official session lasted from ten until one o'clock. 

Between the morning and afternoon sessions an official photograph of the 
delegates to the Congre^ was taken in front of the Copley Plaza Hotel. A 
temporary stand had been erected and on it were seated the something over 
seven hundred delegates who were present at the time the official photograph 
was taken. A copy of this photograph was presented to each delegate. 

From three until half past four o'clock was devoted to the fourth official 
session of the Coi^ess. 

During Wednesday afternoon the ladies went by automobile for a vimt to 
Wellesley College, where the party was received by Mira Ellen F. Pendleton, 
its president. The visit to the college was followed by a reception in the Italian 
garden of the Walter Hunnewell estate. Earlier in the day many of the ladies 
went shopping and took luncheon at the Assembly Club. Another group went 
for an automobile ride through the Middlesex County towns, stopping on the 
return trip at the residence of Mr. James J. Storbow in Lincoln. 

In the evening there was no official function, the time being set apart for 
the opportunity of home, club and other mtimate gatherings. 

At eight o'clock in the evening, Honorable John Barebtt, the Director- 
General of the Pan-American Union, gave a dinner at the Copley Plaza In honor 
of the delegates attending ihe Congress from the Latin-American countries, 
and Coimt CANnino Msndes db Alueida, Editor of the "Jomal do Brasil" 
of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. About seventy guests sat down at round tables in 
the small ball-room. Mr. Barrett stated that he entert^ed these delegates 
in his capacity as the executive officer of the Pan-American Union, an inter- 
national organization m^ntaiued at Washington by all the American Repub- 
Ucs for the purpose of developing commerce, friendship and peace amoi^ them. 

At the American House there was held an informal reunion and dinner by 



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28 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

many of those who made the Eurox)eaii tour arranged by the Boeton Chamber 
of Commerce in 1911, together with those delegates whom they met on their 
journey. 

Thubsdat, September 26 

The fifth and concluding official session opened on Thursday monung at 
about ten o'clock and adjourned at twenty minutes past one. 

In the evenii^ the CoiMEress concluded its officiaJ sessions at a great dinner 
t« the President of the United States and all delegates to the Congress in the 
banquet hall of the Copley Plaza Hotel. Over one thousand men from all parts 
of the world were seated at the tables for the dinner. The reception started 
at 6.30 P.M. and each delegate was given an opportunity to meet Honorable 
William H. Taft, President of the United States. The dinner began promptly 
at 7.30 P.M. President Joseph B. Rubbelli of the Chamber of Commerce pre- 
sided. The speakers were: On beiialf of the United States, Hon. William H. 
Tajt,* President of the United States; on behalf of the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts, Hon, Eugene N, Fobs,' Governor of Massachusetts; and on behalf 
of the City of Boston, Hon. John F, Fitzqekald,* Mayor of Boston. On behalf 
of our distinguished guests, M. Louts Canon-Leorand,' President of the Per- 
manent Committee and President of the Fifth International Congress of Cham- 
bers of Commerce; Grand Ufi. Anqelo Salmoiraohi,* President of the Milan 
Chamber of Commerce, representing the hosts of the Milan Congress; and Mr. 
F. FaithfullBeog,' Chairman of the Council of the London Chamber of Com- 
merce, representii^ the hosts of the London Congress. This great dinner in 
honor of the President of the United States and the delegates, while closing 
their routine work, was the opening event of the festivities on the eve of the tour 
of some of the great industrial centers of tliis country. It brought to a magni- 
ficent close the business of the International Coi^ess when the President of the 
United States congratulated the members upon their work in the sessions, and 
extended to the visitors a welcome to the ooimtry at lat^e on behalf of the 
people, the government and the Congress of the United States. 

Fbidat, Septehbeb 27 
Before nine o'clock on Friday morning two hundred automobiles belongii^ 
to members of the Boston Chamber of Commerce were lined up in Copley 
Square. Filled with delegates and members of the Boston Chamtier of Com- 

' For full teict of address of Freeident Russ^ of the Boston Chamber of Commerce, 
see Appendix, page 291. 

■ For full text of address of President Taft, see Appendix, page 291. 

* For full text of address of Governor Foss, see Appendix, page 293. 

* For full text of address of Mayor Fitigerald, see Appendix, page 295. 

' For full text and translation of address of President Canon-L^rand of the Inter- 
national Congrees, se« Appendix, page 298. 

* For full text of address of Grand UfT. Salmoiraghi, see Appendix, page 300. 
' For full text of address of Mr. B^g, see Appendix, page 301. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 29 

merce they left a few at a time from half pset nine until half past ten o'clock. 
A majority of the delegates were taken down the "North Shore," the seashore 
to the north of Boston famoue as a summer resort, where the President of the 
United States ajid the diplomatic representatives of many countries have their 
summer houses. Over five hundred went on this trip. About half of them 
stopped at Lynn and inspected the plant of the General Electric Company. 
The rest of the delegates continued on to Beverly to the plant of the United 
Shoe Machinery Company, where they were met by officials of this organizar 
tion. The plant was thrown open to the visitors, who traveled through the 
long, finely lighted buildings gazing with keen interest at the operations of 
manufactiuing shoe machinery. 

By the time the plant had been looked over thoroughly, the delegates who 
had stopped at Lynn began to arrive. The whole party was then taken to the 
country club, which has been presented by the United Shoe Machinery Com- 
pany to its employees. On the athletic field a lai^e rectangular tent had been 
erected where luncheon was served to the delegates. In the early afternoon 
delegates were taken on an automobile tour along the picturesque "North 
Shore," 

On Friday the delegates who did not make the North Shore trip divided into 
three groups and went on the following special excursions: One party, arranged 
under the auspices of the Waltham. Board of Trade, went to Waltham to in- 
spect the plant of the Waltham Watch Company. Another group, under the 
auspices of the New England Shoe and Leather Association, went on a long 
automobile tour about the city, concludii^ with an inspection of the Thomas 
G. Plant Shoe Factory, at Roxbury. Another group, under the auspices of 
the Lowell Board of Trade, made the journey to inspect the Lowell Textile 
School and a visit to some of the important textile mills at Lowell. 

A special trip was arranged for the ladies. They went In automobiles 
through the North Shore country to Cape Ann, where they were entertained in 
Gloucester at the home of Mr. and Mrs. John Hats Hauuond. 

In the evening various ijieater parties and special entert^ainments were ar- 
ranged. 

Delegates who remained at the Copley Plaza Hotel were given the most 
spectacular entertainment of their visit, and in this the general public shared. 
At 8.30 F.U., with a wild clatter of hoofs, a clan^i^ of bells and shrieks of «ren 
whistles, apparatus of the Boston Fire Department was rushed into Copley 
Square. Engines were coupled to hydrants and began to pump, hose was run 
through the streets, ladders were thrown ag^nst the Copley Plaza Hotel and 
buildings opposite on the Square. The water-tower was run up near the Public 
Library. The delegates were given a concrete illustration of how a fire is handled 
in Boston, but there was no fire. 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS 



Saturoat, September ! 



At ten o'clock on Saturday morning the delegates boarded the steamer 
" Rose Standlsh " for an Inspection of Boston harbor. The trip was first made 
around the inner harbor, and the first landing was made at the terminals and 
docks of the Boston & Albai^ Railroad. Then the trip was continued to the 
outer harbor and the delegates were taken to the yards of the Fore River Ship 
Building Company at Quincy, where they were entertained at luncheon. The 
return was made through the outer harbor and then by the main ship channel 
to Rowe's Wharf. 

Delegates were taken in electric cars from the wharf to the Mechanics' 
Building for a private view of the Boston 1912 Electric Show at four o'clock. 
This was a really notable electric exposition, and the private opening afforded 
an exceptional opportunity to inspect the various exhibits. 

On Saturday afternoon a group of delegates were the guests of the Harvard 
Athletic Association at the football game in the Harvard Stadium between 
Harvard University and the University of Meune. 



SvNDAT, Septeubeb 29 

On Sunday morning a private opening of the Boston Art Museum at eleven 
o'clock was attended by large groups of the delegates. In the afternoon at half 
past two the delegates left the Copley Plaza Hotel in automobiles for a trip 
through the Boston and Metropohtan Park systems. The evenii^ was given 
over to farewells. 

At about half past nine o'clock on Monday morning about four hundred of 
the delegates left Boston in three special trains for a tour of some of the 
principal commercial and industrial centers of the United States. 



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^our tA tfie ^niteto Stated 

The American tour of the foreign delegates at the conclusion of the official 
seeraons in Boston was one of the most notable as well as one of the most pleas- 
ant features of the Congress. The del^ates taking this tour represented 
practically every nation on the globe and formed by far the lai^est and most 
cosmopoUtan gathering of business men of the world ever taking a long railroad 
journey together. The Conmiittee on Tour, representing the Boston Chamber 
of Commerce, arranged on itinerary which afforded a remarkable opportunity 
for inspecting some of the most important commercial and industrial enter- 
prises of the United States and for impr^sing upon the distinguished guests 
the efficiency and stability of the enterprises, as well as affording a concrete 
impression of the wonderful resources of this country. 

Altogether about four hundred persons left Boston on the special trains, 
and over three hundred of this number completed the journey. In this number 
were forty-three women, wives and daughters of some of the delegates. 

The delegates visited ten of the principal cities of the United States and 
traveled some 2250 miles in a period of three weeks. Special trains left Boston 
on Monday morning, September 30, and arrived in New York on Thursday 
morning, October 17. The entertunment in New York occupied two days, 
and the party finally broke up on Saturday, October 19, 1912. 

The Passenger Department of the Boston & Albany RaUroad arrai^d the 
det^ls relating.to the transportation of the whole journey. Six different traffic 
lines were used, — the Boston & Albany R^lroad; the New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad; Michigan Central Railroad; Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago and St. Louis Railway; the Pennsylvania Ccunpany and the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. The first four of these roads were parts of the New York Cen- 
tral Lmea, while the latter two were parts of the Pennsylvania system. 

Every delegate was supplied with an itinerary book, prepared and published 
by the Boston & Albany Rulroad, containing the time-table of the tour, the 
names of every person in the party of delegates and the names of the Committee 
on Tour. This booklet also contained a map of the United States showing the 
route of the tour of the party. The special trains were placed at the disposal of 
foreign delegates by the Boston Chamber of Commerce. Each city which was 
visited, however, bore a share of the expense. 

The party left Boston at about half past nine on Monday morning, Sep- 
31 



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32 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

tember 30. Three special tr ainB were used at the commencement of the jour- 
ney. The first section had nine stateroom cars and a buSet library car. The 
second section had ten stateroom cars and a buffet library car. The third sec- 
tion had eight stateroom cars and a bufFet library car. Alt<%ether there were 
thirty-two cars for the commencement of the journey. Inasmuch as the trip 
from Worcester to Buffalo was to be made during the following night, the 
trains in which the party left Boston were composed entirely of stateroom and 
drawii^-room cars. These cars constituted the most luxurious form of car for 
night travel now in operation in the United States. The trip from Boston 
to Worcester was forty-five miles in length and occupied about one hour's time. 



WORCESraR 

In Worcester the delegates were the guests of the Worcester Board of 
Trade. The four hundred del^ates entertained there were divided into five 
groups and taken about the principal industries uid points of interest in the 
city in one hundred and fifty automobiles contributed by citizens. The ladies 
were entertained by the members of the Worcester Woman's Club. Delegates 
in each group were luncheon guests at one o'clock of the following: Hon. James 
LoOAN, General Manager of the United States Envelope Company; Mr. 
Matthew J. Whittall; The Norton Company; and the Royal Wokcesteb 
CoBSET Company. At the conclusion of the afternoon tours the delegates were 
guests at a complimentary banquet in the State Annory, under the patronage 
of the Commonwealth attended by Lieutenant-Governor Robert Luce, 
members of the Governor's Staff and Council and other state and city officials, 
concluding at nine o'clock in the evening, when the delegates resumed their 
western journey. 

The delegates arrived in Buffalo at twenty minutes past ten the following 
morning. The distance covered during the mght was 453 miles. In the morning 
two dining cars were attached to each of the three sections, and the delegates 
took breakfast on the truns before their arrival in Buffalo. 



BUFFALO 

In Buffalo the delegates were the guests of the Buffalo Chamber of Com- 
merce. The delegates were met by a special committee from this organization 
and were immediately taken in taxicabs to their hotels, where rooms had been 
previously assigned to them. 

In the afternoon a large number of the delegates visited some of the great 
manufacturing plants for which Buffalo is noted. Others made a tour of the 
parkways and principal streets of Buffalo ending at the Cotmtry Club, where a 
polo game was played, the competing teams representing the Country Clubs of 
Buffalo and Toronto. In the evening a dinner was given at the Lafayette Hotel 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 33 

by over one hundred of Buffalo's most dlstu^uished business men and Chamber 
of Commerce m^nbers. 

At the same time the women of the party were entertained at dinner at the 
Twentieth Century Club for Women, followed by a theater party at the Teck 
Theatre. 

At 9.20 o'clock Wednesday morning, October 2, the guests left for Niagara 
Falls, where most of the day was spent in inspecting the hydro-electric plants, 
the great cataracts and the factories. This short trip between Buffalo and Ni- 
agara Falls was made in New York Central day coaches for the piu^ose of 
showing the del^ates this form of travel in the United States. 

The delegates arrived at Niagara Falls at ten minutes past ten and went 
immediately to inspect the plant of the Niagara Power Company. The entire 
party then took the trip of something over twenty miles on the Niagara Gorge 
B^koad. This railroad affords the best opportunity of seeing the wonderful 
Niagara Gorge just below the great cataract. The cars on the Niagara Gorge 
Railroad were placed at the disposal of the delegates through the courtesy of 
the Boston and Buffalo Chambers of Commerce. Luncheon was taken at the 
International Hotel, and the afternoon was devoted to further inspection of the 
industrial plants. At five o'clock the delegates left Niagara Falls for Detroit. 
The distance ia 229 miles, and the trains reached Detroit shortly after ten o'clock 
in the evening. This part of the journey was made in chair cars of the Pullman 
Company. 

DETROIT 

In Detroit the delegates were the guests of the Detroit Board of Commerce. 
A committee of the Board met the party at Niagara Falls, and en route to De- 
troit the delegates were presented with souvenir booklets of Detroit. Arriving 
in Detroit the visitors were met by members of the Entertunment Committee 
and were taken in special street-cars to their respective hotels. 

The following moming at ten o'clock the entire party was taken in automo- 
biles to GroBse Pointe and Belle Isle. One hundred and thirty-eight automobiles 
were required to convey the foreign delegates and the one hundred members of 
the Board of Commerce Entertainment Committtee. From Belle Isle the 
automobile cavalcade moved along East Grand Boulevard to the Packard 
Motor Company's plant, where a group photograph of the delegates was made. 
The Packard Motor Company entertained the party at a very deUghtfuI lun- 
cheon and concert by the Packard band. During the luncheon the delegates 
were presented with morocco-boimd booklets by the Packard Company. After 
luncheon the delegates were taken on a trip of inspection throi^h the Packard 
factories. At half past three the delegates entered their automobiles again and 
were driven to the Burroughs Adding Machine Company's plant, where they 
made a trip of inspection and received handsome souvenir ash trays and leather 
portfolios. In the evening a banquet in honor of the delegates was held at Hotel 
Pontchartr^. 



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34 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Oq the following morning, Friday, October 4, the delegates visited wluch- 
ever of the manufacturing plants they had elected to visit on their way from 
Buffalo. At noon the entire party gathered and boarded the Steamer "Bri- 
tannia," which made a trip up into Lake Saint Claii, and then back and down 
the Detroit Kiver, returning and lauding near the rfulroad station at half 
past three o'clock. Luncheon was served on board. After luncheon the two 
orchestras supplied music for those who wished to dance. A splendid exhibition 
by the fire boat "James Battle" was given for the entertainment of the guests. 

A special Woman's Committee arranged special entertainment for the ladies 
accompanying the delegates. On October 3 a reception was given at the Hotel 
Pontchartrain at eleven in the morning, and following this an automobile ride, 
stopping at the Detroit Club for Itincbeon. At four o'clock there was a recep- 
tion at the Twentieth Century Club. There was a special dinner at the Hotel 
Pontchartrain followed by a theater party at the Detroit Opera House. On 
Friday the ladies joined the boat trip on the "Britannia." 

On disembarking the entire party at once boarded the special chiur-car 
trains of the Pullman Company and left Detroit for Chicago at four o'clock on 
Friday afternoon, October 4. The distance from Detroit to Chicago is 285 
miles, and the special trmns reached Chicago at about half past ten on the 
evening of Friday, October 4. 

CHICAGO 

The del^ates were met at the trwns by the Chicago committee and es- 
corted to their hotels. In Chicago the delegates were the guests of the Chicago 
Association of Commerce and the Chicago Board of Trade, in co-operation with 
other busmess associations and bu^ess men of the City of Chicago. 
The schedule of the entertainment in Chicago was as follows: 
Saturday: 

Visit to Board of Trade. 
Luncheon at Hotel La Salle. 
Football game. 
Banquet at Coi^ress Hotel. 
Sunday; 

Church services. 

Automobile tour of parks and boulevards. 
Dinner, mformal, at South Shore Country Club. 
Monday: 

Excursions to: Union Stock-Yards. 
Steel Works at Gary. 
Western Electric Company works. 
Art Institute, Public Library and Department Stores. 
Hull House. 
Sears, Roebuck & Company plant. 



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GROUP OF DBLEGATK.SAT HOME OF EX-MAVOR JAMES LOGA^I 

Worrpstor. Mass., Rpi.tpmlxT 30. 1913 



DIN'NER OP MEMBERS OF COSMOPOLITAN CLUB 
Pittaburgh, PrnnnytvaDia, October tl, 1912 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 35 

Luncheon to women of delegation by Chicago Woman's Club. 
Afternoon tea to the women at store of Marshall Held & Company. 
Luncheon by the packing interests to 250 delegates, Florentine 

Room, Congress Hotel, before departure for stock-yards. 
Farewell dinner at Hotel Blackstone. 

The first day of the stay in Chicago began with a visit to the Board of Trade, 
the world's largrat grain and provision exchange, where opportunity was given 
the viEdtors to view the famous wheat pit in operation. Followii^ the inspec- 
' tion of the Board of Trade the delegation was entertained at luncheon at 
the Hotel La Salle, beii^ welcomed by the Hon. Cabteb H. Habbison, 
Mayor of Chicago, and PreEddent Euqene IT. Kiubabk of the Chicago Asso- 
ciation of Conmierce. President Canon-Leqrand of the International Congress 
replied for the delegation. After luncheon the party was taken by automobiles 
to witness a football game between the Universities of Chicago and Indiana at 
the Chicago University football grounds. In the evening the del^ates attended 
a formal banquet given in their honor by the combined Chicago organizations 
in the Gold Room, Congress Hotel, and were addressed by the Honorable 
Chables 8. Dbnben, Governor of Illinois, and others. M. Canon-Lbqband, 
Preadent of the International Congress, replied for the delegation. 

Sunday morning the visitors were at liberty to attend such religious ser- 
vices as they preferred and after luncheon were taken on an automobile tour of 
Chicago's boulevards and parks, a ride of some thirty-five miles, ending at the 
South Shore Country Club, where an informal dinner was served. 

On Monday the delegation divided itself into various parties, selecting 
such industrial trips, previously planned, as appealed to them, visits Iwing made 
by qwcial trains to the Union Stock-Yards, the great steel works at Gary, and 
by automobile to the lai^e plant of the Western Electric Company at Haw- 
thorne. Other parties visited the Art Institute, the Chicago Public Library 
and the leading department stores. Those mterested in settlement work were 
given an opportunity to explore Hull House and were mformally entertained 
by Miss Janb Addams at afternoon tea. The o£Sces and establishment of Sears, 
Roebuck & Company, said to be almost the last word in organization and effi- 
ciency, were visited by another party. On Monday the women of the delegation 
were ^ven a luncheon by the women of Chicago at the Woman's Club, and 
were later entertained by Marshall Field & Company at their retul establish- 
ment. Preceding the trip to the Stock- Yards, which waa taken by some 250 
of the delegates, the packing interests entertained the party at limcheon in 
the Florentine Room, Congress Hotel. 

On Monday evening the three days' visit ended with an informal dinner at 
the Blackstone Hotel, which formally concluded Chicago's duty as host, but 
iiie personal and informal hospitality did not finish until the last of the delegates' 
special trains left Park Row Station for Cincinnati a little before midnight. 

On leaving Chicago, Monday evening, the delegates took the second and 



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36 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

last night-journey of the entire tour. This night-journey was made in the same 
compartment cars previously used between Worcester and Buffalo. The dis- 
tance to Cincinnati is 304 miles, and the del^ates arrived at half past seven 
on the morning of Tuesday, October 8. 



CIHCINirATI 

In Cincmnati the delegates were the guests of the Joint Committee of the 
Cincinnati Business Men's Club, the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce and the 
Cincinnati Commercial Association. The Reception Committee met the party 
at the station and escorted them to their hotels in automobiles. 

At ten o'clock in the momjng the delegates were met at the Hotel Siuton 
and taken on an automobile ride about the city, visiting Eaton Park, Walnut 
Hills, Avondale and Clifton. At one o'clock Iimcheon was served at the Coun- 
try Club. In the afternoon automobiles were placed at the disposal of the 
visitors, and special trips were taken to the Art Museum, the Zoo and to the 
Rookwood Pottery and various other factories and business houses. At half 
past six in the evening a banquet was tendered all the delegates at the Business 
Men's Club. 

At half past eight on Wednesday morning, October 9, the del^ates were 
escorted to the trains in automobiles. At nine o'clock the special trains, made 
up of chur cars of the Pullman Company, left Cincinnati for Dayton. The 
distance is 56 miles, and the delegates arrrived in Dayton at quarter of eleven. 



DAYTON 

In Dayton the delegates were the guests of the Dayton Chamber of Com- 
merce and the National Cash Register Company. A reception committee from 
the Dayton Chamber of Commerce went to Cincinnati to meet the delegates. 
At the Union Station flags of all nations were flying. Thousands of Dayton- 
ians greeted the distinguished visitors. Automobiles were wuting to carry the 
foreign friends over the principal down-town streets, out to the National Cash 
Register Company's plant. Across the streets, at mtervals of thirty feet or 
thereabouts, streamers reminded the viutors of their native lands. The flags 
of the nations of the world bespoke Dayton's welcome. 

In honor of the occasion the schools in the down-town district were dis- 
missed, and the school children lined the streets. In every right hand was a 
kerchief or an American flag. 

The National Cash Register Company's buildings were bedecked with large 
and handsome flags. Every one of the axty-three hundred employees stood with 
flag in hand, and a mighty shout of greeting went up when the cars passed. A 
luncheon was served at twelve o'clock in the Officers' Club of the National Cash 
Register Company on the ninth floor of the Office Building, where six hundred 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 37 

and more dined together, and was followed by an inspiring meeting in the Hall 
of Industrial Education. There was told the story of Dayton, the story of the 
Wright Brothers who conquered the ur and the story of the National Cash 
R^pster Company. These stories were painted by word and picture. 

The stay in Dayton lasted six hours. At half past three the autos returned 
to the station, and the Citizens' Committee of One Hundred, the Bicycle Club, 
the members of the Welfare Department of the National Cash Register Com- 
pany and the Conmiittee from the Dayton Chamber of Commerce were 
present to say farewell. At four o'clock the trains pulled out of Dayton for 
Pittsburgh. The distance is 261 miles, and the delegates reached Pittsbui^ 
ehortiy after ten o'clock in the evenii^. 



prrrsBORGH 

Several members of the Pittsbui^ Committee met the truns on route and 
other members of the Committee were at the Union Station and escorted the 
delegates to their hotels in special street-cars. The delegates were the guests 
of the Chamber of Commerce and the City of Pittsburgh. 

On Thursday, October 10, the delegates boarded the Steamer "Sunshine" 
at ten o'clock in the morning and were taken on a daylight trip on the rivers 
past "milea of mills," landing at Munhall. The delegates were taken in a special 
train on a tour of inspection of the great steel mills at Homestead. The dele- 
gates boarded the boat again m front of the works, and luncheon was served on 
the river. The del^ates landed at Monongahela Wharf at four o'clock in the 
afternoon. In the evening a banquet was tendered the delegates at the Fort 
Pitt Hotel, after which special street-cars took the delegates to the Fitts- 
biu^ Exposition and concert by the Thomas Orchestra. 

The next day the delegates were taken for an inspection of the Carnegie 
Institute Museum, Art Galleries, Sculpture and Music Halls, and the Carnegie 
Institute of Technology. This was followed by an inspection of the Heinz 
Pickling and Preserving plant, where luncheon was served. An automobile 
tour was taken through the re^dential section of the city. One hundred and 
fifty automobiles were employed, escorted by special poUce on motor cycles. 
In the evening there was a reception and dance at the Hotel Schenley. 

On Saturday morning, October 12, the delegates were escorted to the 
special chair-car truns which left Pitteburgh at nine o'clock for Washii^ton. 
The distance is 369 miles, and the trains reached Washington at about half past 
six in the evening. This all day trip on the chur cars was a very interestii^ 
feature of the tour and was the only considerable daylight journey. The trains 
passed through very diversified country. The splendid views in the mountainous 
country, the trip around the Horse-Shoe Curve and the brief stops at Altoona, 
Harrisburg and Baltimore constituted altogether a most mterestii^ day. 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 



WASHINGTOn 

In Washington the delegates were the guesta of the Washington Chamber 
of Conunerce. They were met at the Union Station at Washington and escorted 
to their hotels. 

On Simday morning, October 13, the delegates were taken in sight-seemg 
automobiles on a tour of the city. In the afternoon the United States Capitol, 
the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the National Museum and the Library of Congress 
were specially opened. 

On Monday morning the White House was opened for the delegates for two 
hours. In the afternoon the delegates were taken on a steamboat ride down the 
Potomac to Moimt Vernon, the home and tomb of George Washington. In the 
evening there was a reception in the Hall of the Americas in the splendid building 
of the Pan-American Union. 

On Tuesday morning the del^ates were taken to the station in auto cars. 
The trains left Wasiiingtou for Ptiiladelphia at half past nine. The distance 
to Philadelphia is 136 miles, and the del^^tes arrived there about quarter of 



PTTTT.ATmT.T l TlTA 

In Philadelptiia the del^ates were the guests of the conuneFcial oi^anizar 
tions of the city. The following named commercial bodies participated: Board 
of Trade, Bourse, Builders' Exchange, Chamber of Commerce, Commercial 
Exchange, Commercial Museum, Drug Exchange, Grocers & Importers' Ex- 
change, Hardware Merchants and Manufacturers' Association, Lumbermen's 
Exchange, Manufacturers' Club, Maritime Exchange and the Merchants and 
Manufacturers' Association. 

The delegates walked from the Broad Street Station to Wanamaker's, where 
the whole party was the guest of Mr. John Wanamaker at luncheon. In the 
afternoon the party was taken to the Commercial Museum. In the evening 
the delegates were guests at various theater parties and a large number of them 
inspected some of the newspaper printing machinery of the city. 

On Wednesday, October 16, there was a visit to Independ^ice Hall after 
which the delegates boarded a river steamer and visited the Navy Yard and the 
yards of the New York Shipbuilding Company and Cramp & Sons. Prom 
Cramps' the party went through Stetson's and the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
and thence to the Philadelphia Country Club wliere they were guests at dinner 
of Mr. Frank D. La Lanne. 

On ThiuBday morning, October 17, the special Pullman chfur-car trams 
left the Broad Street Station at nine o'clock for New York City. The distance 
is 92 miles, and the delegates reached New York City at about eleven o'clock 
in the morning. 



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LUIGI SOLARI 

Preside lit Italian Phanihpr of C 



CHARLES C. HOYT 
sident New England Shoe and Leather As- 



DR. W. P. WILSON 
Director Philadelphia Commercial Mua 



JOHN H. PATTERSON 

President National Cash Register Company 



,Gno<^le 



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I *- 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 



HEW TORE CTTT 



The delegates were met at the Pennsylvania terminal by the New York 
committees and escorted to their hotels. In New York City the delegates were 
the guests of the commercial organizations of that city, namely: 

The Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York 

The Merchants' Aasociation of New York 

The New York Produce Eichai^ 

The New York Stock Exchange 

The New York Cotton Exchange 

The Consolidated Stock Ebccbai^e of New York 

The Coffee Exchange of the City of New York 

The Italian Chamber of Commerce of New York 

The Swedish Chamber of Commerce of New York 

The Netherlands Chamber of Commerce of America 

The City Club of New York 

American Manufacturers' Export Association 

Silk Association of America 

The Pan-American Society 

At half past two in the afternoon the foreign guests accompanied by the 
Reception Committee were taken on an automobile tour of the principal points 
of interest in New York City as far north as lS6th Street and Riverside Drive 
and as far south as Washington Square, includii^ a ride through the historic 
Central Park, on River«de Drive, Fifth Avenue and Broadway. In the even- 
ing the spectacle " Under Many Flags" at the Hippodrome was witnessed. That 
performance was chosen for the foreign visitors because its action covers many 
countries. Automobile transportation between the hotels and the theater was 
provided. 

On Friday morning, October 18, at half past nine, the foreign delegates 
acc<Hnpanied by a part of the Reception Committee were escorted to the City 
Recreation Pier, East River and 24th Street, on a short but interesting ride 
through the shopping section to the East Side of the city. At that point the 
Hudson River Day Line Steamer "Hendrick Hudson" was boarded. On the 
steamer, which is the lai^est river cri^t in the world, accommodatii^ as it does 
over 5,500 passengers, opportimity was afforded the members of the different 
organizations to meet the delegates. The trip on the water covered a eajl 
under the East River bridges, past the Battery, Governor's Island and the Bush 
Teiminal, across New York Bay, in view of the Staten Island shore, through 
the Upper Bay, in sight of Bedloe's and Ellis Islands and the Statue of Liberty, 
thence up the Hudson (North) River to Spuyten Duyvil, returning, with a 
view of both sides of the river, to the pier at the foot of Cedar Street. 

Escorted by the entire Reception Committee, all the delegates walked the 
short distance to the building of the Chamber of Commerce at 65 Liberty Street, 



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40 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS 

where, after an address of welcome by Mr. John Clajun, President, an elab- 
orate limcheon was served. The ladles accompanjdi^ tbe foreign delegates 
were taken in taxicabs from the pier to the Chamber of Commerce Building, 
where luncheon was served to them in the committee rooms. After luncheon 
an automobile ride through the crowded down-town district was tak^n to the 
United Engineering Societies' Building at 29 West 39th Street, in the auditorium 
of which exercises were held to express New York's appreciation of the honor 
the delegates conferred ufMin the city by visiting it, and to convey appropriate 
messages of international good will on the ooncluuon of the American tour of 
the foreign delegates. 

CONCLUSIOn 

In the evening the foreign del^ates tendered a dinner at Sheny's to the 
Boston Conmiittee on Tour. Practically the entire party was in attendance. 
The delegates from all lands vied with each other in the tributes to the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce for the splendid way in which the Fifth International 
Congress of Chambers of Commerce had been conducted. This dinner marked 
the close of the tour, althoi^h the foreign delegates were entertained informally, 
and many of them before leaving the country made special trips to the southern 
and western parts of the United States, which, on account of the distance, It 
had been impossible to include in the itinerary of the official tour. 

On Saturday evening, October 19, 1912, the Italian Chamber of Commerce 
in New York celebrated its Twenty-Fifth Anniversary by tendering a dinner at 
the Waldorf Astoria to all the Italian delegates in attendance at the Fifth In- 
ternational Congress of Chambers of Commerce. 

One of the very interesting phases of this tour was the organization of a 
Cosmopolitan Club composed of members from practically every nation repre- 
sented at the Congress. The purpose of this club is to encourage the lai^est 
poBuble attendance at the biennial sessions of the IntematJonal Congresses of 
Chambers of Commerce, and to promote and encourage international good 
fellowship and co-operation among Its members. 



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COPLEY PLAZA HOTEL, COPLEY SQUARE, BOSTON 
Hcatlquarlpra of Fifth Iiil<?rnational Congress 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY. COPLEY SQUARE 



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PofCton 

Boston, where the Fifth International Congress of Chambers of Commerce 
held its sessions, is one of the oldest and most important cities and has always 
been one of the chief commercial, industrial and financial centers in the 
United States of America. 

Metropolitan Boston, the great urban community at the head of Massa^ 
chusettB Bay, has over 1,500,000 inhabitants, and in population ranks as the 
fourth city of the United States and the tenth city of the world. 

Boston is the capital city of the State of Massachusetts, one of the thirteen 
colonies which originally formed the Bepublic. It is the principal seaport and 
metropolis of the section known as " New England," which counts of a compact 
group of ^ states forming the northeastern part of the country. 

Boston is situated on that portion of the Atlantic Ocean known as Massa- 
chusetts Bay. The inner city — the municipality officially named "Boston" 
— occupies the peninsula which was first settled, and a portion of the land ad- 
joining, which has been united with the older city at different periods by the 
annexation of other communities. Municipal Boston has a i>opulation of about 
700,000 people. Metropolitan Boston, the real city, with its population in 1909 
of 1,520,470, comprises forty municipalities, which are included in a circle ex- 
tendii^ back from the shore hne within a radius of about twelve miles. 

The relations of this metropolis to the city itself are, except in pohtical re- 
spects, like those of the British metropolis to the old city of London. Socially, 
commercially and industrially, the interests of the forty conmiunities are 
closely interwoven. Almost the entire district is thickly populated, and the 
lines of division between the communities are merely arbitrary. There are 
metropolitan park, water and sewerage systems under unified control, servii^ 
most of these cities and towns. They all are included in one postal district, 
and most of them are served by one system of electric street railway transpoi^ 
tation. The essential unity of the entire district is well recognized. 

COMMERCE AKD HAKBOR 

Boston is a world port ranking in the United States second only to New 
York in its imports. With the diminishing export of foodstuffs from the 
United States the exporte of Boston have decreased, with the result that in the 
total volume of all foreign trade Boston is the fourth port of the country. 



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42 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Boston is one hundred ninety-four miles nearer Europe than any other la^e 
American port, and it is nearer to all the east coast of South America south of 
the Amazon, including euch ports as Bio de Janeiro, Montevideo and Buenos 
Aires, than is New York, Philadelphia, Galveston or any other North American 
port. 

Boston has one of the finest natural harbors in the world, with broad road- 
steads sheltered from rough water by numerous islands. It has wide, safe ap- 
proaches from the ocean, and Boston Light, the outer edge of the harbor, is 
less than an hour's run from the steamship piers. The channels from the open 
sea to the piers are dredged to a depth of thirty-five feet at low water, and in 
the near futiu^ will be dredged to a depth of forty feet. The three outer chan- 
nels converge into a vaain ship channel which conmiunicates with all parts <A 
the inner harbor. 

Two years ago the legislature created a board of five Port Directors ap- 
pointed by the State and city and havii^ jurisdiction over Boston harbor. In 
the initial law creating the Board it was given an appropriation of $9,000,000 
to be expended in building docks and other water-front improvements. This 
Board is now actively engaged in constructing improvements at various parts 
of the harbor and in making plans for future improvements. Commonwealth 
Pier, 1,200 feet long and 400 feet wide, with a depth aloi^de of 40 feet 
at mean low water, has already been equipped and opened at an expense of 
$2,500,000. This pier is one of the most up-to-date and best equipped piers 
in America, with accommodations for the lai^est liners now afloat. The Fort 
Directors have completed plans for a huge dry-dock, to be constructed at an 
expense of $3,000,000 and capable of acconmiodatii^ any steamship afloat or 
yet projected. For the accommodation of the great fishing fleet a new pier 
1,200 feet loi^ and 300 feet wide has been recently completed. 

Previous to the creation of the Board of Port Directors, Boston had very 
excellent docks and harbor accommodations privately owned. The present 
terminal of the Boston & Albany Railroad Company at East Boston includes 
several of the finest piers on the Atlantic coast, a grain elevator with a capacity 
of one million bushels, direct track connections and modem devices for loading 
and unloading vessels and cars. The Boston & Maine R^hoad owns the Hoosac 
and Mystic docks at Charlestown with some twelve piers capable of accommo- 
dating ocean liners. The grain elevator at Hoosac docks has a capacity of one 
miUion bushels, while that at the Mystic docks has a capacity of half a million 
bushels. The New Haven Railroad owns three piers at South Boston. At 
present in Boston there is a lineal frontage of over forty miles of berth space, 
of which over six miles front on a depth of at least thirty feet at low water. 

Many transatlantic and coastwise steamship lines have terminals at Boston. 
In addition to the numerous steamship lines which give frequent regular direct 
connection with all the important coast cities of the Atlantic, both in the 
United States and Canada, there are some twenty-four foreign lines which have 
regular sailings to or from the port of Boston. These steamship lines mun- 



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STEAMSHIP DOCKS AT EAST BOSTON 



hp:ad house, commonwealth pieh, south boston 



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FISHING FLEET AT T WHARF. BOSTON 



STATE BATHHOUSE AT REVERE 

In Metropolitan Boston 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 43 

tun regular saiUngB to and from English, North European, Mediterranean, 
West Indian, South American and Far Eastern ports. In the past year or 
two tiie facilities for transatlantic passei^er travel between Boston and Europe 
have been greatly improved, and the number of transatlantic passengers seuI- 
ing from and to Boston has increased at a very rapid rate. 

The importe of Boston are principally raw materials for the industries of 
the New England states. The principal commodities imported are wool, cotton, 
ludes and skins, burlaps, fibers and vegetable grasses, sugar and machinery. 
The chief articles of export from Boston are meat, breadstuffs and grun, cot- 
ton, machinery, steel, boots and shoes and leather, and miscellaneous manu- 
factured products. 

For the year ending June 30, 1912, the value of the foreign trade of Boston 
was $234,918,975, of which 1153,671,165 were imports and $81,247,810 were 
exporte. 

TRANSPORTATION 

Boston is the terminal of three great rulroad systems. All parts of New 
England are closely connected with Boston by highly developed transportation 
facilities. A complex network of steam railroads, electric rtulwa^, steamboat 
lines and excellent highways center about Boston as a metropolis. As in abnoat 
all parts of the country, the transportation facilities by itdl and water are pri- 
vately owned. The important highways are controlled by the state and local 
roads by the communities through which they run. 

The local transportation system communicating with the different parts of 
Metropolitan Boston is the finest in America, with inter-connecting subway, 
surface and elevated lines. Three subways and one tunnel under the harbor 
are now in operation and three new subways are under construction. 



mDUSTRIES 

Boston is the great center of the textile industry in the United States. It 
is the greatest wool market in the Western Hemisphere. It is the unquestioned 
leader in the production of boots, shoes and leather. It is the leading center 
for shoe and textile machinery. It is most important in the production of elec- 
trical machinery and foimdry and machine-shop products. It has large plants 
for the production of watches, confectionery, cocoa, chocolates, rubber and 
elastic goods. It has important printing, publishing, electrical, gas, clothing 
and packing establishments. It has lai^e establishments for the refining of 
sugar and molasses and for slaughtering and meat packing. It is the greatest 
fresh-fish market in the Western Hemisphere and with one exception in the 
world. It has great ship-building works where modem battleships and other 
vessels are constantly under construction. In 1911 the value of manufactured 
products of Metropolitan Boston reached the total of $502,527,771. 

And this is only a small part of the story. For a correct understanding of 



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44 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Boston as an industrial center it must also be remembered that it is tbe me- 
tropolis and chief port of New England. Many of the great industrial plants of 
New England have their headquarters and transact their principal business in 
Boston, even though the manufacturing plants themselves are located in other 
parts of New England. New England is more intensely developed as an indus- 
trial region than any other part of America. With one-eleventh of the popula- 
tion of the country, it turns out one-eeventh of the manufactured products. 
Most of itfi manufactures are high-grade staple articles which are needed in 
increasing quantities in South American countries and in the Far East. 
These industries also use la^e quantities of raw materials which can be ad- 
vantageously purchased from those countries. 

The textile industries are the most important of the industries of New Eng- 
land. The leadership of the section in these industries is unquestioned. More 
than $650,000,000 is invested in textile mills which make a variety of cotttm, 
woolen, worsted, felt, linen, silk, knit goods, cordage and twine and many other 
woven products. Many of the greatest mills are within a few hours' travel of 
Boston and have their offices in the city. The value of the textile products 
of the mills of New England annually exceeds $600,000,000. 

The makii^ of boots and shoes by machinery and the manufacture of the 
machines to make the shoes originated in New Ehigland. In 1909, 136,962,674 
p^rs of boots and shoes, with a value of $300,000,000 were made in this sec- 
tion. There are 1,000 factories engaged in various branches of this industry, 
located in more than one hundred different cities and towns. The great bulk 
of the product, in fact practically all, comes from factories located within fifty 
miles of Boston. Through the United Shoe Machinery Company, with a great 
factory at Beverly, this section leads the world in the manufacture of the 
machines used in making shoes. 

New Ei^aod has long been famous tor its machinery. There is hardly an 
industry dependent upon machinery in which will not be found some machines 
invented in New England. This section leads the United States in the making 
of foundry and machine-shop products. The total value of its foundry and 
machine-riiop products is about $200,000,000 annually. 

The supremacy of New England in the production of fine writing paper 
made chieSy from rags is well known. Kolyoke, Massachusetts, alone makes 
over one-half the nation's supply of good writing paper. The value of the paper 
made in New England is about $100,000,000 annually. 

Jewelry is made extensively in a small area at the border between Massa- 
chusetts and Khode Island. The value of the jewelry produced in this district 
reaches $35,000,000 a year. 

Besides the industries noted above. New England leads in the production 
of wire goods, cutlery, firearms, ammunition, brass and bronze products, rub- 
ber goods, marble, clocks, watehes, plated ware, rolled copper, silverware and 
silk goods. It has an important place in many other industries and leads in 
the production of many other commodities, almost all of high grade. 



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PLANT OF THE WALTHAM WATCH COMPANY 

In Metropolitan Boston 



PLANT OF THE THOMAS G. PLANT SHOE COMPANY, BOSTON 

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!■ THE UNITED SHOE MACHINERY COMPANY 



WOOD WORSTED MILLS AT LAWRENCE 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 45 

There are 25,351 industrial establishmenta in New England, giving employ- 
ment to 1,212,158 wage eamere. The capital invested in these industries is 
$2,503,854,000. There are paid to the employees each year $669,915,000 in 
Balaries and wages. The value of the goode manufactured in New England 
reaches the enormous annual total of $2,670,065,000. 



PmAKCIAL CENTER 

Boston is an important financial center. Its per capita wealth is greater 
than any other city of the United States. It is said to be, next to New York, 
the richest trade center of the country. One-twentieth of the savings of the 
American people is in the savings banks of Boston. It has a stock exchange 
which is the center for trade in the shares of copper mines, and on which large 
transactions of all kinds are affected. In 1911 there was on deposit in its banks 
and trust companies about $500,000,000. Its clearii^-house exchanges in 1911 
reached the enormous total of $8,339,718,582. Boston capital has built many 
of the railroads of the western United States, and to-day is heavily invested in 
mining and other developments. The total valuatjon of the metropolitan city, 
includii^ forty communities, is $2,279,606,065. 



EDUCATIOK 

Boston is now, as it always has been, recognized as the leading center of 
education m America. Harvard University is one of the oldest American imi- 
versities and is recognized as the leading educational institution of the United 
States. It is principally located in Cambridge, just across the Charles River 
from Municipal Boston. Its grounds are extensive and its buildings numerous 
and inter^ii^. They include several museums which contain notable collec- 
tions, and the Stadium, an enormous concrete structiu^ built on the plan of 
the Colosseum at Rome, where intercollegiate contests are held. The univer- 
sity has 6,000 students, including those in summer-school and extension courses, 
and in RadcUffe, which is the women's college allied with Harvard. In addi- 
tion to the college and Radcliffe, the university has medical and law schools, 
each widely known; graduate schools of applied science, arts and sciences and 
business administration; divinity and dental schools, an arboretum, botanic 
garden and observatory. The magnificent new buildings of the medical school 
are near the Fenway, within Municipal Boston. 

Another educational institution known throughout the world is the Masea- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, the leading American school of applied sci- 
ences, foimded in 1861. Its buildings are at present in the center of the city, 
but it has recently received donations of several millions of dollars with which 
to build on a new site on the bank of the Charles River Basin. The Institute 
receives an annual grant from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The 
total number of students is 1,500, representing 30 nations. 



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46 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

The best known Boston college for women is Wellesley College, in the sub- 
urb of that name, where it occupies 300 acres. This institution, the teaching 
and administrative staff of which consists almost entirely of women, has 1,500 
students. Simmons College, in Boston proper, and Jackson College — until 
recently a part of Tuf ta College for men — in Medford, another suburb, are 
the other best known women's institutions. 

Tufte College, in addition to its academic department in Medford, has well- 
known medical and dental schools located in Boston proper. 

Boston University has an excellent academic department as well as schoola 
of law, medicine and divinity, all located in various parts of Municipal Boston. 

Boston College, a Roman Catholic institution, is located at Newton, another 
Bubiu-b. 

Education preparatory for college is carried on chiefly in public schools 
supported by taxation, although there are in Boston a conaiderable number of 
privately owned academiee. In Massachusetts attendance at school is com- 
pulsory for all children between the ages of seven and fourteen years. 

The public school system of Boston is a model for other American cities. 
The schools are administered by an unpud, elected committee of five citizens. 
The system includes — in addition to the usual day classes for both sexes — in- 
dustrial, commercial, art, normal, salesmanship and other vocatioaal courses, 
many of them ffvea in the evening in order that persons who have a r^fular 
dwiy occupation may attend. 

Trade or technical schools, endowed by private philanthropy, are abundant. 
The Wentworth Institute, Franklin Union, Women's Educational and Indus- 
trial Union, the North End Union, Wells Memorial Institute and Massachu- 
setts Charitable Mechanics Association are a few of these. The Young Men's 
Christian Association has over 1,900 students. In some manufacturing estab- 
lishments, notably the General Electric Company at Lynn, educational courses 
are mainlined for the employees. 



ARTS, LETTERS AKD MUSIC 

Boston was the birthplace of American letters, and is to-day a notable 
center of literature, art and music. Boston was the home of the well-known 
group of nineteenth-century authors, poete and thinkers which included Emer- 
son, Longfellow, Lowell, Hohnes, Hawthorne, Whittier, Thoreau and others. 
Several national publications of importance are issued in the city, and among 
its residents are several of the beat known American writers of to-day. 

The first public library In America was started in Boston. Its collection 
now contains over one miUion volumes, and circulates annually 1,650,000 
volumes to the homes of citizens. The nuun public library building on Copley 
Square is famous throughout the United States. On ite walls are several notar 
ble series of mural pmntings. 

Boeton has at present the best known American groiq) of artists and sculp- 



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HALL OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 



BOSTON OPERA HOL'SE 



,v Google 



HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, BOSTON 



BOSTON MUSEUM OF FINK ARTS 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 47 

tors now producing. Its new Museum of Fine Arte ia a very large and beautiful 
structure, and contuns a number of excellent collections and individual works 
of great importance. The Museum mftint^inn a school which gives instnictioQ 
in drawing, punting, modelii^ and design. 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra ff.vea frequent public concerts during the 
winter in its great music hall, and travels extensively throi^h the United States. 
The chief musical school of Boston is the New England Conservatory of Mumc. 

The Boston Opera Company and its beautiful Opera House are only a few 
years old, but they already rank amoi^ the best in America. 



PAB£S Aim RECREATION 

Boston has many magnificent buildings, avenues and parks, with an abun- 
dance of striking natural scenery. There are seashores, rivers, forests and hills 
near at band while not far distant lie the principal summer resorts of America. 

The park system of Boston is of wide extent and exceptional beauty. The 
city and metropolitan park systems taken together cover over 12,000 acres. 
Be^nning at the center of the city in the Common and the beautiful Public 
Gardens, they extend in both directions along the shore of the Atlantic and 
back along the rivers and ponds for many miles. The boulevards connect the 
beaches on the north and south with each other and with the great inland 
reservations. Near the center of the city is a magnificent fresh water ba^ 
recently created by d amming the Charles River. Several of the ocean beaches 
lie within one hour's ride of the city. 

At the principal beaches are great public bathhouses. Harbor trips and 
steamer excursions to all parts of the bay constitute a popular summer recrea- 
tion. 

A characteristic American sport is baseball, and from spring to fall inter- 
city contests between professional teams are held daily. Boston has a team in 
each of the two principal baseball lef^ues. As many as 35,000 people have 
attended games played by one of these teams in Boston. 

American football is the chief sport in the autumn months. Football, un- 
like baseball, is always played by amateur teams. The principal contests are 
those between Harvard and the other lai%e colleges, which are played in the 
Stadium, where 40,000 spectators can be seated. 



HISTORICAL 

The Rlgrims who came from England seeking religious freedom landed at 
Plymouth, a coast town near Boston to the south. Boston itself was settled in 
1630 by John Winthrop and a party of Enghsh colomsts from Salem. 

As the scene of many of the important events in the history of the United 
States, and the birthplace or home of many of the men who achieved fame in 



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48 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

the early days of the nation, Boston has much of patriotic interest to Ameticam. 
It is annually visited by thousands of people for this reason alone. 

It was at Boston that the men who conceived the idea of American liberty 
and who controlled the early destinies of the Republic were bom and educated. 
The first battle of the Revolution was fought at Lexington, now a suburb, 
April 19, 1775, The first Provincial Congress met in Concord in 1774. Bunker 
Hill, at Charlestown, where the second battle was fought on June 17, 1775, is 
marked by a tall shaft. Both April 19 and June 17 are annually observed 
as holidays. Two of the earliest Presidents of the United States, John Adams, 
and John Quincy Adams, were bom in Quincy, another suburb. 

The next period during which the city played a significant part in history 
began in 1831 when the movement for the abolition of slavery throughout the 
country was b^un in Boston by William Lloyd Garrison and his followers. 
The national revolt gainst the slave-traffic, which led up to the Civil War in 
1861, made its headquarters in Boston. 

Boston has been during the greater part of the last century the head- 
quarters of the American Peace Society, as it is now the headquarters of its 
Massachusetts branch; it is also the headquarters of the World Peace Founda- 
tion. It has been one of the great centers of the college settlement move- 
ment in which South End House has had a most important place. It has 
taken the lead in a multitude of significant educational and philanthropic 
movements. 



BOSTON CHAMBER OF COHMEKCB 

The Boston Chamber of Commerce, with nearly 5,000 members, is the 
iai^est commercial organization in America. It is chartered to promote the 
commerce, industry and public interests of Boston and New England. Through 
its numerous committees of public-spirited business men, it participates in all 
that makes for the welfare of the community. Each member pays $25 a year 
toward the general expenses of the organization, which include the employment 
of a large staff of paid secretaries and experts. The members are from all voca- 
tions. Although the membership is chiefly merchants and manufacturers, it 
also includes many lawyers, engineers, accountants, architects, doctors and 
others. The institution operates imder a charter granted by the Commonwealtli 
of Massachusetts. It has a president, two vice-presidents and a board of 
twenty-five directors, all serving without compensation. There are also a large 
number of small standing committees. The opinions of the Boston Chamber of 
Commerce are carefully worked out and have much weight with public and 
l^slative bodies. Its reports and invest^ations are valuable, and the direct 
service rendered to its members considerable. It maintains an exchange where 
the grain business of New England is conducted, a marine department which 
sends out news of the movement of shipping, a statistical department which 
coUatea and classifies general commercial statistics, a bureau of information 



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WEST BOSTON URIDGE TO CAMBRIDGE 



STREET RAILWAY TERMINAL AT FOREST HILLS, BOSTON 



.V, Google 



i'L'blk; gardens in thk center of boston 



rOMMONWEALTH AVENUE. BOSTON 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 49 

and investigation, an expert transportation department, an industrial bureau 
and a system for the arbitration of business disputes. 

The influence of the Boston Chamber of Commerce had a large part in 
bringing about the formation of the new Chamber of Commerce of the United 
States, a union of the conmiercial bodies in all parts of the country. 

The Boston Chamber of Commerce took the lead in extending the invita- 
tions which resulted in the Fifth International Congress of Chambers of Com- 
merce being held at Boston in 1912. 



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STATE STREET, BOSTON 
Shovine Old State Houso 



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SOUTH TERMINAL R.MLROAD STATION, BOSTON 



UNION STATION, WOHCESTKll 



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:f acttf obotit tfie Cittetf ^fsiteb on tfie iSmerican QToitr 

WORCESTER 

WoBCESTEB, Massachusette, the first city viflited by the foreign del^ates 
on the American tour, is the largest manufacturing city in the United States 
not on a waterway. It is a city of diversified industries employing 34,000 
Bkilled mechanics and laborers and more than 3,200 salaried employees. It has 
a conunercial history dating back to ISOO. It has always been without serious 
labor strikes or trouble. It has become by steady pn^ess an inland city of 
160,120 people (municipal census for 1912) and is growing at the rate of 7,500 
a year. 

This city is one of the machine tool centers of the United States. Here is 
located one of the principal plants of the American Steel & Wire Company, 
employing some 7,500 workers. It is the home of one of the largest manufac- 
turers of abrasives and grinding wheels m the world — The Norton Company. 
It is an uuportant center in the corset industry, having located here the plant 
of the Royal Worcester Corset Company, where employees work under such 
excellent conditions that the plant has an international reputation. It is a 
factor in the envelope industry — the United States Envelope Company alone 
having three plants in this city. It houses a great leather-belting plant — the 
Graton & Knight Manufacturing Company. The famous Whittall rugs and 
carpets are manufactured here. The Wyman 4 Gordon Company of this city 
drop-forge more than 75 per cent of all the automobile crank-ehafts used m the 
automobile industry of this country. The Crompton & Enowles Loom Works 
turn out every year the greatest variety of weaving machinery with a loom for 
ahnost every fabric. If space permitted, hundreds of other industrial facts to 
show the pre-eminence of this city might be written, but suffice it to say that 
this city manufactures ahnost everything — from a button to a passenger 
coach. Other cities specialize in a few products. Worcester has l^on, a fact 
which has made possible its uninterrupted industrial development in the last 
century. 

In art, science and education, this city has an important place. It is the 
seat of Clwk Univermty, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Holy Cross College 
and lesser institutions of leamii^, and is the home of the third heaviest endowed 
art museum in the United States. 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 



Buffalo, the Queen City of the Lakes, occupies an enviable position indue- 
trially and commercially. Situated at the easterly end of Lake Erie, and at 
the western terminus of the new State Barge Canal, which connects the Great 
Lakes with the Atlantic Coast, it is like an hour-glass through which flow un- 
ceasingly the products of the soil fr<HU the west, and the finished manufactured 
products from the east. Seventeen railroad lines and ten steamship lines make 
it one of the world's greatest points of transfer. 

Buffalo's strategic position with regard to transportation gives it immense 
advantage in assembling raw material and shipping finished products. Un- 
limited electric power from Niagara Falls, together with cheap natural gas, coal, 
iron and steel, lumber and water, gives to Buffalo all the essentials of low- 
cost manufacturing. Its producte vary greatly, taking in over 60 per cent 
of the various kinds of manufactures recognized by the Federal Census 
Bureau and providing employment for skilled and unskilled labor of many 

The steel industry which leads in value of products represents only 10 per 
cent of the total. Other important industries are slaughtering and meat pack- 
ing; foundry and machine-shop work; fiour and grist milling; automobiles; soap; 
printii^ and publishing; and malt. 

Although commercial interests emphasize Buffalo's advantages as a com- 
mercial center, there are many who urge Buffalo's claim to be one of the most 
beautiful, cleanest and most healthful of the larger cities of the country. There 
are eight lai^e parks contwning more than 1,000 acres, connected by over 
21 miles of shaded boulevard. Delaware Avenue is considered to be one of the 
finest residential thoroughfares in the United States. The Albright Art Gtdlery, 
situated on the grounds of the Pan-American Exposition enjoys a high repu- 
tation and Gont^ns besides the permanent collection of the Buffalo Fine Arts 
Academy, one of the best art schools in the country. 

Buffalo is 22 miles from the world-famous Niagara Falls. Its population in 
1912 was 444,950, increasing at the rate of about 15,000 a year. 



DETROIT 

The disclosures of the thirteenth census with reference to the growth of 
Detroit industrially and in population, and especially the marvelous develop- 
ment of its greatest industry, the automobile, were very striking. 

Detroit holds first rank among all the cities of the world in the manufacture 
of the automobile. The actual growth of this industry in Detroit has been one 
of the industrial marvels of the age. In the twelfth census reports, covering 
the work of 1899, this industry did not appear as a separate class m the tables. 
In 1904 the value of automobiles and their parts produced in Detroit was given 
at $6,240,057. In 1908 the product in automobiles stood at $22,000,000. It 



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Mckinley monument, buffalo 



NIAGARA FALLS 



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VIEW OF THE LAKE FRONT. CHICAGO 



PORTION OF THK CHICACJO STOfK-YARHS 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 53 

then jumped to $54,300,000 in 1909 and $134,587,000 in 1910. The next year 
this industry employed about 35,000 men, and turned out 135,000 cars valued 
at $160,000,000. The Festered capital employed by the twenty-seven com- 
panies engaged in this industry is about $40,000,000. Every business man 
visitii^ Detroit ought to go throi^ one or more of the immense automobile 
estabUshments. 

The second industry of Detroit is car building, with a larger output of steel 
cars than any other city in the United States. Detroit also has immense shops 
and shipyards and is in the first rank among the lake shipbuilding ports. 

Detroit also holds a leading position in the manufacture of stoves, drug* 
gists' preparations, soda-ash and caustic soda, aluminum castings, addiug- 
machines and overalls. It is among the leaders in the manufacture of 
malleable iron, paints and varnishes, matches and special lines of furniture. 

The official figures of the census show that in 1909 the value of the product 
of the factories of Detroit was $252,992,000. The enormous expansion of the 
automobile business in the next two years, together with an unusual growth in 
other lines, indicates a factory product for 1911 which reaches the tremendous 
total of $340,000,000. 

On December 31, 1911, the population of Detroit was about 527,000 people 
within ite area of only 41.44 square miles. 

In 1903 the foundation was laid of the Detroit Board of Ckmunerce, which 
has become one of the most powerful and useful commercial and civic oi^aui- 
zations in the country. Its membership has increased from 506 at the time of 
its forma! organization Jime 30, 1903, to over 3,100 in April, 1912. 



Less than a century ago the city of Chicago was a military post surrounded 
by the habitations of a few traders and Indians. In 1837 it was incorporated 
as a city with a population of 4,170. In 1912 it had a population of 2,446,921. 
Its area is 195 square miles. It is now the second city of the western hemi- 
sphere and the fifth city of the world. As a port of one of the great lakes its 
tonnage has given it rank with the world's great seaports. It is the greatest 
railway center in the world, being the terminal for twenty-six railway systems, 
comprising 84,938 miles, or 34.8 per cent of all the railroad mileage of the United 
States. As a manufacturing center, Chicago leads in the production of agri- 
cultural implements, meat products, electrical equipment, railway supplies, 
passenger, freight and sleeping cars, musical instruments, millinery, clothing 
and various other lines. It is a foremost distributii^ center of grain, frmt 
and produce, structural steel, many kinds of machinery, hardware, lumber, fur- 
niture, dry goods, footwear, hides and leathers, books and publications. 

The population of CMce^o is an a^regation of more than forty nationah- 
lies and racial variations, and this fact lai^ly substantiates ite claim to be dis- 
tinguished as the American city. It is a commercial and industrial rather than 



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54 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

a financial center, and ite weekly bank clearingB of $267,609,804 reflect the 
transactions of commerce rather than the speculative business of the exchange. 
Ite business in grtun, lumber, steel, meats, clothing, dry goods, etc., is enormous. 
Ite wholesale trade is estimated to be $1,905,989,000 annually. 

Chicago is encircled by a system of parks and boulevards, having a circum- 
ference of about forty miles, three of its greater parks being upon ite water 
front. It is in the front rank among the world's cities In the number and 
equipment of playgrounds provided for ite children, and it is also distin- 
guished in having the great social settlement, Hull House. 

Chicago, like most cities of the new and old world, has grown without a 
plan. But a plan magnificent in design and practical in ite workings has now 
been submitted to the people, and this will guide the city's great acte of recon- 
struction and extension in coming years. The great offices and mercantile 
buildings of Chicago are concentrated in a central district, and this district is 
under gradual transformation respecting those details which give beauty and 
convenience to metropolitan centers. 

Chicago is distinguished as the site of the University of Chicago which in 
twenty years of life has instructed 43,115 studente, and represente an invest- 
ment in buildings, equipment, endowment, etc., of $35,000,000. 

Chicago is the meeting place of many conventions and so is an exchange 
for national thought on commercial, industrial, educational, religious, political 
and other questions animating the life of the American people. 

In Chicago's Art Institute, or Academy of Exhibition and Design, there 
are more than fifty classes aggregating 3,000 pupils annually. Chicago's public 
library, operating through a great main building and twenty-Mx branches, offers 
one-half million volumes, the circulation of which is 3,000,000 annually. The 
Theodore Thomas Orchestra and the Chicago Grand Opera Company are 
among the city's exceptional musical facilities. 

The city's business and professional strength and sentiment have been or- 
ganized in The Chicago Association of Commerce, one of the largest bodies of 
ite kind in the world. 

CIHCnraATI 

Cincinnati is located in two states and three countiee, the metropolitan 
district including a population of about 600,000. The great Ohio Biver flowing 
through ite center presente an example of governmental canalization on a large 
scale, and when completed will form a constantly navigable water system thou- 
sands of miles in length. 

Geograplucal and other natural advantages, including proximity to the 
center of population, to vast sources of supply of raw materials, including one 
of the greatest soft-coal fields In the world, have tended to develop manufac- 
turing on a large and diversified scale. Cincinnati takes a high rank in the 
manufacture of machine tools, woodworking machinery, office fiu*niture, glass 
bottles, ornamental iron, playing cards and washing machines, and in the dis- 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 55 

tributon of whiskey and hardwood lumber. It is abo an important center the 
the manufacture of shoes, soap, clothii^, acids, musical instnmieuts, printing 
inks, laundry machinery, distilling apparatus and camageg. So diversified are 
the industrial activities that a complete list is not feasible, but the situation 
may be summarized by the statement that 90 per cent of the lines classified by 
the Federal Census are manufactured in Cincinnati. 

Cincinnati is the only city in the United States owning a steam raihx>ad, 
the Cincinnati Southern, extending from Cincinnati to Chattanooga, Tenn. 
The city operates playgrounds, municipal lodging-houses, an employment 
bureau, a municipal laundry, bathhouses, tuberculosis and general hospitals, 
in addition to the usual activities of a city government. A new municipal 
hospital, costing two miUion dollars, is imder construction. 

Perhaps the most completely co-ordinated educational system in the coun- 
try is found here, since it includes instruction from the kindergarten to and 
including the Municipal University, The co-operative system of education, by 
which the time of the student is divided between the class work and actual 
employment in the factories and other establishments of the city, is being 
adopted largely in other cities. 

A comprehensive park and boulevard system is being worked out by a 
special conunission. Many new and important projects, such as a magnificent 
Union Station, a rapid transit system and a public auditorium and entertun- 
ment hall, are in contemplation. 

Cincinnati has long been noted as a center for art and music, and the May 
Festivals are renowned throt^hout the music-loving world. 



DAYTOir 

Dayton, "The City of a Thousand Factories," is situated in the south- 
western portion of Ohio, a state near the center of the United States. It 
was founded in 1796 by English, and later, German people. It received its 
charter in 1805, when it had a population of about 100 people. Its present 
population is about 125,000, and its corporate area is 6.5 miles. Dayton is 
situated in a rich industrial and agricultural area — the most thickly populated 
section west of the Alleghany moimtains, and within its trading district are 
over 750,000 people. Dayton is a city of homes, and ranks high in ita. civic 
improvements, parks, playgrounds and civic pride. 

Dayton is a leader in the manufacture of the foUowing products: cash re- 
gisters, aeroplanes, car registers, railroad cars, sewing machines, cast-iron fit- 
ings, clay working machinery, computing scales, filters, shoe lasts, golf clubs, 
stamped envelopes. Dayton is also an automobile manufacturing center. 
Dayton has 1,264 industrial establishment, with an annual output valued at 
$72,000,000. The capital invested is $32,000,000. Dayton's annual payroll is 
over $35,000,000. 

The most notable industrial plant at Dayton is the great factory of the 



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56 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

National Cash RegJBter Company, which makes cash registera for every coun- 
try on the globe, doing 45 per cent of its bu«ness outside the United States. 
This company maintains in connection with its works a well-equipped school 
for the industrial education of its employees. The president of the Company 
m^tEuns near the outskirts of the city a large park "Hills and Dales" for the 
use of the employees uid the citizens generally. 

The original and present factory of Wright Brothers, the famous aero- 
nautic engineers, is located at Dayton. Eight railroads radiate in twelve direc- 
tions from the city. 

At Dayton is situated the largest and finest National Soldiers' Home in the 
United States in aa exceptional location surrounded by beautiful grounds. 

PITTSBtntGH 

Pittsbiu^ is the steel center of the world. It occupies the front rank in 
the production of iron, steel, pig iron, steel ingots and castings, structural steel, 
wire, iron and steel pipe, sheet and plate iron and steel, steel buildii^ and 
bridges, steel cars, roUing-mill machinery and other iron and steel products. 

The Pittsburgh district produced in 1910 ninety million tons of bituminous 
coal. Its steel works and blast furnaces give employment to 75,000 men. For 
the hauling of materials, coke, iron ore and limestone, which are made into pig 
iron in the Pittsburgh district, 88,000 freight truns, with an average load of 
3,400 gross tons apiece are required every year. The total annual tonnage of 
the district is 167,733,268 tons. In 1910, 56,480,000,000 cubic feet of natural 
gas were piped into Pittsburgh direct from th^ gas fields. 

In addition to the great steel industry, Pittsburgh has an important posi^ 
tion in the manufacture of plate and window glass, plumbing supplies, fire brick, 
air brakes, table ware, white lead, tin plate, electrical machinery, aluminum 
and cork. It has a huge pickling and preserving plant with 3,500 employees 
and 500 traveling salesmen. 

Metropolitan Pittsburgh has a population within a ten-mile radius of 
1,042,855, ranking as the fifth metropolitan district of the United States. 
Within a radius of 40 miles of the Court House there lives a population of four 
miUion people. 

There are 84 banks and trust companies in Pittsburgh with a capital of 
about $60,000,000, and surplus of about {100,000,000. The clearing-house ex- 
chai^es for 1911 amounted to $2,520,285,912. 

Pittsburgh has 509 miles of paved streets. It has 22 parks, contuning 1,387 
acres, valued at over seven miUion dollars. 

Carnegie Institute covers four acres, and cost Andrew Carnegie $6,000,000, 
— with the technical schools adjoining, and all endowments, $24,000,000. The 
Carnegie Technical Schools have 2,450 students, a campus of 32 acres and a 
faculty of 160. The Univermty of I^ttsburgh is a splendidly equipped insti- 
tution with 1,948 students, a campus of 43 acres and a faculty of 225. 



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VIEW OF THE niVER FRONT. DETROIT 



VIKW FROM THE ()HIO RIVER, CIMCINNATI 



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THE CAPITOL, WASHINGTON', D. t:. 



WHITE HOi;^E, WASHINGTON-, D. C. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 



WASHINGTOH 



Wasbii^ton, the capital city of the United States, is generally admitted to 
be one of the most beautiful cities in the New World. It was planned by the 
celebrated French engineer Charles Pierre L'Enfant. The pubhc buildings are 
handsome and well placed, and thousands of acres of small and lai^ parka 
adorn the city. 

As the seat of the government of the United States, it has grown from a 
village to a city of 340,000 inhabitants. The White House, where the President 
lives, and the Capitol, where Congress sits, are located at either end of Penn- 
sylvania Avenue, the principal thoroughfare of the city, and one of the most 
notable in the world. 

In Waahington are located the State, War, Navy, Treasury, Post^Office, 
Interior, Agricultural, Commerce and Labor Departments. The Library of 
CcH^ress has nearly two million volumes. The National Museum, the United 
States Geolo^cal Survey, the Smithsonian Institute, the Naval Observatory, 
the Patent Office and the Came^e Institute of Science are notable features. 
The Pan-American Union is boused in a magnificent building near the great 
Washington Monument. 

The goverament factories, such as the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 
the Government Printing-Office, the Navy Yard and the Arsenal have plants 
valued at $25,000,000. 

Mt. Vemon, the home and tomb of George Washington, is within an hour's 
ride of the coital. 

Annapolis, the Government Naval School, is within a short distance of the 
city. A great National Soldiers' Home for the care of the retired and invalid 
soldiers is within the District of Columbia. 

Washington has 314 parks and parkways, covering 3,413 acres. 

The capital is the location of over 100 educational institutions. This num- 
ber includes three univermties: the George Washington, Georgetown and the 
Catholic University of America. There are also a deaf mute college at Kendal 
Green, the Army War College, the Army Medical School and others. 

Washington is by no means insignificant from an industrial point of view. 
It contuns 2,669 manufacturing establishments with 16,000 employees, and 
annual products valued at over $37,000,000. 

The District of Columbia, in which Washii^ton is located, was established 
by Act of Congress in 1790. The administration of the affairs of the District 
of Coliunbia is in the hands of two commissioners appointed by the President 
and confirmed by the Senate, and one Army En^eer officer detailed by the 
Secretary of War. These three men constitute a board of commissioners for 
three years. This board prepares and submits estimates for the expenditures 
for each year; one-half of the necessary amount being assessed upon the Dis- 
trict, and the other h^ appropriated by Congress from the Federal funds. 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 



PHILADELPHU 

Philadelphia is one of the most importaDt cities of the Uaited States in 
commerce, industry and financial power. In 1910 its population was 1,549,008, 
and it ranked as the third city of the country. 

Philadelphia takes the lead in many important lines of domestic produc- 
tion. The largest single industry of the city is the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
which gives employment to 12,000 to 15,000 men, and turns out eight locomo- 
tives per diem. 

The city is a leader in the building of ships, the manufacture of textiles, 
carpets and rugs, leather, hosiery, knit goods, felt hats, saws, oilcloth and street- 
cars, and is important in sugar refining, petroleum refining, the production of 
machinery of all kinds, chemicals, dru^^ists' preparations, cord^e and twine. 

In Philadelphia are located 8,379 industrial establishments, employii^ 251,- 
884 people, who receive annually wages of 1126,381,000. The capital invested 
in the industries of Philadelphia is $691,397,000. The value of the industrial 
product of Philadelphia in 1909 was $746,076,000. 

Philadelphia is the headquarters of two of the most important American 
railroads, the Pennsylvania R^iroad and the Reading Rtulroad. 

There are in Philadelphia 105 national banks, trust companies and saving 
funds with a capital and surplus of $170,000,000, and deposits of nearly $600,- 
000,000. 

Philadelphia was founded in 1682 by William Penn as a Quaker colony, and 
has, in its 250 years of history, been the scene of some of the most important 
events of American history. The Declaration of Independence and the Con- 
stitution of the United States were t)oth signed at Philadelphia. The first Na- 
tional Mint and the first United States Post-Office were opened there, 

Philadelphia is an important educational center, being the seat of the Uni- 
versity of Pemisylvania, and the famous Girard Ck)llege. The Drexel Insti- 
tute, devoted to the extension and improvement of industrial education, is 
attended by more than 3,000 students. The Pennsylvania Academy of Fine 
Arts has one of the most important art collections in the United States. 

Philadelphia has an excellent park system. The city's chief recreation 
groimd is Fairmount Park, one of the largest city parks of the world, covering 
an area of 3,348 acres. The Zoological Garden in Philadelphia contains one of 
the best collections of the kind in America. 

The Philadelphia Commercial Museum was establbhed in 1S95 to dissem- 
inate knowlec^e concerning products, requirements, manners and customs of 
different parts of the world. This is the most important commercial museum 
of the United States. 



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THE SKY LINE OF PITTSBURGH 



INDEPENDENCE HALL, PHILADELPHIA 



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THE SKYSt'RAI'ERS OF LOWEH NEW YORK 



THltt:K OF THE BItlDGEri TO BRUOKLVX, NEW VOIIK 



.gle 



CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 



NEW TORK 



New York is the metropolis of America and the second city of the world. 

In population, wealth, financial importance, commerce and manufacturing it 

dominates all other American cities. It is the natural gateway to the continent. 

In 1910, according to the Federal census, the population of New York was 

4,766,883. Ite present officially estimated population is 5,173,000. 

In 1911 the assessed value for purposes of taxation of New York real and 
personal property was $8,216,763,287. 

New York is the financial center of America. Its banking operations com- 
prise not only the interests arisii^ from the immense volume of foreign and 
domestic commerce, but also the financing of the nation's railway system and a 
vast range of industrial enterprises in every part of the United States. These 
vast financial operations are carried on through 154 banks and trust companies, 
whose capital and surplus is over (581,500,000. The duly bank clearii^ in 
1911 were over $305,000,000, and for the year f^gregated about ninety-five 
and one-half billions of dollars. 

More than one-third of the exports from the United States to foreign coun- 
tries find their outlet through the port ot New York. In 1911 the total exports 
from the United States were valued at $2,049,000,000: those from the port of 
New York were valued at $772,552,000. In the same year New York's im- 
ports were of the value of $881,592,000, out of a total for the United States of 
$1,527,226,000. Fifty-eight lines of steamships engf^ed excludvely in foreigb 
trade ply r^ularly between New York and all parts of the world. In addition 
fifty-one coastwise and local steamship lines transport an immense traffic be- 
tween New York and the Atlantic and Gulf ports. In 1911, 9,719 vessels 
arrived at the port of New York. In the same year, 180,261 cabin passengers 
(alien) and 556,333 immigrants landed there. 

In the volume, value and variety of its products New York is by far the 
most uuportant manufacturing city of America. In 1909 New York had 
25,938 manufacturii^ establishments employing 680,500 persons. The capital 
invested was $1,364,353,000, and the aggregate value of products was $2,029,- 
693,000. The industries of New York are of a widely diversified character. 

The city budget for 1912 (cost of municipal government) was $181,090,256. 

The city owns and supports 511 school buildings costing $130,666,583. 
The budget allowance for conducting the public schools in 1911 was $29,007,747 
and the bond issues for schools were $12,132,287 making a total spent for the 
public schools of $41,140,034. The average ddly attendance of pupils was 
602,934. 

The public parks of New York comprise a total of 7,947 acres. The most 
important of the urban parks are Central Park in Manhattan and ProE^ct 
Park in Brooklyn. 

The Metropolitan Museum of Arts in Central Park contains the lai^^ 



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60 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS 

collection of paintings, sculpture, architectural models and archeoU^y in 
America. 

New York's transit problem is one of the most serious which any muuici- 
paUty has ever been required to solve. Three great suspension bridges and one 
of the cantilever type connect Manhattan with Brooklyn and with Queena 
Borough. Ready access between New York and New Jersey is provided by 
the Hudson Tunnels connecting lower Manhattan and the down-town shopping 
district with most of the railroads on the New Jersey side. The present sub- 
ways under Manhattan, Brooklyn and the Bronx are proving inadequate and 
huge new subways are under construction. The length of tracka^ in the 
present subways is 73 miles and their cost was $50,000,000. The length of 
trackage in the new subways under construction is 256 miles and their cost is 
estimated at $347,000,000. 

The sky line of the lower end of Manhattan with its huge skyscrapers is 
unique. The magnificent railroad stations, hotels, theaters and so forth of 
New York are world-famous. No brief description can give an adequate pic- 
ture of this constantly growing and wonderful city. 



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Ilppenbix 



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ifieUgatest to tfie yiftl) international Congress of 
Ctfonriieaf of Connnerce 



Official DeUgaU NomiTtaUd by Ooventment 
Dr. Abel Pardo, Consul Genaral to the United Statw, New Yoik, N.Y. 
Rouiio do Santa Fe — CAnmftCT- o/ Commerce 

Thomas A. Eddy, Vice-Preaidenl, Americao Trading Co. of New Yorit 
Tactnnan — BoUa rfc Com^rdo 
G. Waahington lUpelli 

AnSTRU-HimGART 
AU8TEIA 
Officiai Ddegale NominaUd hy Government 
Dr. Leonhard Ho«bdorf, Secretary to the Austrian Ministry of Commerce, 
Postgasse 10, Vienna I 
Bnum — ChanAer of Commerce and Industry 
Dr. Robert Mayer, Secretary 
Paul M. Samek 
Prague — Chamber 0} Commerce and Industry 
Dr. From Malinsky, Vice-Pr«eident 
Dr. Rudolf HotowetE, First Secretary 
Dr. Zdenko Fad, Manager of the Export 0£Bce 
Dr. Otakar Hoppe, Official 
Charles Jezek, Bluisko, Moravia 
Dr. Joh&nn Lowenatein, Official 
Dr. Jan. Matys, Deputy Secretary 
Dr. Jaroelav NovU, Official 
Gustav Steiner, Steiner Bros. 
Ing. Arthur Sykora 
Henry Waldea, Waldea & Co. 
Max Werthelmer, J. Wertheimer & Co. 
The Export Aieoeiation of Bohemia, SUeiia and Moravia 
Rafael de Sialatnay 
Rekheoberg — CAam6er ttf Commerce and Industry 

Regienmgsrat Dr. Friti Carus, First Set^vtai; 
Kurt Grohinaim, Teplitz-Schonau, Bohemia 
Paul Hielle, Hielle & Wuosche, SchOnlinde, Bohemia 
Juhufl Hille, Hille & Muller, Schdnau near Schluckenau, Bohemia 
Clemens Jaeger, SchOnbQchel near SchCnlinde, Bohemia 
Johann Elinger, Zeidler near Rumburg, Bohemia 
63 



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64 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

neona — Chamber of Commeret and Indtulry 

Josef Vmzl, Jr., EUaabethstralie 1, Vieiui& 

Dr. Max von Tayenthal, Stubenring 8, Vienna I 

Arnold Bardas, Edler von Bardenau, AuhofstraQe 12, Vienna XIII 

Ferdinand Frank], WahringerstraOe 2, Vienna IX 

Alfred Eeinnheimer, LiextatraQe 1, Vienna I 

Hans Jauner von SchroSenegg, Hotel Sacher, Vienna I 

Arthur Klein, HCrlgaaae 7, Vienna IX 

E^nst KrauBe, Vienna 

Rudolf Otto MaaBB, Wallfiaehgaase 10, Vienna I 

Dr. Gustav Roeauer, Zelinkagaaae 9, Vienna I 

Mrs. Emilio StubeuvoU, HelferetorferetraBe 4, Vienna I 
Auociatum of Colonial Produce MereharUt 

Joeef Vinsl, Jr., ElisabethstraQe 1, Vienna 
Austrian Export Sodetg 

Adolf Schwan, Firet Secretary, Schwansenbergplati 4, Vienna m 
Central Anodation of Aiatrian MerehanU 

JoBef Vinjl, Jr., EliaabetlwtraBe 1, Vienna 
Lower Awtrian AMoeiation for Ui« PTomoHon Of Handicraft 

Emat KiAuse, Vice-President 
MaMifaeturen' Attociation 

Felix Neumann, Weidertorgawe 7, Vienna I 
Merchant*' Quild 

Josef Vind, Jr., Elisabethstrafle 1, Vienna 

Participant 
Paul yon Boschen, Vienna III 
J. F. Votruba, 11 Tjlovo 1, Fntgoe 



Offieial Ddegaie Nommated bj/ Qooemmenl 
Dr. Edmund Kunoai, Asaistant Secretary, Royal Hungarian Ministry of Conunerce 



Ar«d — Chamber of Commeree and Induitty 
Dr. Louia Varjaesy, Secretary 

Budapest — National Hungarian Commvreial Auoeiittiim 
Berthold de Furrt, Viee-Preeident 
Dr. Alexander Katona, Secretary 
Dr. Paul Siende, General Secretary 
H'ongarian Nalional Asaocialion of Chemical Indvtlrj/ 
Dr. GuBtavus Bokor, Secretary 

Debrecien — Chamber of Commerce and Indutlry 
Geza Kaciiany 
Julea Salvay, Secretary 

Gror — Chamber of Commerce and Indvatry 
Dr. Henri Eallofl 
Paul Kuffler, B. Kuffler Co. 

Maurice Ssendroi, Secretary 



.Google 



CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

Kun — Chamher of Commerte and Induttry 
Leo Perfiney 
Albert Scholts, Mat«ocs 
Dr. AlscUr Sipoas, Secretary 
Andrew Juliiu Sipooe, Preeident 
Aiadir Wein, Keetmut, Dep. Ssepes 

Hagyrmimd — Oumtbtr of Commerce and Induatry 
Dr. Louis Sarkadi, Secretary 

Oilj«k-Es»k (CKMtia-StaTOilia) — Chamber of Cemmeree and IndMlTy 
CedomJl MibocinOTio-FlaTBic, Deputy 

Ssogod — Chamber of Commerce and Indutlry 
Louis Perjessy, Secreitary 
Joseph Toth, Director School of Commerce 



Official DdegaU Nominated by Oovemmenl 
P&ul Hoganaiu, Consul General to the United States, Philaddphia, Pa. 

Brtusels — Chamber of Commerce 

Adolphe Chailet, Viofr-Prasident 
Leon Chauseette 
Judge Louis lAsard 
Union dee Auoeialion* InlemaiionalM 

Urb&in J. Ledous ' 

Ghent — Cercle Commercial et Indmlriel 
Charles Christophe, Secretary 

Mons — ChatiAer of Commerce and Induttry 

Louis C&non-L^mnd, President; President Lit«mational Congreea of Chambers 

of Commerce 
&nile Jottrand, General Secretary; Secretary International Congress of Chambers 
of Commerce 

Partidpanls 
Edouard Duet, Toumai 
Marc Frison, Toumai 

Henry Lechoux, Rue de ht Ferme, 25, Brussels 
Adrien Louvois, Rue de U Feime, 2S, Y 



Cttfieiol Delegate Nominated by Government 
Adolfo Balliviin, Consul General, New York, N. Y. 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 



Official Delegaiet Nominated bjf Government 
Count Candido Mendes de Almeida, Director of the Commercial Museum, Rio de Jaoeiio 
Manuel Jacintho Feneira da Cunha, Consul General, New York, N,Y. 
Dr. Manuel da Coata Barradaa, Commercial Attach^ of Embassy, Wasliiogton, D. C. 
MantOB — Commereial Atwciaiutn 
Manuel Lobato 
Commercial Aitodation of the Amaam 

A. W. St«dman, 77 Summer St., Boston 
Rio de Janeiro — Academy of Commerce 

Count Candido Mendea de Almeida, Director Commercial Museum 
Commercial Aitoetation 

Count Candido Mendes de Almeida 
Commercial Mveeum 

Count Candido Mendes de Almeida 
Council of the Merchanle and Skip Broken 

Count Candido Mendee de Almeida 
Federation of Commercial Auociaiions of BraxU 

Count Candido Mendes de Almeida 
International Chamber of Commeree of Bnml 
Manuel Jacintho Ferreira da Cunha 
Santos — Commercial AttociaUon 

Charles W. Walker, Arbuckle & Co., New York 



(Official Delegates Nominated by Qovemment 
Horace Newton Fisher, Consul, Boston, Mass. 

Ricardo Sanchea, Consul General to the United States, New YoA, N. Y. 
Richard J. Leopold, Consul, Baltimore, Md. 
Sutiago — Sociedad de Fomento FabrU 
Horace Newton Fisher 
David Montt, Avenida de las Delicias 2310 
Tancredo Pinochet, 414 Wyoming Avenue, Scranton, Pa. 



Participant 
Georges Petitjean, Santiago 



CHINA 



Official Ddegatee Nominated hy Oovemmerd 
Dr. Chin-too Qien, M. S., Former Minister of Finance in the Nanking Qovemment 
Ching-Chun Wang, Aaaietant Director of the Peking-Mukden Railffay, Peking 
Fu Liang, Canton, Ministiy of Industiy and Commerce 
Chiao Chung Tan, Commercial Attach^ of Legation, Washington, D. C. 
Chung Wen-pang, Second Secretary of Legation, Washington, D. C. 
Hongkong — Ste Yap Commercial OvUd 
Louey Po Sang 
Yang Sai Ngom 
Yong Bang Eok 



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CHAMBEE8 OF COMMERCE 

aumglud — General Chamber of Commerce 
Joseph Reed PatterBon 

Charles R. Scott, iDtem&tional Btuiking Coip. 
John P. Seaman, Winner & Co. 
Eween £. Yang 

COLOBIBU 

Official DdegaU Nominated by Goeemment 
Dr. Don Jorge Vargas, Consul, Boston, Maaa. 

Participant 
Don Vicente Martinez R., Cartagena 



COSTA BICA 

Official DdegaUt Nominated by Govemmenl 
F. Peralta, San Joe6 
Samuel E. Pisa, San Joed 



Official Delegatet Nominated by Government 
Antonio Martin Rivero, E. E. & M. P., Waahington, D. C. 
J. T. Monahan, 1 WaU St., New Yoric, N. Y. 
Havana — Cdmara de Comercio, Induitria y Naoegad&n ds la Ida de Cuba 
J. M. Andreini, 29 West 75th St., New York, N. Y. 
CarloB Amoldeon 

DBNHABS 
Offieitd Ddegate Nominated by Ooeemmait 
V.Lund 
Copenhagen — Chamber of Commerce 
A. C nium 
CarlRubow 
HansTegner 

BCUADOR 

Official Delegates Nominated by Government 
Viomte Gonsalee, Quito, Charge d' Affaires, Waahington, D. C. 
Julio L. Roman, Consul, Boston, Mass. 
Qoito — Chamber of Commerce 
h. E. Monge, Quito 

EGYPT 

Cairo — American Chamber tif Commerce for the Levant 

Oonstantin Xippas, Mgr. Vacuum Oil Co. for Egypt and Palestine 
Int^Ttatiorud Chamber of Commerce 
Constantin Xippaa 



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68 INTERNATIONAL CONGREaS OF 

FRANCE 

AngottUme — Chamber of Commerce 

Gaston Magnier 
Umoges — ChatiAer of Commerce 

Uon Bemardaud 
HarseilleB — Syndicat dee Importatewt de Graijies OUagineutee 

Paul van Haecht, 59 rue Paradis 
Paris — Ameriam Chamber of Commerce 

Lawrence V. Benet, 19 Boulevard des Capucines 

D. Roditi, 1 rue Ambioiee-Thomaa 

Bematd J. Shoninger, President 

William J. Thomas, Assistant Manager American Eicpress Co. in Europe 
Bdgian Chamber of Commerce 

Eugbie Allard 

Canulle Hi^uenin 

Albert Wolfere, Vice-Preaiden.t 
Brilith Chamber of Commerce 

Henry F. Fletcher, Vice-Preudent 
Italian Chamber of Commerce 

Dr. Albert C. Bonaschi, 203 Broadway, New Yoric, N. Y. 

Luigi Solan, 203 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
Ntlherlandt Chamber of Commerce 

J. Pierson, J. & 0. G. Piereon 
Qttoman ChairAer of Commerce 

Michel Dumani 

Avram Farhi, Consul General, Boeton, Mass. 
Roubaiz — Chamber of Commerce 

fimile Toulemonde 



FRENCH POSaEBMONS— ALOIBES 
Oian — Chamber of Commerce 

Charles Dupuy 
PhililVevilla — Chamber of Commerce 

Charles Dupuy 

GERMANY 
Official Dtiegate Nominated by Oooemment 
Wilhelm Theodor Roacke, Imperial Consul, Boston, Mass. 
Aix-Ia-Chapelle — Chamber of Commerce 

Albert Schiflers 
Barmen — Chamber t^ Commerce 

Paul Neumann, Neunuum & BQren 
Rudolf Zienoh, Otto Budde & Co. 
Eommeniennt Ferdinand Bartela 
Beriin — Deatecker Hand^lag 

Dr. Soetbeer, General Secretary, Neue FriedrichstraQe 63-64, Berlin C. 2 
EiHnmavienrat Beinrioh Vogelsang, Ii«ckliiij^u8em, Westphalia 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

Die AUtaten der Kaufmannselutfl turn Beriin 
Prof. Dr. Max Apt, Syndic 
Georg Fnuik, Niederw&llatmBe 1314, Berlin C. 19 
Felix Heimium 
Dr. Martin Kriele 

Konunenienrat C. L. Netter, Wolf, Netter & Jacobi 
Kommenienrat Max Richt«r, Emil Ebeling 
ChartAer of Commerce 

Dr. Otto Ehleis, M. P. 
Leopold Rosenow, Rosenow & Co. 
HoftdtimmlTagmierein 

Eandelsrichter Hugo Mana, BocJcenheimer Landatrafie 45, Frankfurt a. M. 
Kommenianrat Otto Mflnstarberg, Eund^asse 109, Danaig 
Dir^tor Arthur Vrancken, Leyatapet 49, Cologne 
Verband Deutteher WareO' und Kaufhauser 

Justiirat Diialoscynski 
American Attociaiion qf Commerce and Trade 

Prof. George S. Atwood, Secretary, Friedrichstr&Ce 59-60 
Bonn — Chamber qf Commerce 

Heinrich Breuer, Euskirchen 
Bromeu — Chamber <^ Commerce 

Gottfried Koch, Postfach 472 
BfMlau — Chamber nf Commerce 

Max Schleeinger, ButtneratraBe 32-33 

- Chamber of Commerce 
EisBt Anune, Vice-President 

- Chamber «f Commerce 
Hon. Einst Stepban Clause, PUuie bei FlOfaa, Bazimy 
C^Ofne — Chamber of Commerce 
OttoBertuch 

Louia Lehmann, Hofaestr&Oe 43 
Ktbter Oewerbe Verein 

Lndwig Koerf er 
Verein der Indiulrietten del Regitnmgi Betirk 
Friti Schifinan, Euakircben 
Damlg — Vonldterami der KavfmanMehaft 

Kommeraiairat Otto MOnaterberg, Hundegaase 109 
Dnades — Chamber of Commerce 
Dr. August Karst, Syndic 

K(»nmenienrat Ewi I^nge, A. I^nge & Sons, GlaschQtte 
Richard MatteradorfF, S. MattendorS 
Bvport Verein im KOnigreieh Saehim 

E. Robert BUune 
Verband Siehtieeher Induebieller 

Dr. Gustav Stresemann, ChriEtianstraBe 1-3 
DOBMtdorf — Chamber of Commerce 
Dr. Brandt 

Hugo Meyer, SchlieSfach 77 
EHwrf «ld — Chamber of Commerce 

Eduard Gebhard. Moltkeetrafie 63 
Dr. Wiedonaun, Syndic 



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70 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Erfurt — ChatiAer of Commtree 

Edaaid KeQer-Haitmaim, ZiegenrOok (Thttiingen) 
Essen — Chamber of Commerce 

Ernst Simon, Werden-Ruhr 
Fntnkfait a. M, — Chamber of Commerce 

Georges Gottlob, Frankfurter Hof 

Dr. Levin, Stadttat 

Cari Hitter, Ritter'a P&rk Hot«l, Bad Hombuig near Frankfurt 

Fi«idrich Thorwart, Vice-President 

Dr. Hans Tnunpter, Secretary 
Vereinigwtg der Bxportfirmen 

Hugo Manee 

Gustav Mayer-Alberti, EaisetetraSe 37 

Justiirat Dr. Ludwig Hecht 
Halberstadt — Chamber of Commerce 

Dr. Josef Weller, Quedlinburg a. Han 
KUIe — Chamber of Commtree 

Alfred Hoelti, J. G. Hoelti & Sons, Naumburg a. Sa&le 

Dr. Pfahl, Syiidic 

C. W. Roediger, Hallesohe Maschinenfabiik und EisengieBerei 
Hunborg — Chamber of Commerce 

C. G«pner, Job. Diedr. Bieber 

Dr. Jur. G. Arnold EiesBelbach, Syndic 
Heldelboff — Ctember of Commeret 

Geh. Kommenienrat Friedrich Schott, President 

Heiniich Stoees, Stoees & Co. 
Hildeshaim — Chamber of Commerce 

Otto C. Ahlbom 

Eduard Peine, SchuhstraGe 

Ludwig Peine, Schuhstrafie 
Kflilsiuhe — Handelikammer fdr die Kreiee Karliruke uttd Baden 

Canulle Brenner, Hotel Stopbanie, Baden-Baden 

Friedrich Straus, Bankhause Straus & Co. 



Leipzig — Chamber of Commerce 

KonuncTBienTat Sigismund J. Tobias, Tobias & Schmidt 

Dr. jur. Wendtland, Secretary 
Lflbeck — Chamber of Commerce 

Carl F. R. ZHmpker, Dimpker & Sommer 

P. A. Mann 
Hannheim — Chamber of CoTnmerce 

Dr. Hans Clemm 

Dr. Emil Michehnann, Bens & Co. 
HSngter — Chamber of Commerce 

Kommenienrat Heioricb Vogelsang, Becklinghauwn, Westphalia 
Ifengendorf — VeiUtnd SOchnacher IndutfridUr 

Oswald Hoffinann 
Nuremberg — Chamber of Commeree 

Cart Hutielmeyer, Kkistiafle 6 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

PlAoen — Chmnbtr of Conmeree 

Walter Muomen, Fenupiecher 8 
R«K«iubiiig — Chamb«r <4 Cornneree 

August Ludwig, L. S. Ludwig 

EommenieDiat Ludwig Pugtet, Friedrich Pustet & Co. 
Sosiwbe^ — Chamber pf Commerce 

Prof. Dr. Asflchueti, Seoret«r)r 
Sono — Chamber of Commerce 

Paul Hennann, Naumbuig a. Saale 
Stofbrac — Chamber of Commerce 

Gtb. Kommenieiirat Wilhelm Hoeeoh, Ebertiard Howoh ft Sous, DOren 
Stnttgart — Chamber of Commerce 

Dr. Ernst Klien 
Trier — Chamber of Commerce 

Hugo Lower, H. Loeeor ft Co. 
WfiRbnrg — Chamber of Commerce 

Eommeraienrat Friti Ijotg, Vioe-Chairman 

FarHcipanli 
C&rl GroBB, M. Gladbach 
Adolf Hartmanii, HaimoTer 



GREAT BRITAIN AHD BRITISH POSSESSIONS 

The ddegaUe from the variou* portion* of Ihe BritUk Empire are lieled under the eeveral a 
atiluent eowUriee. The total nvmier of the iMegatee u 102 



Official Ddegale ffominaled by Ooeemmenl 
Hon. Thomas E. E^rakine, Britiah Consul General, St. Louia, Missouri 
Buiow-in-Fnmass — Chamber of Commerce 

Alfred Aslett, General Manager Fumeas Railway Co. 
Birkenhead — Chamber of Commerce 

David B. Adamson 
Bradford — Incorporated Chamber of Commerce 

John Bland 

W. W. Ryoroft, Drake HiU, Bingley, Yorkshire 

Richard C. Thyne, Moororoft, Yeadon near Leeds 

W. A. WhiWhead, J. P. 
Bradford Dyers' AieooiaHon 

Richard C. Tbyne, Moorcroft, Yeadon near Leeds 
Bristol — Incorporated Chamber of Commerce and Skipping 

G. PoUiser Martfai, Argyle House, Pembroke Road, CUfton, Bristol 
Cbeltenhun — Chamber qf Commerce 

George Dimmei', J. P. Cotteswold, Leckhampton HiD near Cheltenham 

H, St. C. Bowto-Eraiu, 20 I^nsdowne Place 



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72 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

CroTdon — Chamber of Commtree 

L. H. Turtle, President 
Derby — Chamber of Commerce 

G. A. Longden, Stanton-by-Dale, Nottingham 
Sndley — CAomber of Commerce 

F. W. Cook, J. P., Vice-President 
Halitez — IncorporaUd Chamber of Comtneree 

John Annitage Drake, J. P., Mesera. Drake, Ltd. . 
Hndderafield — IncorporaUd Chamber of Commote 

Edward J. Bruce, J. P., Crowther, Bnioe & Co., Ltd. 
Unrpool — Incorporated Chamber of Commerce 

Robert V. G. Adamson, Frank Hamilton & Co. 

James R. Barbour 

Price Jones, Marplee, Jones & Co. 
London — Briiitk Imperial Cotmcit of Cammtree 

F. Faithfull Begg, FaithfuU Begg & Co. 

Hon. J. G. Jenkins, 27 Clements Lane 

Q. FaUiser Martin, Stephens Bros. & Martin, Bristol 
ChanAer of CoTnmieree 

F. Faithfull Be«g, Bartliolomew House, E. C. 

Sir John E. Bin^tam, Bart., Walker & Hall, Sheffield 

Harold A. E. Christie, B. A., F. R. A. S., Deepdole, WoUingbam, Sun«7 

J. E. Erans^ackson 

R. S. Fraser, 4 Finsbury Circus, E. C. 

Jacob Heilbom, 17 Hotbom Viaduct, E. C. 

Hon. J. G. Jenkins, 27 CInnente Lane 

A, Barton Kent, 75 Farrington Road, E. C. 

Sir Joeeph liwrence, 188 Fleet St., E. C. 

Alfred Lohnatein, 13 London WaU, E. C. 

Dr. Rudolph Messel, Managing Director Spencer, Chapman A Messet, Ltd. 

Edward R. P. Moon 

C. D. Morton, 0. & E. Morton, Ltd. 

Graham Spicer, F. R. G- S., 19 New Bridge St. 

W. J. Thompson, 38 Mincing Lane, E. C. 

Thomas Usher, 72 St. Mary's Mansions, Paddington, W. 
WhoUaale Suaiaaer^ Auociatim 

Graham Spicer, F. R. O. S., 19 New Bridge St. 
Canadian Chamber of Commerce 

Henry F. Fletcher, Vice-President, British Chamber of Commerce in Paris, Tnnat 

Dr. Frank B. Vroomao, Authors' Club, WhitehaU Court, B. W. 
iSiDediaA Chamber <4 Commerce 

F. Heniiksson, 35 Vineyaid Road, Wimbledon, S. W. 
notdngham — Chamber of Commeree 

W. H. Blackburn 

John Boot, St. Heliers, Paik Drive 

Paul Meyer, 1 Peiham Crescent, The Park 
Reftdlog — Chamber of Commerce 

ArUiur Newbery, Friar and Queen Victoria Sts, 
Sheffield — Chamber of Commerce 

Sydney Jeasop Robinaon, William Jeesop & Sons, Ltd. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

Wakefield — IneorporaUd Chamber qf Commerce and Shipping 

A. Taylor White 
WalMll — Incorporated Chamber o} Commerce 

Alfred Dewabury, John Dewsbuiy & 8011, Ltd. 

Joseph A. Leckie, Ji^ Leckie & Co. 

Chulee C. Walker 

Sidney G. Wheway, The Shiubbeiy, Sytton Road 

IRELAND 
Cork — Incorporated Chamber of Commerce and Skipping 

Benjamin H&u^ton, J. P., Cork Timber & Iron Co., Ltd. 
Dublin — Chamber of Commerce 

Richard E. Gamble, B. L., J. P., Honoraty Secretary 
William P. Odium, J. P., Huntington, Portarlington, Ire. 

SCOTLAND 
Aberdeen — Chamber of Commerce 

Jamea C. Glegg, J. P., Glegg, Thomas, Ltd. 

Geoi^ Hutcbeaon, 47 Marischal St. 
Dundee — Chamber of Commerce 

William Mackeniie, 22 Meadowside 
Sdinbtutfi — Chamber of Commerce and Manvfaetftren 

James Cormaek, J. P., Leitb 

Young J. Pentland, Duncliffe, Murrayfield 
Letth — Chamber of Commerce 

James Cormaek, J. P. 

ADEN, ARABU 
Aden — Chamber of Commerce 

HormuBJee Cowasjee Dinahaw 

AUSTRALU 
Official DdegaU Nominated hy Qavemment 
Right Hon. Sir George Houston Reid, P, C, G. C. M. G. 
Helbonme — ChanAer of Commerce 
Randal J. Alcock 
Pied Thonemann 

BAHAMAH 

Nantn — The Bahamat Chamber of Commerce 
R. H. Curry 
T. a. Johnson 
Hon. J. F. W. Turtle, Vice-Chaimuui 



BERMUDA 
Chamber of Commerce 
John P. Hand 
Eugene C. Peaiman 
Sir Thomas J. Wadoon 



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74 INTEENATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

BRITISH EAST AFRICA 
Nairobi — Chamber a/S (7omm«rea 
Percy Chapliii 

CAKADA 
HonctMi — Board of Trade 

W. H. Price, Secretary 
Hootreal — Board o/ Trade 

Col. Jeffrey E. Burlutd, 2 Pkce d'Armes Square 
Chambre de Commerce 

C. H. Catelli 

Joseph Fortier 

Arthur Lemoat 
New Wttstminster — Board (^ Trad« 

Jamea B. Eenmedy 
Ottswa — Board of Trade 

J. Fred Booth 

George S. May, Preadent 

Thomaa Woriauan, 301 Wellmgton St. 
Qnebec — Board of Trade 

G. A. Vandry, Es-Preeident 
Toronto — Board of Trade 

W. J. Gsg«, Ez-Preeident 

W. G. MacKendrick 

INDIA 
Calcutta — Bengtd Chamber of Commerce 

Hon. Norman McLeod, McLeod & Co. 
Delhi — Punjab Chamber of Commtree 

Lionel Collins, A. Frausstadt, Amritaar, Funjid) 

Participant 
Dr. Shiv Nath Kapoor, 107 Bunder Road, Karachi City, East India 



JAMAICA 
KingBton — Royal Jamaica Sodely of AgrieuUure and Commerce & Merehantt' Exchange 
Reginald Melhado 

NEW ZEALAND 
Auckland — Cftam6er of Commerce 

Col. G. W. 8. Patterwn 
Christchurch — Canlerhttrs/ Chamber of Commerce 

Gilbert Anderson, 6 Holbom Viaduct, London, England 

Albert Eaye, Kaye & Carter 
Donedin — Chamber of Commerce 

Alexander Stronach Paterson 
Inreicargil] — Chamber of Commerce 

Alexander Stronach Paterson, Dunedin 
Kapln — Chambw <4 Commerce 

V. J. Ryan, C. H. Crauby A Co. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

Wragsinii — ChatiA«r ef Comment 

LeoDArd E. Baaeett 

Alfred Burnett 

Allan RobinaoD 
Wcfllncton — Chamber of Commerce 

Albert Kaye, Kaye & Carter, Cbriatclumb 

AlexandeT Stronach Fat«rBon, Dunedin 

SOUTH AFRICA 
Cape Town — South African Mam^aetttrerg' Auoeiatum 
William J. Laite, General Secretary 



Port of Spain — Chamber of 
T. Geddee Grant 
miliam8<»tt 



Athens — Amttiam Chamber tf Commerce for the Levant 
Bemhard MellisBinoe, Athens 



GUATEMALA 

Official DeUgatea Nominated by Qooemment 
A. C. Garcia, Consul, Boston, Maes. 
William A. Mosman, Vice-Consul, Boston, Mass. 



Oficial Dekgale Nominated bj/ Oovemm*nt 
Dr. Don Alberto M«nbreno, B. E. & M. P. of Honduras, Washington, D. 0. 



TTALT 
Official Ddegatet Nominaitd by Qofemmeat 
S. E. Qnnd TTfE. Marchese Gerolomo Cusani Confalonieri 
Hon. Gustayo di Rosa, Royal Consul, Boston, Mass, 
Ing. Grand Uff. Angelo Sahnoiraghi, Fieaident Milan Chunbw of Conuneroe 

- Chamber ttf Commerce and Induttry 
Aleaaandro Drtfwdetti, via Botola 20 
Bergamo — Chamber <tf Commerce 

Luip LooateUi, Piassa Cayour 3 
Catania, Slcflf — Chamber <tf Commerce 
TJgoDonateUi 
Anguato Morosoli 
CatMlsaiO — Chamber of Commerce 

Baira Ant<mio De Gruia, via Venti Settembre 11 



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76 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

Florence — ChanAer of Commerce and Indtulry 

Dante Antoliui, 45 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
I.ecco — Chamber of Commerce 

Cav. Giorgio Enrico Falck, via Monte Napoleone 7 

Giuseppe Sola 
Lncca — Chamber of Commerce and Indiufry 

Luigi Solari, 203 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
Hilan — Chamber of Commerce 

Carlo Paini, viale Romsna 23 

Senator Ing. Angelo Stdmoiraghi, Preeident 

Cav. Aw. Edmondo Valdiseira, General Secretary 
AjrioultuTai Auodation of Lombardy 

Carlo Paini, viale Romana 23 
Aieociatione fra Commercianti, Etereenti ed InduttriaU 

Maroo Boghen, via Tortona 15 

Giuseppe Carletti, viale Monforte 4 

Cav. Giorpo Enrico Fsick, via Monte Napoleone 7, Leeca 

Conun. Giuseppe Janni 

Cav. Cesare Ponti, Fortici Settentrionali 15 

Francesco Foneoni, via Brolo 2 

Dr. AvT. Enrico Rajnoldi, Corso Venecia 61 

Cav. Pietro Vallardi, via Moaoova 40 
Astoeianone fra Commercianti ed Induttnali in Pdiieeerie 

Emilio Poui, corso Magenta 80 
Ateoeiaziane Grwutria 

Carlo Paini, viale Romana 23 
areola per gli Iniereeti AgriaJi, Commercbdi ed IndMtriali 

Ceaare Goldmann, via Stefano Jacini 6 
Contortio fra gli Induelriali meccanici e metalhirgiei 

Riccardo Radaelli, via Vittoria Colonna, N. 2 
Pederanone Commereiale e IrtduitriaU lUUiana 

Marco B<«lien, via Tortona 15 
Federatione Internaxionale Cotoniera 

Aw. Roberto Poiii, via Monte di Pietft 11 



— Chamber of Commerce 

Cav. Rag. Feimo Comi, Fieaident 

Dr. Guido Comi 

Magg, Cav. Giulio Fomiig^ni-Nacniani, via Scalie 3 

Dr. Emilio Malateeta, via S. Giovanni del Cantone 4 

Dr. Joseph Satotti 

Dr. Ferruocio Testi, Rua Muio 20 
UoBza — Federatione InduttriaU 

Dr. Tullio FoBsati 
Ifa^es — American Chamber qf Commerce in Ilaljf 

Robert C. Arbib, Tripoli, Nortt Africa 
Padua — Chamber c^ Commerce 

Dr. Gino do Benedetti, via 8. Sofia 41 
Some — Chan&et of Commerce and Indwtry 

Gulienetti Guido 
Sota — SotietA Anonima Banehiero 

Ing. Giovanni Groaao 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMEBCE! 

— AuociatioM QmeroU Mtrcenti, eommereianH ed indwlriali 
Hennann Leidhcniser, via Breiw 6, Milan 
Giuaeppe Magnino, Cuorgne 
Cav. Eugenio Oderio, via S. Anaelmo 4 
Cav. UfT. Paolo TimosBi, President, coreo Massimo d'Aseglio 76 

Partia'panU 
Ambrogio Bniaotti, via Vittoria 40, Milan 
Comm. Luigi Buffoli, ootso S. Celao 6, Milan 
Emanuele Celania 

Cav. Aw. Ceeara Dalmaui, via PoU^uo 840 
Franco Fachini, Milan 

Prof. Stefano Fachini, Director Scuola Induatiia Olii e Graesi, Milan 
Dr. Adolfo Giro, Padua 
Dr. Giuseppe E. Hen, via ManEoni 3S, Milan 
Eroole Maidli, casella poetale 1254, Milan 
lag. Roberto Naef, via Senato 28, Milan 
OtUvio Negri, Biella 
Quintino Negri, Biella 

Grand Uff. Ptoi. Luigi Pagliani, via Bidone 37 
Paolo Puricelli, via Carlo Cattaneo 1, Milan 
Cav. E^meato Reinach, via Lario 90, Milan 
Luigi Scandioglio, via Foro Bonaparte 60, Milan 
Giuseppe Squindo, via Montecuccoli 9 
Ing. Giulio Tosi, L^nano 
Ing. Mario Vicatj, corso Vittorio Emanuele 63 



JAPAM 
Official DdegaUt NowintOtd by Government 
Y. Numano, Acting Conaul General, New Yoric, N. Y, 
Shinkichi Tamura, Vice-President of the Kobe Chamber of Commnoe 
Kobe — Chamber <^ Commerce 

Shinkichi Tamura, Vice-Preaident 
Tokio — Chamber of Commerte 

Reitaro Ichinomiya, 56 Wall St., New Yoric, K. Y. 
Yokohama — Chamber <4 Commeree 

Iwao Nishi, 5 Itchome Taukiji, Eiobashi-ku, Tokio 



HBXICO 

Official Ddegatee Nominaied by OoMmmeKl 
J. Acevedo, Consul, Boston, Mass. 
Don Enrique Martine* Sobral, Mexico Citjt, Mexico 
DcHsingo Valdes Llano, Hidalgo No. 121, Monteirey, N. L. 
Honnotdlo — Chamber of Commerce 

Adolfo Ruii 
Vora Crux — National Chamber iff Commerce 
J, Acevedo, Consul, Boaton, Mass. 



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78 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

HXTHERLARDS 
Offiaal DeUgaie Nominated by Ooeemment 
A. T&n de S&nde Bakhuyien, Consul Qeneial, New York, N. Y. 
Amsterdam — Chamber of Comtntrce and Indutlry 

M. E. Yonker, H. Yonker A Son 
Rotterdam — Chamber oS Commerce and Indutlry 

W. Weetermon, Boomjee 78 
nibnrg — Chamber of Commerce and Indvetry 
Leon Bruydle, H. Bruyelle 
Jules de Beer, President 
P. W. Maas, Paleisstraat lS-20 

NORWAT 

Official DelegaieB Ifominated by Oovemment 
Dr. Albert Bolcbea, Christiania 
Christiaa B. Lorentxen, Chrietiania 
K. Oppegaard, Chiiatiania Bryggeri, Chriatiania 
Johan 8t«en, Steen & Strom, Chriatiania 
B«rgen — La Bowee de Bergen 

Kriatian Jebaen, Managing Director Bergen's Private Bank 
Kriatian Lehmkuhl, Managing Director Bergen B. B. Co. 
Johan Ludw. Mowinckel 
Christiania — Den Nonke Exporlnaritigere Land^orbund 
Dr. Albert Balchoi, Secretai; 
Christian B. Lorentsen 
Den Nor^te F<^iefforeninfi for Saandverk IndwlH 

E. Oppegaard, Christiania Bryggeri 
Den Noreke Handeieeianda FaOe^orening 

Johan Rjre Holmboe, Preeideut Tiomaa Handelaatands, Tromaa 
Christian B. Lorentzen 
Johan Steen, Steen & Strom 
Chamber of Commerce 
Cath, Bang 

Johan Steen, Steen & Strom 
HandeltHande Forening 

Johan Steen, Steen A Strom 

PANAUA 

OfficUd DeUgale Nominated by Qovermnent 

Ramon Ariaft-Feraud, Central Ave., Panama, R. P. 

FarticiparA 
Erie Barixam, Eric Baiiiam & Co., Panama 



Official Ddegate Nominated by Ooeemment 
Miisa Ali'Euli Khan, Charge d'Afiaires, Washington, 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMEBCE 



PSRU 



Official Delegate ffominaled bj/ Government 
Manuel de Frejrre y Saatander, First Becrettuy of the Legation, Washington, D. C. 

Callao — Chaiaber of Commeree 

Federico A. Peiet, E. E. & M. P., Waahington, D. C. 
Unu — Chamber cf Commerce 

Federico A. Peset, E. E. & M. P., Waahington, D. C 
Stock Exchange 

Federico A. Peiet, E. E. & M. P., Washington, D. C. 
Finn — Chamber iff Commerce 

Pedro V. Rubio 



Official Ddegalea Nomiitated by Qoeemment 
Oscar Potier, Consu] General, New Yoric, N. Y. 
Jorge da Silveira Duarte de Almeida, Cmuul, Boston, Maes. 

BiTaa — ComToerdal and Imhutrial AModaHon 

Jaointbo Lopee 
Lisbon — AgricuUural, Commercial and Indueltial Union 

Jorge da Silveira Duarte de Almeida, Consul, Boston, Maae. 

William Q. Andrew 

Paul Gttutier du Vignal 
Centra Cdcnial 

Manoel P. M. d'Ahneida 

CharlM K. Seipa 
Commercial Aeeociaiion 

Dr. Manoel Garcia Monteiro, Cambridge, Mass. 
Geographical Society 

Dr. Joaquim Leit«, Jr. 
SHtith Chamber of Commerce <4 Portugal 

John Cassels, Villa Xova de Gajra and Oporto, Lisbon 

Participant 
Henrique Joed Montiero de Mendenoa, R. Marquee de FTont«ira 20, Lisbon 

PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS— AZ0EB8 
PonU Delgado, SXo Hignel — Cimi Dietrict 
Edgardo Garcia 
Cornmerdtd AuociatUm 
Edgardo Garcia 

ROUMAHU 



Bochuttst — American Chamber of Commerce for the Leoard 
Leon P. Abramovitx, Galea Mosilor 80 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 



RUSSU 



Baku, TranscaocaBla, Asistic Riutia — Chamber of Commerce 

M. I. Dassell, 8t«ppuhn Bros., BaJcu 
St. Petersburg — Rwto-Bnliak Chamber of Commerce 

Chorlee G. PstterBon, Patt«S8on, Wylde Co., Boflton, Mass. 
Tarsaw — AKOciaUon of Poliah Merchantt 
George Loth 

Participant 
A. J. FomilyBiit, St. Peterabu^ 

SPAIN 
Official Ddegaltt NominaUd b]/ Government 
Don Carlofl Prast, Madrid 

Don M&nuel Walls y Merino, First Secretary of L^ation and Chaq;^ 
d' Affaires, WashingtOD, D. C. 
Barcelona — Chamber qf Commerce 

Don Eduardo Agusti, Morq. Montroig 33 
Don Carlos Prast, Madrid 
Fomenio del Trabajo Nadonal 

Don Eduardo Agusti, Marq. Montroig 33 
Gerona — Offi/cial Chamber of Commerce, Induttry and Nanffolion 
Don Eduardo Agusti, Marq. Montroig 33, Barcelona 
Don Carlos Frast, Madrid 
Madrid — Official Chamber cf Commerce of the Province 

Don Eduardo Agu^ Marq. Montroig 33, Barcelona 
Don Carlos Prast 
Official Chamber of Induetry of the Prarinee 
Don Carloa Praat 



VaOadolid — Offiidal Chamber of Commerce and Induttry 

Don Carlos Prast, Madrid 
Saiagosaa — Offieial Chamber qf Commerce and Indxutry 
Don Carlos Praat, Madrid 

Pofttctpani 
Salvador Dies, Jr., Jerei de la Frontcni 



SWm>EN 

Official Delegates Nominated hy Government 
Olof Hjorth, Director Sandviken Ironworks Co., Ltd., Sandviken, Sweden 
Birger C. A. Roaentwiat, Royal Vic»0>D8ut, Boston, Mass. 
Gsfie — ChatiAer of Commerce 

Olof Hjorth, Sandviken 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

StocUiolm — Gentral Export AaaodaHon of Sv>edtn ' 
John Hammar, Managing Director 
Bengt Ljungbeis^, Secretary 
Chamber of Commerce 

Joeef Sachs, Aktidralaget Nordisks Compaoiet 

Participant* 
T. GrSnwall, Aktiebolaget Nordiaka Companiet, Btockhohn 
Tom Lindb^, Oen. Mgr. FideUty Trading Co., New York, N. Y. 



SWirZERLAND 
Official DeUgaUt Naminaled by Govemmeni 
Dr. Alfred Georg, Viee-Preeident Chamber of Commerce, Genera 
Henri Martin, Secretaty of Legation, Washington, D. C. 
I — Chamber of Commerte 
Dr. Alfred Geoift Vice-President 
John L. Gignoux 

Dr. William Rappard, Professor of Political Economy, Harvard Vniveraity, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 
ni» Union <4 Commeree and Indjuiry 
Dr. Alfred Georg, Vice-President, Chamber of Commerce, Genera 
Louis Junod, Vice-Consul, New York, N. Y. 



TDUCBY 

ConitenHnopIc — HdJenie Chamiba- qf Commeree 

AuKUSt« Th. Sinadmo, 53 State St., Boet<m, Mass. 
AirMrteon Chamber of Commerce for the Levant 

C. D. Constantinidis, Fulias & Co. 

Jules A. Fresco 

CariHobteui 

Albert R. MacEuaiok, Boston, Msss. 

E. H. Mill, Strong & Trowbridge Co. 

W. C. Mountain, Stock & Mountain 

Hon. Gabriel Bie Ramdal, American Consul General, Constantinople 

Theo. Reppen 
Tnbiiond, Asia Hinof 

C. Candilis 

O. Maholdan 

Isaiah Monteeanto, American Consul, Trebiiond 

John G. Fhostiropoulo 
Smyrna 

James W. WfUdnson 

The other delegatei of the American Chamber of Commeree for the Levant who a 
urtder their retpeetwe cmmtrie*, are aifoUowi: 
Constantia Xippas, Cairo, Egypt 
Bemh&rd Mellissinos, Athens, Greece 
Leon P. Abramoriti, Bucharest, Roumania 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 



UniBD STATES OF AHBRICA 
Official Dtiegaiet NoTtHnaled by Gtwmmtnt 

AJbratUB H. Baldwin, Bureau of Manufactures, Waahington, D. G. 

William M. Bunke, The Bcighton, Waahington, D. C. 

Chariefl Lyon Chandler, American Consular Aesiatant, Washington, D. C. 

Charlee Lee Cook, Department of State, Washington, D. C. 

J(^ A. Craddock, I^ndibur^ Va. 

John Foord, New York Journal of Commeroe, New York, N. Y. 

Frank D. La Lanoe, Board of Trade, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Charles P. NeiU, Bureau of Labor, Washington, D. C. 

Charles M. Pepper, Foreign Trade Adviser, Department of State, Washington, T>. C. 

Jamee W. Porch, Presidaat New Orieans Progceeeive Union, New Orleans, Ia. 

Hon. Gabriel Bie Ravndal, American Consul General, Constantinople, Turkey 

Hon. Thomas Sammons, American Consul General, Yokohama, Japan 

Hanj A. Wheeler, Preadent, Chamber of Commerce of the United States, 7 So. 
Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 
Bureau c/ Manviaebura, Wathmffion, D. C. 

Balph M. Odell, Department of Commerce and Labor, WaahingbMi, D. C. 
Chamber of Commerce of the United SUxlee of America 

John Joj* Eldson, Director 

A. B. Farquhar, York, Fa. 

Ludwig NiBsen, New Yoric, N. Y. 

William B. Thompson, New Orleans, La. 

August H. Vogel, Milwaukee, Wis. 
American Manvfacturert' ETport Aeeociaiion 

Elmer H. Allen, Shirley, Mass. 

John W. Anderson, Detroit, Mich. 

M. de Moreira, 112 Duane St., New York, N. Y. 

H. L. Gemberling, The Sherwin-Williams Co., NewaA, N. J. 

Edward A. Keith, Campello, Mass. 

W. E. Leigh 

William C. Redfield, President 
Nalionai AstociaHon qf Mamffaetwera 

WiUiam M. Benney, Manager Foreign Trade Dept., New Yoik, N. Y. 

J. P. Bird, General Manager, New York, N. Y. 

George T. Coppins, Vice-President for Massachusetts, Boston, Mass. 

St«ven de Cseemak 

Jrfm Kirby, Jr., President, New York, N. Y. 

H. £. Miles, Racine SaUley Co., Racme, Wis. 

Col. George Pope, Pope Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn. 
NaUonai Board of Tradt 

Caleb H. Canby, 8 Board of Trade, Chicago, Dl. 

Hon. miliam H. Douglas, New Yoik, N. Y. 

SYank D. La Lann^ Philadelphia, Pa. 
AToMomil BvtineM League of America 

Frauds T. Simmons, Chicago, HI. 

Benjamin J. Rosenthal, Chicago, Dl. 
Akron, Ohio — ChanAer of Commerce 

Vinctttt S. St«Tens, Secretary 

8. F. Ziliox, President 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

Albuj, II, T. — Chamber ef Commertx 

Fnmk C. Herrick, 610 Broadw&j' 

J&mes H. PeAins, National Commerci&l Bank 

Baltimore, Ud. — Board of Trade 

H. Findlay French, Secretary 

W. H. Maltbie, PKsident IVavelers' and MochantB' Asaociation 

F. A. Meyer, Vice-Presideiit 

Theodore Mottu 

Bancor, Maine — Maine State Board i4 Trade 

Edward M. Blanding, Seoretaij, Bangor 

Hon. Fredraie E. BooUiby, President, Portland, Me. 

Timothy F. Callahan, Treasurer, Lewiaton, Me. 

Bay City, Hlch. — Board of Commeree 
Justin A. Runyan, Secretary 

Bfandai^um, Ala. — Chatniber qf Commerce 
S. M. Adler 
JohnL. Eaul 
J. W. Sibley 
Leo K. Steiner 

Boston, Mass. — Chamber <^ Commerce 

Hon. Eugene N. Foes, Goremor of Massachueetts 

Hon. John F. Fit^^erald, Mayor of Boetoo 

Ebner J. BUsa, 268 Summer St. 

Robert J. Bottomly, Barristers' Hall 

William E. Butler, Second Vice-Preudent, BO Tremont St. 

Samuel B. Capen, Preddent Maaaachuaetts Peaoe Society 

J. Randolph CooUdge, Jr., First Vice-President, 89 SUte St. 

William C. Downs, New York, N. Y. 

John H. Fahey, 1111 Tranont Building 

Edward A. Filene, 426 Waahingtoo St. 

Edwin Ginn, 29 Beacon St. 

Charles S. Haight, New YoA, N. Y. 

W. M. H^B, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

James A. McKibben, Secretary 

Edwin D. Mead, 40 Mt. Vemon St. 

Bernard J. RMhwell, 608 Chamber of Commerce Building 

Joseph B. RusseU, President, 114 State St. 

Hon. Charles H. SherriU, 20 East 05th St., New York, N. Y. 

George S. &nith, SO Congress St. 

Jamea J. Storrow, 44 State St. 

F. W. Taussig; Professor Harvard Unirersity, Cambridge, Mass. 

James T. WetbenJd, 221 Cohmiboa Ave. 

Robert Winaoi, 115 Dertmahire St. 

Frait and Produce Exchange 

Alton E. Brigga, Exeeuttve Seorertaiy 

AUied P. Lee, Preaident 

Jean 8. Newoomb, Vioe-Pnsident 



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84 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

MattaekuaeUt State Board of Trade 

AugiutuB M. Bearae, FootDuster, Middleboro, Mase. 

J. C. Bennett, 1S6 Commercial St., West Lynn, Mass. 

Judge Loyed E. Cluunberiam, 143 Hi^iland St., Brockton, Ma». 

Walstein R. Chester, Treasiirer 

John H. Corcoran, 587 MaaeachuBetta Ave., Cambridge, Maae. 

Theodore Glover Fillette, 6 BeMon St. 

Reddington Fiake, Needham, Mass. 

Richard L, Gay, Secretary, 6 Beacon St. 

John Hopewell, 87 Franklin St. 

James Y. Noy«a, Dedbam, Masa. 

Edtnrd S. Payson, 395 Boylaton St. 

Charles H. Stevens, Arlington, Man. 

I. H. WUey, 77 Portland St., Boston, Masa. 
Nob England Hardware Dealen' Atioeiation 

D. Fletcher Barber, 124 Summer St. 

F. Alexander Chandler, 30 Federal St. 

Henry M. Sanden, Z7 Eliot St. 
Ntw Enifiand Shot and Leather Auodation 

Elisha W. Cobb, 78 South St. 

Charles C. Hoyt, President, 56 Lincoln St. 
Aeal Ettate Exdumge and Avetion Board 

Hon. Charles Francis Adams, 2d, President 

Frederic H. Viaujt, Secretary-Treasurer 

LeaUe C. Wead, 35 Congress St. 
Slationen' Aetodation 

Frank W. Bailey, 64 FranUin St. 

Abner E. Pratt, 13 Franklin St. 

Oeorge C. Whittemore, 105 State St. 
Bnflalo, N. T. — Chamber <tf Commerce 

William E. Robertson, 37 Court St. 

Maurice M. Wall 
Chicago, HI. — Aeeoeiaium ^ Commerce 

Joseph H. De Frees 

Frederick A. Delano, Preaident Waboafa R. R. 

W. R. Humphrey 

Hairy Pratt Judson, LL.D., President Chicago Univeraity 

Frank R. McMuUen 

IdVeme W. Noyee, President Aermotor Co. 

Oeorge W. Sheldon, President G. W. Sheldon Co. 

Frands T. Simmons, President Francis T. Simmons Co. 

John F. Stnulski 

T. Edward Wdder, President Wilder 4 Co., 228 Wert L*ke St. 
.Board o/ Trade 

0. H. Canby, 8 Board of Trade 

Robert McDougal 

Chariee B. Pierce 
lUinm* Manirfaelwert' Ateoeiation 

George P. Blow, Western Qock Manufacturing Co., Ia Salle, BI. 

LaVeme W. Noyes, President Aermotor Co., Chicago, HI. 

John E. Wilder, Wilder & Co., 228 West Lake St., Chicago, HL 



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CHAMBEES OF COMMERCE 



Clmdimati, Ohio — BtinncM Mtn'f Clvb 

MariuB R. Ribas 
Chamber of Commerce 

lAEard TC fth^i 

Marius R. Riboe 
aerttUnd, Ohio — Chamber of Commerce 

Morria A. Black, Director 

Walter H. Cottingham 

Harvey D. Goulder 

Munson Havens, Secretary 

Francis F. Prentiss 



Dayton, Ohio — Chamber of Commerce 

Fred W. Fanaher, Secretaiy 

0. N. Lingham, Manager Foreign Dept. National Cash Register Co. 
Decatar, ID. — Chamber of Commerce 

J. A. Corbett, Preudent 

Edgai B. Tyler 
DflBver, Colo. — Chamber qf Commerce 

Tbomdike Deland, Secretory 

Charles A. Johnson, 1020 15th St. 

E. L. Scholts, Preaident Retail Aaaociatioa, Chamber of CtHomerce 

Robert W. Speer 

Edward J. Tetter, President 
Detrc^ Midi. — Board of Commerce 

John W. Andemm 

George M. Block 

Roy D. Ch^in 

S. D. Waldoo 

C. Hainea Wilson 
Bunks, Calif. — Hu7nb<Mt Chamber of Commerce 

Capt. Walter Coggeehall 
Fall Rlrer, Haas. — Chamber of Commerce 

John Summerfield Brayton 

Fred^ek J. McLane, Vice-President 

James T. Mihie 
FftcUrnrK, Haas. — Board of Trade & Merchariie' Aaeodation 

Marcus A. Coolidge, Vioe-Preeident 

Herbert E. Jennison, Jennison Co. 

Ralph D. Redfem, Industrial Secretaiy 
Fort Worth, Texas — Chamber of Commerce 

Col. Louis J. Wortham, Editor Fort Worth "Star Telegram" 
Framingham, Hats. — Board <4 Trade 

Gtotga L, Ayery, President 

Harold B. Hayden 

Edgar Potter, Secretary 
0«nova, N. T. — Chamber <4 Commerce 

Sidney H. Lewis, Secretary 



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INTEHNATIONAL CONGBESS OP 



HKTOriiill, Hub. — itoori of Tnule 

William W. Emerson, Ptesidoit 
John E. M^^uite 
Austin H. Peny 

Holy^e, Mass. — Board t^ Trade 
W. H. Bullard, Preddent 
Morton HuU, Secretaij 
F. A. McLane, Vice-Preddent 



Indlatutpolia, Ind. — Commeraal Clvb 

William Fortune 

Frank McAllister, President 
Ealamaioo, Mich. — Commercial Clvb 

Louie H. Conger 
KaiUM Oty, Ho. — Commercial Clvb 

Charles 1. Hubbard, Boston, Mass. 

K07 Wort, FU. — Chamber qf Commerce 
Charles J. Curry, Secretary 

Elnciton, H. Y. — Cbamiber of Commerce 
Sam Bernstein, Treasurer 
Herbert Cart, Director 
William F. Hoehn, Secretary 
Robert E. Leighton 

Los Angeles, CaUf. — Chamber <4 Commerce 
H. Z. Osborne, Preudent 

LonlBviUe, Z-j. — Board <4 Trade 

Charlea T. Ballard, Ballard A Ballard U 
James F. Buokner, Jr., Superintendent 

Low«ll, Hms. — BoatA of Trade 

Arthur L. Gray, Hildreth Building 
George M. Harrigan, Lowell Trust Co. 
Claroioe H. Nelson 

Lynn, Mass. — Board of Trade 

Ralph S. Bauer, 31 Central Square 

Halden, Haas. — Board of Trade 
Frank A. Bayrd 
Cbaries Schumaker, Preudent 

MUwankM, Wise. — Chamber nf Commerce 
3. W. P. Lwnbard 
Josef Mueller 



Nemik, N. J. — Board ttf Trade 

Denis F. O'Brien, A. P. Smith Mfg. Co., East Orange, N. J. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

H«w Bodford, H«M. — Board <ff Trad* 

Benjamin H. Astbon; 

George E. Briggs 

Abbott P. Smith 
New Haven, Conn. — Chamber of Commerce 

Robert W. Tbain, 30 Beaufort Road, Jamaica Plain, Maae. 
New Londtm, Ctnm. — SlaU Bunna* Men'» Attodaiion t^f Connediait, Inc. 

E. M. Dexter, Hartford, Conn. 

Frank H. Johniton, New Britain, Conn. 

B. E. ^^cent, Bridgeport, Conn. 
R«W Orieans, In. — Progreaaitu Union 

James W. Porch, President 
M. B. Tresevant, Secretary 
New Tork, N. T. — Board qf Trade and Trantportation 

C. A. Green, R. G. Dun & Co. 
Chamber qf Commeree <^ the State qf New York 

Austin B. Fletcher, 166 Broadway 

George E. Ide, 256 Broadway 

Eugeotius H. Outerbridge, 11 Broadway 
Merchant^ AuodaHon 

William 0. Breed, Director 

WiUiam A. Marble, First Vice-Preadent 

S. C. Mead, Secretary 

Henry R. Towne, President 
Produce Exchange 

£. R. Carhart 

William Harris Douglas 
Italian Chamber of Commerce in New York 

C. A. Mariani, Preddent The E. Mariani Co. 

Charies A. Pastene, Director, 69 Fulton St., Boston, Mass. 

Luigi Solari, President 
ifetherlandi Chamber qf Commerce in America 

Louis I. Dubourcq, President U. S. Branch " Nederiand Life Insurance Co." 

T. Greidanus, Secretary 

Peter C. Kuyper, P. C. Kuyper & Co. 
Swedish ChanAer t^ Commerce 

Hans LagerlOf 

Noidi Attieboro, Mass. — Board <4 Trade 

TTiUiam H. BeU, Precddent 
Passaic, If . J. — NeiB Jtney State Chamber qf Commerce 

Ferdinand ^dokes, Camden, N. J. 

Phlladel^ila, Pa. — Board qf Trade 
Frank D. La Lanne 

William R. Tucker, Secretary Philadelphia Board of Trade 
Chamber c^ Commerce 

Charles J. Cohen, Vice-Presidoit 
John G. Croxton 
WiUiam 0. Hempstead 
N. B. Edly, Seinetary 



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88 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Commerdol Mvtewn 

William S. Harvey, Premdent, 100 Broadway, New Yorit, N. Y. 
Wilfred H. SohoS, Secretary 
W. P. Wilson, Director 

Via* BInff, AA. — Chamber qf Commerce 
Samuel C. Alexander 
H. C. Spaulding, Secretary 

Plttrimr^ Pa. — Chambtr of Cananefct 
Albert J. Logan 
Logan McKee, Secretary 

Poidud, Ua. — Board of Trade 
Silas B.Adamfl 
Charles F. Flsgg, President 
Hon. Chariee F. Libby 
Frank H. Low, Second Vice-Preaident 
Maurice C. Rich, Secretary 

Pn>?ldence, R. I. — fioord qf Trade 
J. Palmer BuBtow 
Frederick D. Carr 

James R. MacColl, Pawtucket, R. I. 
Mawjjaeturing Jeiedenf Board of Trade 
Frederick A. Ballou 
Frederick D. Carr, Preddent 
Harold E. Sweet, R. F. Simmons Co., Attteboro, Mass. 

Rome, R. T. — ChanAer i^ Commerce 
Alphonse 1. Sigl, Secretary 

Ridunond, Va. — Chamher qf Commwee 
R. A. Dunlop 

St. Louis, Ho. — Batinae Men'e Leofve 
Hon. David R. Francis 
Geo^e David Markham 
Merehanlt' ExeKange 
3. J. P. Langton 

St. Paul, Hinn. — Aetodalion tff Commeree 
Joseph H. Seek 

W. L. Seeley 

San Antonio, Texas — Chamber of Commeree 
Jamee Routledge 

San Francisco, Calif. — Chamber of Commerce 

William M. Bunker, The Brighton, Washington, D. C. 

Paul T. CarroU, Director, 708 Maiket St. 

T. Cary Friedlander 

R. E. Miller, 611 Mission St. 

Somernlle, Hau. — Board of Trade 

George E. Day, 101 Highland Ave. ' 
Albert L. Haskell, 424 Somerrille Ave. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

Spriagfletd, Hum. — Board qf Trade 
Chorlee P. Chase, Presidatt 
WillJiim H. Shuart 
Emmett £[»y Naylor, Secretai? 

SfncnM, N. T. — Chamber of Commerce 
Henry W. Cook 
B. E. StOubui? 

Tnj, N. T. — Chamber of Commerce 
James H. Caldwell 
miliam F. Gurley 

WalUiun, Hau. — Board of Trade 
Geoige A. Fiel, 53 High St. 
G«orge E. Parmenter 
H. E. Tuttle, Secntaiy 

WasUnKton, D. C. — Chamber ^ Commerce 

Edwin C. R«ed, 27d Squaotum St., Atlantic, MaoB. 
Ptut-Amerieatt Union 

Hon. John Barrett, Direetor-Qeneral 
Julian Moreno-Lacalle 

W«at«rir, K. I. — Board ttf Trade 
Cliffoid W. CampbeU 
Samuel H. Davis 

Worcester, Haas. — Board of Trade 
FredH. Daniela 
Charles T. Tatman 
Edward M. Woodward, President 



PoesxssioNS or thx UNmiD Statbs of Aubica 

HAWAU 
Honcdtdv — Chamber of Commerce 

William G. Cooke, 82 Wall St., New Yo^ N. Y. 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 
HanOa — Merchant4f ABMiiatitm 

M. L. Stewart, 26 Broad St., New YoA. N. Y. 



OJictal Ddegate Nominated by Govemmeni 
Dr. Coiioe Maria de Peoa, E. E. & M. P., Washington, D. G. 
Hont«vld«o — Camara MercantU de Prodnetoa del Paie 

Max Otto TOD Elock, District Consul, Boston, Maae. 



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INTEaNATIONAL CONGRESS 



Official DdtgaU Nominated by Qovtmment 
Pedro Rafael Rinoones, Coiuu] Qtmetei, New Yoric, N. Y. 
Cuucas — Chamber of Commerce 

CorneUo Stolk, Jr., 97 Water St., New York, N.Y. 



,yGoog[c 



permanent Committee 



to, HUB DE LA TSIBUirS BRDSSSLS, BELOnTU 

Ifames and Addresses cS fbe Members of the Pemutnent Committee 
(August 25, 1912) 

AnsTRIA 

Db. Max ton Tatenthal, Firat Secretaiy of the Chamber of Gammerce and Iiulustrjr of 
Viennft, Government Counsellor, Imperial and Royal Commercial Counsellor, Vienna 

His ExcXLLXNCT Count Ecnri Clam-Mabtinic, Personal Counsellor of His Ma|«sty, mem- 
ber of tiie Chamber of Commerce of Prague 

Dr. Fktt% Cabus, Pint Secretuy of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Keiohenbeig; 
GoTemment Counsellor 
AUemaUt: 

Dr. Fbudbich Masxb, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Innsbruck 

Abthub Kvmxji, Vioe-Preaident of the Central Association of Auatrian Manufacturers, 
Vienna 

Db. Haito CsnnACXEK, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Eger 



BBLGIUH 

Louis Camon-Lbgband, Construction Engineer, President of the Federation of Commercial 

and Industrial Aaeociations of Belgium, President of the Provincial Council of Hainaut, 

Mods 
Lovis Strauss, Economist, President of the Superior Council of Industry and Commerce, 

Honorary Consul of Belgium, 127, rue Lamoriniire, Antirerp 
Enofan Allabd, President of the Belgian Chamber of Commerce of Paris, 42, rue Le 

Peletier, Paris 

AUemaUi: 
E. VAN Elkwtck, Preradent of the Chamber of Commerce of Brussels 
Paul Gubtin, Becretary of the Chamber <A Commerce of Antwerp 
Joseph Soubkx, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce of Verriets, 64, rue du Palais, 

Verviera 

BiaOAKU 

M. ZiiATABorF, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce of Sofia, 

AUemaU: 
M. KABAROTAMorr, Vioe-Preaident of the Chamber of Commerce of Sofia 
91 



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92 INTEBNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

FRARCE 

Charles Leqr&nd, President of the Chamber of Commerce of Paris, 42, rue de Cleij, 

Paris II« 
Chasijb Bobbkboeuf, Preaideiit of Uie Oliamber of Commerce of Toun 
Denis Bodden, Comisellor for Foreign Commerce, Second Vice-Presidait of the Fk«ich 

Chamber of Commerce of Brueoels, 82, Boulevard du Hainaut, Brussels 

AUemalet: 
A. HiRVET, PreeideDt of the Chamber of Commerce of Boui^es 
M. Bbnoft, President of the French Chamber of Commerce of London 
U. DuBZH, Member of the Chamber of Commnoe of Lille 



OEBHAHT 

J. Ahsbbab, Gehumer Kommenienrat, President of the Chamb^ of Commeree, 69, New 

MainserstraHe, FrankfortK)n-the-Maiii 
Dr, Joh. Kaeiut, President of the Gennan Reichstag, Fieeident of "Der Deutsche Haadels- 

tag," President of "Die Xltesten der Kaufmannschaft vtoi Beilin," 8, Hohensollers- 

straOe, Beriin, W. 10 
Orro MtlNSTERBiua, Kommeniennit, Member of the "Vorsteheiamt der Kaufmanpaobaft," 

AlUmakx: 
Dr. LouiB RavenA, Geheimer Kommemenrat, Vioe-Presid^t of the Chamber of Commerce 

10, MargaretenstraBe, Beriin, W. 10 
HxttMAMM RoBiNow, Chamber of Commerce, Hamburg 
Dr. Soktbeer, General Secretary of "Der Deutsche Handelatag," 53-54 Neue Friedrieb- 

straCe, Beriin, C. 2 

GREAT BRITAIN AHD mELAHD 

Chaslxs Charixton, Vice-President of the Chamber of Commerce of London, 4, East CkvKp, 

London, E. C. 
Frank Dxbenhau, Former Treasurer of the Chamber of Commerce of Lcmdon, FiUjohns 

Avenue, London, N. W. 
LiwiB R. S. TouALiH, Fonner Vice-I^esident of the Council of the Chamber of Commerce of 

London, S5, Milton Street, London, E. C. 

Atiernatet: 
Arthur Skrbna, Treasurer of the Chamber of Commerce of London, 34, Leadenhall Street, 

London, E. C. 
W. J. Thompson, Member of the Cotmcil of the Chamber of Commerce of London, 38, Mino- 

ing Lane, London, E. C. 
Kbnric B. Mubbat, Fonner Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce of London, Oxford 

Court, London, E. C. 

HUnOART 

LADISI.AB FOrbt nE Maboth, Vice-President of the "Magyar Eeieskedelmi Csamok," Sas 
Utcza, 20-22, Budapest V 

Da. EuQEN ScHBETER, Secretary of the "Magyar Keieakedelmi Ceamok," Per«iel Mor 
Utcta, Budapest V 

EuoEN Lokacb, Member of the Union of Hungarian Merchants, £6tvds Utcia, 38, Buda- 
pest IV 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 



ITALY 



Ino. Gb. Uff. Anqelo SAuioiRAaHi, President of the Umon of Chambeis of Commerce of 

Italy, President of the Ch&mber of Commerce of Milan 
Couu. Fiuppo BiNELu, Preaident of the Chamber of Commerce, Carrara 

Alltmaitt: 
Coui. Giovanni La Fabina, President of the Chancer of Commerce of Palermo, Vice- 

President of the Union of Chtunbere of Commerce of Ittdy, Palermo 
Coui. AW. FxBDiNANDO BoccA, pTwideat of Uie Chamber of Commerce of Turin 

LUZEHBOURG 

Joseph WTrnTH-WniusB, Director of the International Bank, Member of the Chamber cd 

Commerce of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Luxembouig 
GusTATX DE Mabu, Merchant, Member of the Chamber of Commerce, EttelbrQok 
J.-F. Seteniq, Profeesor of Commerce, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, Luxembourg 

BXTHSRLARBS 

G. N. DE SroPFxiiAAB, President of the Netheriands Chamber of Commerce of Brussels, 48, 
chauaste de Chaiieroi, Brusaels 

Db. W. RooaEaAASDB-BisscHOP, Banister at Law, Honorary Secretary of the Nethedands 
Chamber of Commerce of London, Paper BuSding, 3 Temple, London, E. C. 

G.-S. DE CusRCQ, General Secretary of the "Maatschappij van Nijverheid" of the Nether- 
lands, Haailem 

NOKWAT 

Au. Bjebcke, Merchant, President of the Union of Commercial Associations of Norw^, 

Christiuiia 
Knud Brtn, Director Tidemansgate, 4, Christiania 
Rbidar Tyut, General Seoretary of the Union of Commercial Associations of Norway, Borsen, 

Christiania 

AUemaUi: 
AmtLT Oeicn, Merchant, Trondhjem 
O. EfiiCBBEN, Manufacturer, Deputy, Trondhjem 

RUSSU 

EuAHUXL Nobel, Vioe-FTeeident of the Association of Industry and Commerce of Russia, 

46, lit^^ny. Saint Petersburg 

AlUrtuiU: 
M. Ktmm Asamsxi, Member of the Association of Industry and Commmve of Russia 

^AIN 

Babtholoh^ Akenguaii, Secretary of the Official Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Navi- 
gation, Barcelona 

Edi7abi>o Esteut t Toeebs, Delegato of the Chamber of Commerce of Madrid 

Fbhdebico RAHOL.A, Member of the "Fomento del trabajo naoional," 642, Calle de Ccotee, 
Barcelona 
AltmiaU: 

Enbique Mabti GabcIa, General Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce of Madrid 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 



Db. Fbbdbik Gbonw&ll, Bank Director, Stockholm C 

Db. Jacob Ekham, Secrataiy of the Chamber of Commerce, MahnO 



swrrzERL&mD 

Db. Ed. Suueb-Ziegixb, National Counsellor, Winterthur 
A. CcGEUiAHM, Nfttional Counsellor, Langental 
Db. a. Gboro, Former National Counsellor, Geneva 

Db. Alfbxd Fbxt, Nadonal Counsellor, Zurich 
H. Jbzlzb-Lobenz, Bale 
JxnxB Vautub, Grandson 

UmXED STATES OF AMERICA 

Fbank D. La Lannh, Freeident of the National Board of Trade, 214 Gheetnut Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Edwabd a. Fiuenii, Chamber of Commerce, Boeton, Moss. 

T. EnwABU WiLDEB, Chicago Association of Commerce, Chicago, III. 
AUtmatet: 

WiujAu McCabboll, Public Service Commissioner, New York 

XJ. J. Ledouz, Chamber of Commerce Boston, Mass. 

CoL. J. J. StnuVAD, Chamber of Commerce, Cleveland, Ohio 

Oeneial Secretur 
fiuLB JoTTBAKD, Mons, Bdgium 



ISTames and Addresses of Members of the Pennauent Committee 
Chosen at the Fifth Congress 

BELGIUH 

Louis Canoh-Lxobakd, Construction Engineer, Former President of the Federation of Com- 
mercial and Industrial Associations of Belgium, President of the Provincial Council of 
Hainaut, Mons 

Loms Btraubb, Economist, President of the Superior Council of Industry and Commerce, 
Honorary Consul of Belgium, 127, rue Lamotiniere, Antwerp 

EuokNB Allabd, President of tiie Belgian Chamber of Conuneroe of Paris, 42, rue Le Pde- 
tier, Paris 
AUematea: 

Joseph Sotbbb, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce of Verviers, 64, rue du Palais, Ver- 
viers 

Alfbbd Vandbb Steobn, Manufaoturer, Presdent of the Belgian Federation of Builders, 
and of the Commercial and Industrial Club of Ghent 

J. B. PuTTABBT, Del^t&te of the Chamber of Commeroe of Brussels, Merchant, 66, rue du 
Harche aux Charbons, Brussels 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 



Db. Candido bb Mendbb di Almeida, Director of the Commercial Museum, Delegate of 
the Fedn^tioD of Commercifd AasociatiouB of Braiil, Rio de Janeiro 

Dr. Alfonso Bandziba vs Mxllo, Secretary of the Belgian-Brasilian Chamber of Com- 
merce, Antwerp 

Db. Dzlfhin Carlos, Director of the Bureau of Information of Braiil, Legation of Brazil, 
Pane 



FRANCE 

Datii>-Menvxt, Freeident of the Chamber of Commerce of Paris, 2, place de la Bouise, 

Paris 
Chables Bobsxbobttt, PreBident of the Chamber of Commerce of Tours 
Demis BaDDBN, Counsellor !ixt Foreign Commerce, Second Vice-Preeident of the French 

Chamber of Commnce of Brussels, 82, boulevard du Hainaut, Bruasds 



OBRHANT 

J. Amdbzax, Geh^mer Eommonenrat, President of the Chamber of Commerce, 69, Neue 

MaiueistraQe, Frankfort-on-the-Main 
Db. Joh. Kabupt, President of the German Reichstag, President of "Der Deutsche Han- 

delstag," President of "Die Xlteeten der Kaufmannscfaaft von Berlin," 8, Hoh^uollem- 

stiaBe, Beriin, W. 10 
Otto MuNsrsitBiiKa, Eommenienrat, Member of the "Votsteheramt der Kaufmannscfaaft," 

H. Enii. BoHLSM, Chamber of Commerce, Hambutg 

Db. Louis Ravenb, Geheimer Kommeniettrat, Vice-President of the Chamber of Commerce, 

10, MargaretenstraSe, Beiiin, W. 10 
Db. Soxtbeeb, General Secretary of "Der Deulscher Handelstag," S3-54 Nme Fr^dricb- 

stiaBe, Beriin, C. 2 



obeat bbitain and iselahd 

Chabiab Chablbtom, Vice-President of the Chamber of Commerce of London, 4, East 

Cheap, London, E. C. 
F. Faitbtdll Bbqo, President of the Council of the Chamber of Commerce of London, 

Bartholomew House, London, E. C. 
A. Baston Ebht, Member of the Council of the Chamber of Commerce of London, 7S, Fai^ 

rington Rd., London, E. C. ' 

Alterrtatet: 
W. J. Thompson, Member of the Council of the Chamber of Commerce of London, 38, Minc- 
ing Lane, London, E. C. 
EbMbic B. Mdrkat, Former Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce of London, Cromer 

Hyde, Central Road, Morden, Surrey 
Graham Spicbb, Member of the Chamber of Commerce of London, 19, New Bridge Street, 

London, E. C. 



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96 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

HTTITGART 

Jules Seavay, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce of Debrecsen 

LoDis Vabjasbt, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Ar«d 

Db. Paul SzKtmE, Secretary of the National Association of Hungarian Merdiants, Bud&peet 

AUemaUt: 
Maurice Sexndboi, Secretary of the Chamber of Commeroe and Industry of Gyor 
Db. Louib Sabkadi, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Nagyvarad 
Db. AiiASAB SiFOBB, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Kassa 



Ino. Gb. Vww. Angslo SAUiontAOHi, President of the Union of Cbamben of Ccmunwce ut 

Italy, President of the Chamber of Commeroe of Milan 
CouM. ATT. Pbboinando Bocca, President of the Chamber of Commerce of Turin 

NETHERLANDS 



Db. W. RoosEQAABna-BiBacHOP, Barrister at Law, Honorary Secretary of the Netheriands 
Chamber of Cconmerce of London, Paper Building, 3, Temple, LondoD, E. C. 

G. S. DE Clkboq, General Secretary of the "Maatechappij Tan NiJTetbeid" of the NeUia- 
lands, Haarlem 
Aliernale: 

M. E. Yonebb, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Amsterdam 

HORWAT 

Au. Bjikczb, Merchant, Piesident of the Union of Commercial Assodations of Norway, 

Ghiistiania 
Knus Bbtn, Director, Tidemansgate, i, Christiania 
Rbidah Dun, General Secretary of the Union of Commercial Associations of Norway, Borseo, 

Christiania 

AUerrtaiet: 
JoROBH Bluit, CominisSLoner of the Bourse, Bergen 
O. Ebichben, Manufacturer and Deputy, Trondbjem 

SPAIN 

Baxtbolohii AmiNauAi., Secretary of the Official Chamber of Commerce, Industry and 

NayigatioQ, Barcelona 
Cablos Pbabt, President of the Chamber of Commerce of Madrid 

Alternate: 
Ehbique Mabti Gabcia, General Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce of Madrid 



Db. Fbbsbik Gbonwaix, Bank Director, Stockholm. 

Db. Jacob Ekman, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, MalmO 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 



SWITZERLAnZ) 



Dr. a. Gdobg, Vioe-Preadeiit of the Chamber of Commeroe of Geneva 
Abmold Gugelmann, National Counsellor, LaDgeotal 

AUemata: 
Db. Auxrd Fbxt, National Counsellor, Zurich 
H. JEZ1.EB-L0BSNE, Bale 
JoiAS Vadtieb, Grandson 

UniTED STATES OP AMERICA 

Edwabd A. FiuiNX, Chamber of Commerce, 453 Washington Street, Boston, Maaa. 

Besmabd J. Sbomihgbb, Premdent of the Am^ican Chamber of Conunerce of Paris, 3, rue 
Scribe, Paiia 

Habbt a. WBaBLEB, President of the Chamber of Conunerce of the United States of America, 
6235 Lenngton Avenue, Chicago, HI. 
AUemaUt: 

JoEM H. Fahxt, Boston Chamber of Commerce, 12 littell Road, Brookline, Maaa. 

Gkobob 8. Atwood, Secretary of the American Association of Commerce and Trade, Equi- 
table Building, Friedrichstrafie, 59-60, Berlin 

Gbobok W. Shbldon, Association of Commerce, Chicago 

Oeneral Secretaiy 
£milz JoTTRAHii, Mons, 



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„Google 



0flitsxi anb iSmerican Cammitttti 



Presideat 
Louis CANON-LxaBAND 
Preaidenl of the Parmatunt CommitUt of Iht Intemalumdl Congreu. Ftt»idmt of the Federa- 
tion <4 Ok Commercial and Induttrial Auodaiione of Bdgiwn. PreeideiU of 
the Chamber of Commerce of If o)u 
Vlce-Prsaident 
EIdwabd a. Filbnx 
V<o»-Prutdsn( of ih& Permanent CommiOee of the InUmaHonal Congreei. 
Member of Ibe Botton Chamber of Commerce 
Goaontl Sacretuy 

£uiUI JOTTBAKD 

Secretary t^ Ibe Chamber ttf Commerce of Mont. Secretary of the Federation of the Commercial 

and Indtietriai Aeeodatione of Belgium. Director of the Commerdal Inatitute of the 

Manvfadwert of Hainaul 

jBortoti Cx ttwHt i t Cttiunttttt 

Gbobob S. SifiTH, Chftinnaa 

Preeident Botton Chamber i4 Commerce, 1911 

WnjJAif H. Bain 

Diredor Bodon Chamber t^ Commerce 

f^.tnn J, Buss 

Chairman General Organiting CommiHee 

WnjJAif E. Butler 

Second Viee-Preeident Boilon Chamber of Commerce 

J. R&NDOLPB COOUDOE, Jb. 

First Vice-Pretidenl Botton Chamber of Commerce 

John H. Fahkt 

Chairman CommiHee on Tour 

Edwabd a. FnjCNa 

Yiee-Pretident International Con^p-eea iff Chamhere erf Commerce 

Jaukb a. McEibbsn 

Secretary Soeton Chamber of Commerce 

BXBMAXD J. BOTBWILL 

Chairman Committee on Entertainment. Preeident Botton Chamber qf Commerce, 1910 

JOBBPH B. RCSBKLIi 

Preeident Botton Chamber of Commeree, 1912 

Jakes J. Btobbow 

Chairmon Botton Honorary Committee. Pretidenl Boaton Chamber t^ Commeree, 1909 

F. W. Tadbsio 

Chairman Committee on Program 

Jahxs T. Wbthbraui 
Chairman Committee on PtMidty 

ROBEBT WiNBOB' 

Chairman Committee on Finance 
RoBBBT J. BoiTOMLY, Secretary 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 



ISmtvitm f^omtatp Committee 

ProBldaiit 
Hon. Willuh H. Tait, Preeident of the United States of America 

Vice-Pnaldants 
Hon. FHII.AKDES C. Knox, Secretary of State for the United States of America 
Hon. Charlks Nagel, Secretary of Commerce and Labor for the United States of America 
Hon. Shelbt M. Cuixou, Chairman Committee 4m Foreign Relations of the Senate of the 

United Statafl of America 
Hon. WHiLUh Suiaeb, Chairman Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Represen- 
tatives of the United Stetee of America 

Hon. Crebtxr H. Aldkich, Governor of Nebraska 

Hon. Nblbon W. Auibich, Chairman National Monetary Commission 

Hib Ezckllehct Viscount nn Aurs, E. E. ft M. P. of Portugal 

John D. Aschbou>, Standard Oil G<«npany 

His Exceli^mct SsftoB don Ricasdo Abus, E. E. & M. P. of Panama 

J. OoDEN AsMOCB, Aimour & Company 

F. R. Babcocx, President Pittabui^ Chamber of Commerce 

Qbobgb F. Baker, Preeident First National Bank, New York City 

Hia ExCBUiENCT Geobqb Bakhmetefp, Ambassador of Rusna 

Hon. SomoN E. Baldwin, Governor of Coimecticut 

WnuAif M. Bau>win, President New York Tanning Extract Company 

Williau B&bbouk, President linen Thread Company 

Hon. John Babrbtt, Director-General Pan'American Union 

Williau M. Bakreit, Presidmt Adams Express Company 

Hon. Robert P. Bass, Governor of New Hampshire 

Edward T. Bedford, Com Products Company 

AoooBT Bkuiont, August Belmont A Company 

H. H. Benbdict, President Remington Typewriter Co. 

His Excellbnct ShUob I>b. Don RAit6N Bemooechba, Charge d'AfTairee, Guatemala 

Hib Excellenct Count J. H. von Bernstortf, Ambassadcn- of Germany 

Wai/ixr p. Bishop, Preeident Milwaukee Chamber of Commerce 

W. K. Bixbt, Ci^italist St. Louis, Missouri 

Hon. Colh L. Blbase, Governor of South CarolinA 

Hon. Earl Brbweb, Governor of Mississippi 

Hon. Julius L. Brown, Governor of Georgia 

WiLUUi C. Brown, Preddent New York Central Lines 

His Excbllehct the Riqht Hon. Jambs Brtcb, O. M., Ambassador of Great Britain 

His Excbllhnct H. H. Brth, E. E. ft M. P. of Norway 

Alonzo N. Burbanx, Preeidait International Pi^Mr Co. 

Hon. John Burke, Goremoc of North Dakota 

Cubtis R. Burnett, Preeident Newark Board of Trade 

Nicholas Murrat Bctler, President American Society for International Conciliatioii 

Hib Excellbnct L. L. Caftanzoolu, LL.D., Charg6 d' Affaires, Greece 



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CHAMBERS OF COMM^ItC^.; : V '.: -■''.:-: :JIXil 

HiB ExcBLLEMCT ScftoB DoM loNACiO CaldebAm, E. E. & M. p. of Bolivia 

TItb Excxllbnct SbSob Don Mamoil Calsbo, Ambamador of Mexico 

Hm EzcaUiENCT SsflOB Don JoaqdIn Bxrnabdo Cai.vo, E. E. & M. P. of Coeta Rica 

Hon. Joseph M. Cuan, Governor of Wyoming 

E. R. CABHAin', President New Yoric Produce Eschangs 

Andbew Cabuzgoi, Capitalist 

T. M. Cabbinoton, President Richmond Chamber of Commerce 

Hon. Bebtii F. Cabboll, Governor of Iowa 

Hu EzcELLKNCY SALVADOR Gastbillo, Jb., E. E. ft M. P. of Nicaragua 

John Clatlin, President Quunber of Commerce of the State of New York 

Hon. Walter E. Clark, Governor of Alaska 

Chables a. CoFnN, Premdent General Electric Co. 

Hon. 0. B. CongTrrrr, Governor of Texas 

Sakubi. B. Gout, President United States Rubber Co. 

Hon. Gbobor R. Colton, Governor of Porto Rioo 

His Excellency the Mabqirb Ccbani Contalonieri, Ambaasador of Italy 

Gborqe B. Cobteltotj, President New Yoric Consolidated Gas Co. 

His GzcEUiENCT Db. Faubto Davila, £. E. ft M. P. of Honduiaa 

WiLLEAU A. Dat, President Equitable Life Assurance Society 

Hon. Charus S. Dbneen, Governor <A lUiaois 

Hon. John A. Dix, Governor of New York 

Hon. GsoBaB W. Donaohet, Qovemor of Ariunsas 

Wauteb a. Drapes, President Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce 

HonBToH DosLEr, President Nashville Board of Trade 

Hon. Adolph O. Ebbrhabt, Governor of MinneBota 

Thomas A. Edison, Inventor 

His Excellenct W. A. F. EKENaRXN, E. E. ft M. P. <rf Sweden 

HOWABD Eluott, President Northern Pacific B. R. Co. 

Jakes C. Faboo, President American Express Co. 

Hon. EnoENB N. Foes, Governor of Mossaehunette 

Hon. Geobob Eulas Fobteb, Minister of Trade and Commeroe, Domkiian of Canada 

Hon. W. F. Fbeab, Governor of Hawaii 

His Exceluhct Semhob Doiaao da Gama, Ambassador of Braril 

Glbebt H. Gabt, Ghainnan United States Steel Co. 

His Excellenct SeRor Don Juan Rulto t Gatakoob, E. E. ft M. P. of Spain 

W. E. Gibson, President Oakland Chamber of Commerce 

Hon. Albebt W. Gilchbibt, Governor of Florida 

Hon. William E. Gi.abscocx, Governor of West Virginia 

Hon. Phillips L. GoLneBORODQB, Governor of Maryland 

Hon. Lee Gruce, Governor of Oklahoma 

Hon. Hebbebt S. Hadlet, Governor of Missouri 

HoM. John Hats Hammond, Mining Engineer 

Hon. Jddson Harmon, Governor of Ohio 

His Excellenct E. Havekits, E. E. ft M. P. of Belgium 

Hon. Jambs H. Hawlet, Governor of Idaho 

Hon. Marion £. Hat, Governor of Washington 

His Excellbnct Bason HENaEuit}LLEB von HenoervIb, Ambassador of Austria-Hungary 

A. Babtoh Hepbitbn, President Chase National Bank, New York City 

C. W. HoBSON, President Dallas Chamber of C(anmerce 

Hon. Ben W. Hooper, Governor of Tennessee 

Mabvin HuaHiTT, Preddent Chicago ft Northwestern R. R. Co. 

A. B. Johnson, I^nsident Baldwin Locomotive Works 

Bon. Hiram W. Johnson, Governor of Calif vmia 



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10iJ.:i--'l;-;'-.' fUXI^BNATlONAL CONGRESS OP 

HoHBB H. JoENsoM, Preeideiit Cleveland Chamber of Commene 

HiB ExcELLXNCT J. J. JiiBSKRAKD, AmbasBador of Fieaee 

MiNOB C. Keith, Tice-Freadent Cuited E^t Co. 

HiB ExcEUANCT MntZA Au Ecu Khan, Charge d' Affaires of Penift 

EuoEMB V. EniBABK, Preddent Chicago Aasooiation of Commerce 

D. P. KiNQBLET, Preeident New York Life Inaur&noe Co. 

Hon. WiLUAii W. Kttchtn, QoTcmor of North Carolina 

His Ezceushct Jonkhebb J. Loui>on, E. K A; M. P. of The Nethedftitds 

RoBEBT S. LoTETT, President Union Pacific R. R. Co. 

J. D. LowiCAH, President Seattle Chamber of Commerce 

His Excsllbnct SeRob Don Rooebto Macdouall, First Secretai; of Legation and Chais6 

d' Affaires of Colombia 
Clabbncb H. Mackat, Preeident Postal Telegraph Co., New Yoric CSt; 
SiB WiuiAjf Macuinzh, Capitalist, Toronto, Canada 
Hon. Wiujau H. Mann, Governor of Virginia 
Hon. Thohas R. Mabshall, Governor of Indiana 
Waijw H. Marsha 1,1., President American Locomotive Co. 
Ctbdb H. McCobkick, President International Huvester Company 
Jaues McCbxa, President Pennaylvania R. R. Co. 
Hon. Jakes Bennett McCbxabz, Governor of Kentucky 
Hon. WnxiAU C. McDoNALn, GovenuM- of New Mexico 
Hon. John Asneb Mead, Governor of Vermont 

HiB Excellency SeRob Don Fedebico MejIa, E. E. & M. P. of Salvador 
Charles S. Mellen, Preaident New Yorit, New Haven A Hartford R, R. Co. 
His Excellekct Solon Menob, E. E. A M. P. of Haiti 
WiUfEB L. MooBE, President Atlanta Chamber of Commerce 
VicroB MoBAWETZ, Lawyer and writer on International Law 
J. PiEBPONT MoBOAN, J. P. Morgan it Co. 
J. PiEBPONT MoBOAN, Au, J. P. Moigan it Co. 
His Excxllenct RAvulo S. NaAh, E. E. & M. P. of Argentina 
Thouas Neal, Premdent General Motors Co. 
Hon. Edwin L. Nobbis, Governor of Montana 
Hon. Tabkxb L. Oddie, Governor of Nevada 
Hon. Emmet O'Neal, Governor of Alabama 
Hon. Chase S. Obsobn, Governor of Michigan 
H. Z. OsBOBNE, President Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce 
Jameb F. Otsteb, President Washington Chamber of Commerce 
Wiu-iAU Babclat Pabsons, Barclay Parsons ft Clapp 
John H. Patterson, Preeident National Cash Register Co. 
Chabias A. Peabodt, Preeident Mutual Life Insurance Co. 
His Kxcellenct Db. Cablos MAsfA nE Pbna, E. E. ft M. P. of Uruga&y 
Hon. Simeon S. Penmbwill, Governor of Delaware 
OBOBan W. Pebeins, Capitalist, New York, N. Y. 
His Excellenct SeAob Db. Don Fbancisco J. Pstnaao, E. E. A M. P. <rf tite E 

Republic 
Hia Excbllenct SxRob Don F. A. Pezet, E. E. ft M. P. of Peru 
J. W. PoBCH, President New Orleans Progreesive Union 
Hon. Abau J. Pothieb, Governor of Rhode Island 
His Exceuxkct Db. Patjl RnTBR, E. E. ft M. P. of Switteriand 
M. H. Bobbins, Jb., President San Francisco Chamber of Commerce 
John D. Rockxpeluib, Capitalist 

HiB Ezcbujncy SbRob Don P. Ezequiel Rojas, E. E. ft M. P. of Venetuela 
Hon. Jabed Y. Sandxbs, Governor of Louisiana 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

Jacob H. Scbut, Eulm, Loeb Co. 

Chajblbs M. Schwab, President Bethlehem Bteel Co. 

Hon, Johh F. Shafeoth, Governor of Colorado 

Sib Tbohab G. Shaitobnbbbt, Premdeat Canadian Pacific Railway Company 

jAMxa SPKnR, Speyer A Co. 

Hon. Wiluam Sfbt, Governor of Utah 

E. J. Stackfole, HarriBburg Board of Trade 

Allison Stockeb, Preaident Denver Chamber of Commerce 

MEI.VILI.B E. Stoms, Pietddent Associated Preee 

Hon. Wal/tkh R. Btubbs, Govemor of Kansas 

Hie EXCI1LI.ENCT SbNor Don Edcakdo Suasez, M., E. E. A M. P. of Chile 

Louis F. Swift, Swift A; Co. 

Thomas C. Tubirlaks, Prendest Louisville Commercial Club 

Hbmbt R. Towmb, PresideDt New York Merchants' Association 

Fbank a. Vansxblip, President National City Bank, New Yoric City 

Hon. Robsbt S. Vebset, Governor ti South Dakota 

Humr Waiavbs, Chaiiman Atlantic Coast line 

Pam. M. Wasboxo, Euhn, Loeb Co. 

Hon. Houxr Wakrzn, President Detroit Board of Commerce 

RoLLA Wells, Prenident St. Louis Business Men's League 

Hon. Oswald Wmt, Govemor of Oregon 

Gboboh WEmNOHonsii, Inventor and Manufacturer 

Hon. Woodbow Whson, Govemor of New Jeisey 

Obson E. Yeaobb, President Buffalo Chau^r of Commerce 



BOSTON COMMITTEES 

BOSTOH HONOSART COmOTTBB 

Jaues J. BroBBOw, Chairman; Lee, Higgioson A Co. 

GoBDON Abbott, Old Colony Trust Co. 

Edwin F. Atkimb, E. Atkins A Co. 

Hon. Robbbt Bacon, Overseer Harvaid University 

HooH Bancboit, Chairman Directors of the Port of Boston 

Hon. John L. Bates, Former Govemor of Massachusetts 

Adiobal Fbancib T. Bowi-bs, Fore River Ship Building Co. 

Robbbt S. BBAnurr, American Agricultural Chemical Co. 

TuoTHr E. Btbnbb, Vice-Preodest New York, New Haven A Hartfoid R. R. Co. 

Bahubl B. Cafsn, Trustee 

Chableb p. Chase, Preeident SpiingGeld Board of Trade 

John C. Cobb, Tnist«e 

Hon. T. Jbvtxbson Coolidoe, Capitalist 

Hon. W. Mdbbat Cbanb, United States Senator 

Hon. Edwin U. Cubtis, Collector of the Port of Boston 

8ia. Q. Di Rose, Royal Consul of Italy 

Hon. Wiluah L. Douglas, W. L. Douglas Shoe Co. 

JoBGB DA SiLVBBiA Dttabtb d'Almbida, CoBBul of Portugal 

Chableb L. Edoab, President The Edison Electric Illuminatmg Co. 

Samuel J. Eu>eb, Elder, Whitman, and Bamum 

Abthos F. E&tabboob, Estabrodc A Co. 

Edwabd a. FnxNE, Wm. Filene's Sons Co. 



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104 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Frederick P. Fibh, Fi^, Richardson, Henick & Neftve 

Hon. John F. FmoERAiD, Mayor of Boston 

Easii H. FrrzHVQE, Vice-President Grand Trunk R7. Co. 

Thouab B. FnxPATRiCK, Brown Durrell Co. 

Charus F. Fi.Aaa, Piesideiit Portland Board of Trade 

J, C. JoBSPH FliAiuND, Consul of France 

Hon. EuOEirD N. Foes, Governor of Massaehumtte 

Hon. WtujAii A. Gadton, President National Bhftwmut Bank 

Edwin Oinm, Ginn & Co. 

John C. Gkat, Ropes, Gray 4 Gorbam 

Edwin F. Greens, Pacific Mills 

E. A. Gbozibb, Post Publishing Co. 

Hon. Cubtib Guild, Ambassador to Russia 

Hon. Chabuib S. Hamun, Lawyer 

Henrt L. Bioqinson, Lee, Higginsoti ft Co. 

Chabues C. Hott, Famsworth, Hoyt ft Co, 

JsBOMB JoNKa, Jones, McDuffee ft Stratton Co. 

Gbbn D. Jordan, Jordan Marsh Co. 

Geobos E. Kxith, George E. Keith Co. 

Roland O. Lamb, President John Hancock Life Insurance Co. 

Gardinxb M. Lane, Lee, Higginson ft Co. 

Fhzdbbick p. Lxat, British Consul 

I^STER Lxland, United States Rubber Co. 

Hon. Henrt Cabot Lodge, United States Senator 

Hon. Jauss Logan, United States Envelope Co. 

Hon. John D. Long, Former Secretary of Navy. Former Goyemor of Massachusetts 

AoansTCB P. Lobino, Lorii^, Coolidge & Noble 

A. Lawbence Lowell, President Harvard Univereitj' 

Hon. Robert Luce, Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts 

RiCBABD C. Maclaitrin, President Massachusetts Institute of Teohnolc^y 

Samuel P. Mandell, C. F. Hovey ft Co. 

J. Fbanklin McElwain, W. H. McElwfun Co. 

Hon. Georob von L. Meter, Secretary of the Navy 

Laurence Minot, Trustee 

Jahbb J. Phslan, Homblower ft Weeks 

Wallace L. Piebce, S. S. Pierce Co. 

Andrew W. Frebton, President United Fruit Co. 

WiLUAM Theodore Reincee, Imperial German Consul 

Jaues L. Richards, President Boston Consolidated Gas 

Bernard J. Rothwell, Bay State Milling Co. 

Joseph B. Russell, President Boston Chamber of Cocnmeroe 

A. Shuhan, a. Shuman ft Co. 

Ellbwobth Sisson, Psesident Providence Board of Trade 

Chables a. Stone, Stone ft Webster 

Lncnjs Tdttle, Former President Boston ft Maine R. R. 

I. M. Uluian, Presidrait New Haven Chamber of Commerce 

Theodore N. Vail, President American Telephone ft Telegrs^th Co. 

Cranmorb N, Wall&ce, Ludlow Manufacturing Associates 

Frank G, Wbbsteb, Kidder, Peabody ft Co. 

Hon. John W. Weeks, Homblower ft Weeks 

WiLUAU Whithan, William Whitman ft Co. 

Moses Williaus, Trustee 

Daniel G. Wing, Presidoit First National Bank 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

RoBEKT WiNBOR, Kidder, Peabody A Co. 
WiLUAii M. Wood, President American Woolen Co. 
E. M. WooDWABD, President Worcester Board of Trade 
SroNET W. Winslow, United Shoe Machinery Co. 



OIHnuL OSOAHIZnvQ COHHITTBB 
P!i.inm J. BusB, Chairman 
Chableb Fbancib Adaub, 2d 
Chablkb H. Adams 

M. W. Aibxandbb Fhedsrick O. 

J. J. AraKKLTAN WlliLIAH MufOT 

William H. Bain Herbert W. Mobes 

Georoe S. Baldwik Huoh Nawn 

Wai/ter S. Bucklih J. Henrt Neal 

AuGUBTue S. Cobb Patrick A. O'Connbll 

Lewib A. CBoeszTT Edgbnb W. Ono 

Howard H. Datxnfobt Herbert F. Parbonb 

John H. Detikb Chaxleb A. Pabtenb 

Altin E. Dodd Qeoroe W. Pratt 

Leon Rdbbell Etges L. P. Pbbbcott 

Fbederice F. Fibh B. Atwood Robinbon 

Randolph Frothinqham Jogbpb B. Rubsell, Jr. 

E. Howaed Georoe Henrt B. Sawyer 

A. Leslie Harwood, Jr. Hok. Richard S. Teeuno 

Will T. Hedoeb Everit B. Terhune 

JoBHUA B. Holdeh George N. Towle 

Fbxdhbick 0. HonoHTOM Willlah H. Vincent 

EoaBNE C. HoLTUAM Lton Wetbdrn 

Benjamin Jot B. C. WHiTiNa 

W. P. LisBT Russell R. Whttman 

Louis K. Liogktt E. A. Wilkib 



Btm-couMtmB ON ocean transportation 
O. HonoaTON EtroENE C. Hci;mAH 



CDHXITTBB OH PROORAH 

F. W. Tadbbio, Chairman 
Robert Bacok Henrt Howard 

Cabboll W. Doten Edwin D. Mbad 

Edward A. Filene Fredric J. Stwson 

Robert S. Gorham 

cohhittxs or eutektaismsht 
Bernard J. Rothwell, Chairmao 
Frank S. Baker Arthur B. Cbapih 

Hugh Bancroft Louib A. Cooudob 

Edmund Billinob GEORoa T. Coppinb 

Frank A. Bourne A. Dddlet Dowd 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Walteb G. Fish Willuh B. Fotteb 

Thouas B. Fitepatbice Charles W. Robib 

Randolph Fboi^inohaii Hbnbt E. Russeu. 

Joshua B. Holden A. Shuman 

Wbbtlet Jonxb M. N. Smith 

Henbt L. KtNCAiDE Chables H. Taylos 

John S. Lawbbnce David F. Tillet 

WhiLiam E. Litchfield Richabd E. Traiseb 

Geosoe B. Mobison Eliot Wadswobth 

Jaiibb M. Morbibon Habbt R. Welluan 

Francib p. O'Connob John T. Wheblbiobt 

Fbancis Pbabodt, Jb. Addison L. Winshif 

H. Staples Poitbb Edqab N. Wbiqhtinotoh 



SDB-C0MMrTTEE8 
Badgts and Dteoraiion* 
Mabcbll N. Suith, Chairmap 
F. a. Bobbne F. p. O'Connob 



Eduithd BiLLmoB, Chunnao 
Geoboe T. Coppinb 
Hbnbt E. RnessLL 

Club CowUtiea 
Chables H. Tatlob, Chairman 
Geoboe B. Mobibon John T. Wbeelvbigbt 

A. L. WiNSHIP 

Cimoart and Miuie 



Evening SecepHon 
A. Shdman, ChairmoD 
Abthub B. Cbapih Westlet Joneb 

Thomas B. Fttzpatbice William E. Litchfield 

Eliot Wadbwobth 

Oreeting and Cab Seniee 
Westlet Jones, ChairmaD 
James M. Mobsison H. Staples Potfeb 

Hotel Acoommodationa and HaUt 
Henbt E. Rubbell, Chainnan 
WiLUAM E. Litchfield Chables W. Robie 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

InvUaUone 
Bernabd J. RoTHWEUL, ChatmiaD 
EuoH Bamchoft Joseph B. Rossell 

Eduiind Billinos a. Shuuah 

JtiOB A, McKiBBEN Qeobqe S. Suitb 

KiCHASD E. Tkaibeb 

Frahcib Peabodt, Jb., ChaLnnan 

OEOaOB T. COPPIHB 

A. Din>LBT Down 

Loan of AutonuAiies 
Loins A. CoouDaE, Chairman 
Hugh Bakcboit A. Dudlet Dows 

Hasbt R. Weulmak, Secretary 

tjocal Bxeuriions 
Wambe C. Fish, Ctuurmaii 

HCQH BaNCBOFT HeNXT L. KiMCAlDE 

Habbt R. Weixuan, Secretary 

Pnoatt Hmumg of Qwitt 

EooAB N. Wbiobtington, Cbainnan 

Henbt E. Rubbell 



COMHITTBB OH nHAHCB 

RoBEBT WiNSOB, Chairman 
Pbxdekicx C. Duhaine Philip Stockton 

William A. Gaston Galen L. Stone 

FsANX W. Stearns Euoene V. R. Thatbe 



COHUITTBB OH PUBLICITY 

Jaices T. Wbthbbau), Chairman 

^^KANDKB DODDS WlLLIAK F. RoOBBS 

iWBab J. Febmbt Cabboll J. Swak 

Geoboe B. Qalldp William U. Swan 

L. D. Gibbs Fbank W. Tdlly 

Robert L. O'Brien Richard J. Wauh 

J. P. YODER 



COMHnTBB OH TOOR 

John H. Faeet, Chairman 
Robert W. Atkins Howabd H. Davenport 

William P. F. Aver E, Elher Foye 

Matthew C. BarsH Louis F. R. Lanoelieb 

Richabd B. Caxtbb Otto J. Piehler 



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18 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

LIDIBS' COmaTTBB 

Mkb. WiLLiAif H. Tait Mas. A. Lawbenci Lowell 

Mrs. EuaEHS N. Fobs Mbb, Jaues M. Mobbison 

Mbs. John F. FrraoEKALD Mbs. J. Henb< Neai. 

Mrs. Gobdon Abbott Mibb Mabt Botlb 0'Kziij.t 

Miss Sarah Loiiihe Arnold Mibs Ellxn F. Pendleton ' 

Mrs. Elmer J. Bliss Mbs. Dmixr L. Pickuak 

Mbs. Wtu.iAU E. Butler Mbs. Jaues L. Richards 

Miss Mabt Cobs Mrs. Bernard J. Rothwell 

Mrs. J. Randolph Cooudoe, Jr. Mrs. Joseph B. RnssELL 

Mrs. John H. Fahet Mrs. Charles S. Sarobnt 

Mrs. a. Lincoln Filene Mrs. J. Montoomert Seabb 

Mbs. Williau A. Gaston Mbs. Geoboe S. Suith 

Mbs. Robebt S. Gobhau Mrs. Jambs J. Storrow 

Mbb. John Hats Hauuond Mrs. James T. Wxtheraij) 

Mrs. EuQENa C. Hui/tman Mrs. Robert Winbor 

Mas. Mart Morton Eehew Mrs. Rooer Wolcott 

MiSB Katherinb LoRDia Mbs. Eihjar N. WRiaHTiNoTON 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

ACCOMPANYIKO DELEX3ATE8 ON THE AMERICAN TOUB 

Honorary Commiilee 
J. Randolph Coolidob, Fimt Vice-Fiesident Boston Chamber of Commeioe 
Edward A. Filene, Vice-President Fifth IntemationBl Congrees 

Committee on Tour Atrangemenia 
John H. Fahbt, Chainnao 

H. H. Davenport, BoetoD Chamber of Comnierce 
Jahxs A. McKirben, Secretary Boston Chamber of Comineroe 
Robert J. Bottomlt, Secretary Boston E]xeeutive Committee 
Julian Moseno-Lacalle, Delegate of the Pan-American Uiiion 
Da. Albert C. Bonaschi, Italian Chamber of Commerce New York, N.Y. 
David Montf, Delegate of "Sociedad de Fomento Fabril," Santiago, Chile 
Chableb LeDbuc, Assistant Secretary 
Mbs. Chableb LbDeuc, Secretary of the Ladies' CommiHee 
James J. Conbot, Assistant Secietaiy 
John F. O'Connell, Secretory on Publici^ 
P. D. Callvm, Representing the Western Union Tel^raph Co. 

Repreienlalwea of the Botlon & AUxmy Railroad 
Chableb E. Colont James Grat J. E. Swehnxt 

Preaa RepreienlatitiM 
Habbt Hote, T7nit«d Press 
Ebnbbt 0. Hall, "Christian Science Monitor" 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 109 

WORCESTER COMMITTEES 

The ChtumiMi of the Cotiunitt«efl appointed by the Wotceeier Board ot Trade were u 
foUows: 

Edwabd M. Woodwakd, General Committee 
LouiB H. Bucki:bt, Committee on Itinerary 
Gbobqe M. Babsutt, Committee on Banquet 
Albkbtt H. Inuas, Committee on Automobiles 
Chablbs T. Tatkai4, Committee on InvitationB 
Fbxd H. Daniei«, Committee on Congreee 
C. Herbert DeFosbe, Committee on Interpreton 
Hbnbt a. Macoowan, Committee on Ladies 
Gboboe a. Park, Committee on Banquet Decorations 
AUBTIH P. Cbibit, Committee on Exterior Deooratione 
WAi;rER H. Allek, Committee on Tickets 
Herbert N. Davison, Gen«^ Secretary 



BUFFALO COMMITTEE 

The Conmiittee appointed by the Buffalo Chamber of Commerce was as 
W. E. RoBEBTBON, Chairman 

E. J. Babcalo Darwim D. Mabtih 

Charles Cufton J. G. H. Mabtut 

Wu. E. Cbosbt E. a. Meldruh 

J. C. Dold F. W. Pardee 

Jambs F. Foster Edoknb A. WoLrt 



DETROIT COMMITTEES 
The Committeee appointed by the Detroit Board of Commerce were as foDows: 

COMBnTTBB OH BHTERTAIHlfBirT 

Ward N. Choate, Chairman 
Mnaoti A. McRae Phiup BBxmfBTER 

Joseph Mack C. Lbidich 

J. J. Crowlet Charles B. Sattbb 

H. T. Btald C. H. Gmoan 

HiB^M Marks 

COmOTTEE OH TOVR 

Rot D. Chapin, Chairman 
Qbobqe M. B1.ACK J. W. Akdbrbon 

S. D. Waldon Lxicnjs E, Wilbom 

C. Hainxb Wiuoh 

coumnxB oh bahqust 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 
COMHtTTKB OR PDTAHCI 

M. J. McRPKT, Cb&irmui 
A. E. Gbxxn, Jb. J. NEim>N Gunh 

J&MBB T. Wbitxhkad 



COMHTTTBB OM TRAirSPOKTAnOM 
George W. Pabksb 



COHKITTEB OH BBCBPTIOH 



Wabd N. Choatk 
Philip Bheitiieteb 
Lucius E. Wilson 



COlOflTTKB OH LADIZS 

Mas. R. H. AsHBAUOH 



CHICAGO COMMITTEES 



In additioa to the great Reception Committee oonttuning 200 members, the bcUtc Com- 
mitteee in Chicago were: 

nscimvB coMUii'iKi 

T. Edwaed Wiu>xb, Chairman; Chicago As»D«iation of Commerce 

Fbank M. Bunch, Vice-Chairman; Board of Trade of the City of CSucago 

Ghobob M. Retnolds, Treasurer; Continental and Commercial National Bank 

DouoLAB Malloch, Secretary; Preee Club of Chicago 

EuiBB H. Adams, Chicago Anociation of Commerce 

Jambs S. Aoab, Chicago Aseociation of Commerce 

Wiluam B. Austin, Hamilton Club of Chicago 

Alfbed Bakxb, City Club 

Mas. George Bass, Chicago Woman's Club 

Fbedericx Bode, Industrial Club 

Wiluam A. Bond, Chicago Association of Commerce 

MiBB 8. P. Breckinridob, Woman's City Club 

Ira M. Cobe, Chicago Automobile Club 

James G. Condon, Iroquois Club 

Richmond Dean, Chicago Association of Commerce 

Fbedericx A. Delano 

Samuel Deutsch, Standard Club 

F. W. Edwasds, Illinois Club 

Wauer Fttcb, South Shore Country Club 

Hamlin Gabland, Cliff Dwellers 

H. C. Gardner, Chicago Association of Commerce 

August Gatzebt, Chicago Association of Commerce 

John M. Glenn, Illinois Manufacturers' Association 

Ghableb E. Gbeoobt, Chicago Motor Club 

RicoABD C. Hall, Chicago Association of Commerce 

Carter H. Harrison, MiQn>r of City of Chicago 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 111 

Da. A. W. Habbib, Union League Chib 

W. A. Heath, Bankera' Club 

Dk. EifiL G. HmBCH, Sin&i Temple 

Lawkbncz Hetworth, Calumet Club 

Joseph Jotcs, IriBh FellowBhip Club 

AiiEXANDEB A. McCoBMiCE, Chairman Reception Committee, Chicago Aesociation of Com- 

F. B. MoNToouEBY, Traffic Club of Chicago 
Fbedbbice S. Olitxb, Chicago Real Estate Board 
Chableb Piez, lUinoiB Manufacturera' Association 
Wx. H. Rehu, Chicago Association of Commeroe 

JUUUB ROSENWAUI 

Habbt Rubens, Jb., Germauia Club 
John 8- Rumnello, Chicago Club 
Fbank T. ScANiiAN, Chicago Transportation Aesociation 
Fbancis T. SoiuoNS, Chicago Association of Commerce 
Edwabd M. Sxihheb, Chicago Association of Commerce 
John F. Shuuki, Chicago Association of Commerce 
John T. Stockton, Chicago Association of Commerce 
Albert Wahl, Cook County Real Estat« Board 
Chableb J. Webb, Illinois Athletic Club 
Cablbton White, Chicago Athletic Association 
TaouAS E. WuaoN, Chicago Association of Commerce 



nSillCB COmOTTBE 

Qbobqb M. Retnoldb, Chairman 
Habbt A. Whebleb, Vice-Chairman 
Fbbderice Bode Cabteb H. Habribon 

James 8. Aoab EttOEHE V. Kdibabk 

Fbank M. Bunch Charles Piee 

Chables G. Dawes John C. Roth 

RtCHUONp Dean Julius Robehwald 

H. C. Gabsnub John F. Smulsei 

John M. Gi^nn Feed W. Upbau 

John H. Wood 



BHTSKTJUmiXKT COHiaTTBB 

Fbank M. Bunch, duunnan 
F. B. Montqouebt Chables E. Greoort. 

C. E. Babtlet Johm E. Wilder 

RicHABD C, Hall John T. Stockton 

Geoboe E. Mabct Fbancis T. Siumons 

N. H. Van Sickian 



poBuarr cohiotteb 

DouoLAS M allocs, Chturman 

Malcolm McDowell William Hudson Harper 

Hubert F. Millxb 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 



CINCINNATI COMMITTEES 

OBmRAL COMHITTBB 

RepretenHnD ti»e Cineianaii BvttMW Men't Clvb, The CincmnaU Chamber t^ 
Commeree, The Ctnemnati Commereial A»eocuili<m 
W. E. HuTTON, Ch&irmuk; President The Buameas Men'a Club 
Thob. p. Eoam, Vice-Chairman 

Wautsb a. Drapbr, Vic&Ob&innan; Freeident Chamber of Commerce 
Georoe F. Dixterlb, Vice^hainnan; Preeident Cincumati Commeroial Asaoci&tion 
Otto Aruledzb, Treasurer 

Carl Dehonxt, Secretary; Secretary and Manager Cincinnati Commercial AseoeiatioD 
Qeokqb Puchta, Chairman Eotertaimnent Committee 



BSCBPTIOM COiaOTTBB 



£. H. Bardes 
Wu. A. Hopkins 
Saitokl L. Moteb 
E. L. Steknbkrobb 
Fredebick a. Geidb 
Chas. Wiedeuamn 
H. C. Matheb 
H. F. Cellasius 
James N. Qahble 
William Lodob 
James P. O9B 

HeRUAM KlBSCHNSB 

E. W. Edvards 

C. W. Shiplbt 
J. B. DoAN 
Max Hibbch 
Georob W. Webdoh 

ThOMAB I. SCHDLTX 
Rm>OLPH H. WURLITZBB 

J. F. Tatlob 
E. F. DuBbul 

D. B. Mbacham 

B. H. Eroger 
Wm. H. Muknch 

E. F. LuNKEN 
Wh. B. Melisb 
Maurice J. Frbirbbo 
Leonard B. Smith 
Julius FLEiscHMAim 
A. P. Haoemetxr 
Charles Ptau 

W. W. Tatlob 

C. L. Harrison 
Georqb R. Balch 



r. Chairman 

E. W. Lynb 
Jameb C. Hobart 
H. T. Atkins 

81 P. EOAN 

H. C. Yeiber 
A. W. Macrbair 
J. R. Clark. 
Irwik M. Kbohn 
R. E. Le Blond 
H. B. Clobson 
DwiflBT S. MABniLD 

T,t»>Bn KaHH 

J. Charles McCuLLOuaH 

G. A. WlLLET 

Wm. L. Doefkb 
R. A. CowiNo 

W. H. SCHMIDLAPP 

E. P. Harbison 
Henrt E. Deckebach 
b. f. dclwebsr 
L. A. Aui/r 
Frank H. Sdifbon 
Geo. B. Hawlbt 
W. D, Thalhedceb 

MURRAT ShIPLET 

Jos. T. Carxw 
Hon. J. B. Forakxb 
Wm. a. Windisch 
Napoleon DcBrul 
AuKED K. Nifpbrt 
Charles Lewis 
Frankun Ai/tes 
J. Stacet Hill 
Geoboe W. Martin 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

N. W. SntOBHiDaE Ph. Mobton 

Edwasd G. Ptad T. J. Momn 

John E. C. Kohuaat B. W. Campbell 

Ed. Fuckeb Auoust Ferozb 

James C. Eenst H. 0. Wbntb 



DAYTON COMMITTEE 

Th« Dajrton Chamber of Commerce was assisted hj the Welfare Department of the 
National Cash Register Company, the Dayton Bicycle Club and a Citiiens' Reception Com- 
mittee of One Hundred. The Committee of the Dayton Chamber of Commerce was as foUowe: 



PITTSBURGH COMMITTEES 

The Del^ates were the gueste of the Chamber of Commerce and the Giy of Pittsbui^, 
the principal Officials and Committees being B« follows: 

CEAUBEA OF COHHESCK OF PITTSBUUGH 

William H. Stevbnbon, President 
D. P. Black, Fust Vice-President 
Robert Gablaitd, Second Vice-President 
John B. Babboub, lliird Vice-President 
H. M. Landib, Treasurer 
LooAN McKbb, Secretary 
RoBT. W. Babboub, Assistant Secretary 
Ira S. Bassbtt, TraiBc Manager 

COHHITTEK OH BarrBKTAinUBItT 

W. S. Brown, Chairman 

James Fbancis Bobkb A. A. Hambbschlao 

David F. Colunowood T. J. Kebnan 

Wm. H. Davis Fbank J. Lanahan 

William Flinn H. M. Landib 

Wm. M. Fubxt R. L. O'Donnel 
C. A. Rook 

CITT OF PITTSBITKOE 

Hon. Wm. A. Maobb, Mayor 
Council 
Hon. E. V. Babcock Hon. J. P. McAbdle 

Hon. Robert Gabland Hon. Enoch Rauh 

Hon. W. a. Hobteles Hon. W. G. Wilkins 

Hon. J, P. Kerb Hon. S. S. Woodbubn 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 



WASHINGTON COMMITTEE 

The Cotiiinitt«e representing the Waahington Ch&mber of Commerce was as followe: 
D. J. KiunuH, ChiurmaD 
Jaueb F. Otbteb D. J. Cai 

Tbomas Grant 



PHILADELPHU COMMITTEES 

The Committeea appointed by the oommercial OTgaDiiations of Philadelphia wf 
followe: 

BXBCirnVB COMMtTTIB 

Edward R. Wood, Chairman 
Charles Z. Trtoh B. Franklin Betts 

Db. Williau p. Wilson Wiluax R. Tucxer, Secretary 

JOINT coHMrrm 
PhUaddpkia Board of Trade 
Edward R. Wood Frank D. La Lanne 

Chas. J. Cohen 

PkHaddpkia Boutm 
Geo. R. Yabbow Philip Qodlbt 

Ctbub Borgner 

PhUadelphia Marilime Bxehanne 
E. R. Sbabwood Walter F. Haqar 

Jas. B. Bonner 

Philadelphia Chamber <tf Commerce 
Chaa. Z. Thton. K. B. Kellt 

W. O. Hempstead 

Philadelphia Drug Exehange 

Ceas. E. Hibrs , A. Robinson MclLyAiNB 

Antbomt M. Hance 



Maater Buildere' Exehati^ 



Wh. B. Ibtink 



Philadelphia Commercial Exchange 
Sauubl L. McKnioht Lome G. Qratt 

Watson W. Wai/ton 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

Qroeenf and Importer^ Exchange 
Wu. 0. Halpkh, Jb. H. H. Bbowh 

H. G. Flimt 

MenJiani^ and Manvfacturer^ AstodaUon 
Calvik M. Smtth J. HoTXLL CuioiiNaa 

Fbakk S. Etaks 

Lumbermen'* Exehattge 
B. Frawxltn Betib 8. B. Vroomam 

Tbob. B. Hahueb 

Hardware Menlianle' and Manvfaeturer^ Asaodalion 
T. Jaios Fbbnibt Dr. E. E. Bbown 

Fkamk Gould 

Commercial Museum 
Db. Wm. p. Wilbok 

Maru^aeturer^ Club 
Tbos. F. Aaiamoita J. Howsll CinonMas 

Ctbob H. K. CcBTts 



NEW YORK COMMITTEES 

» Jn additioi) to tbe hage Reception Committee, the ftctive Oeuenl Committee in New 
Toric WR0 H foQows: 

The Merchania' Association of Neio York 
WttAAAM A. MabblB' Hebhan a. Mbix 

William Csawtobs Louis Amnin Aus 

BwuAiON D. Traitbl Tboiias H. Dovnimo 

Marcus M. Mabxb John W. Lixb, Jb. 

S. C. Mbad, SecretArjr 

The Chamber of Commerce of the Slate of New Yori 
Wrldiko RiNa E. H. Ootxbbbidob 

Chablbs L. Bbrnhedizr Juuo F. Sobzano 

Madbicb L. Muhleuan S. 6. Pratt, Secretar; 

The New York Prodvee Exchange 
John Abfkorxn E. R. Carsabt 

J. G. Gash William H. DoiriiLAB 

Charles W. Bowmiia W. B. Pollock 

L. B. Howe, Secietaiy 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS 



American Manvfaetwtrs' Export Association 

MOBXISA ROBKKT C. KAlOfKBZB 

SiDTB W. N. Dickinson 

H. T. WiLLB, Secretary 



The Pan-American Society 
C. A. Gbmkn WiLLiAif C. DovNB 

Luis F. Cob>a Tbomas A. Eddt 

Fbkdebic Brown, Secretary 



The Italian Chamber of Commerce of New York 

SCHBOKDBB GUBTIV POBOKB 

SoL&Bi Ebcole Locatelu 

ACHILLB StABACS 



The NelherUmds Chamber of Commerce in America 

P. A. PiNcoFra P. C. Ktttfeh 

T. Gbbtdanos, Secretary 

The Swedish Chamber of Commerce qf Neto York 
G. H. LnniBxcx Count J. W. H. Haiolton 

AlVBBD RlCHABUeON E. E. JOHNBON 

Hamb LAOBBLOr, Secretary 
ConaoUdaied Stock Exchange 

M. E. DB AOUBBO 



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Xiit of Commerttal <^rgam?atJon£ 

IFRLUTBD WITH THE PERIIABBRT COUHITTSB OV THE IHTBRIUTIOITAL COKOKX8SBS 

or CHAMBERS OP COmiERCB AITD COHMXRCUL AHD IKDIJSTRIAL 

ASSOOATIOHS, IfU 



AUSTKU-HUnCART 

AUSTRIA 
Bcae'n — Chtunber of Commerce and Industry 
Brilnn — Chamber of Commerce ajid Industry 
Cracow — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Egei — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
GOritz — CSiamber of Commrace and Industry 
Gnz — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Innsbmck — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
EUEenfnrth — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Laibach — Chamber of Commerce and Indiistry 
L«mberg — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Otanfltz — Qiomber of Commerce and Industry 
Pnsen — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Prague — Chamber of Conmnerce and Industry 
Pragne — The Export Association of Bohemia, Silesia and Moraria 
Prague — Nove Obchodni Gremium 
Sagnsa — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Reichenbeig — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Soreredo — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Sorigo — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Trieste — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Tnvpau — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
^leniu — Qiamber of Commerce and Industry 
menim — Association of Colonial Produce Merchants 
nrana — Austrian Export Society 
Wenna — Centra) Association of Austrian Manufacturers 
Vieniui — Central Association of Austrian Merchants 
VioiuuL — Lower Austrian Association for the Promotion of Handicraft 
VioiuuL — Manufacturers' Association 
Vienna — Merchants' Guild 

117 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

HUNGABY 

Agram (Croatia) — Chamber of Coimnerce and iDdustry 

And — Chamber of Commerce and Industiy 

BioBGo — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Badapeet — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Budapest — AesociatioQ of Hungarian Merchants 

Budapest — Hungarian Commercial Association 

Budapest — Hungarian Industrial Association 

Budapest — Hungarian National Association of Chnnical Industry 

Bndapeat — National Hungarian Commercial Association 

Budapest — National Union of Hungarian Merchants 

Debreczen — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Gyor — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Easchan — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Kolozsrar — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Kagyvarad — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Osijek-Bszek (Croatia-SlaTOnia) — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Pozsony — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Soproi^ — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Sz^edin — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Tsmesrax — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 



BELGIDU 
Bruges — Chamber of Commerce 
Brussels — Chamber of Commerce 
Brussels — L' Association g^nSrale dee Meunien Beiges 
Brussels — L'AsBociation des Fabricants de Glacee 
Brussels — British Chamber of Commerce of Belgium 
Biussels — French Chamber of Commerce 
Brussels — French Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Biussels — Italian Chamber of Commerce 
BmsselB — Netherlands Chamber of Commerce 
Bmssels — Union of International Associations 
Charleroi — French Chamber of Commerce 
Ctntrtroi-Roulers — Chamber of Commerce 
Ghent — Commercial and Industrial Club 
Ghent — L' Association cotonni^re 
Hasselt — Chamber of Commerce of Limbourg 
liige — La Bourse Industrielle 

Ijdge — L' Association des Liccnci^ sortis de rUniversit^ de Li^ 
Hons — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Hons — L' Association houill^re du Couchant 
Ostend — Chamber of Commerce 
Tpres — Commercial and Industrial Club 

BRAZIL 



Honaos — Commercial Association of the Amazon 

Para — Garantia da Amazonia 

Kio de Janeiro — Academy of Commerce 

Kio de Janeiro — Commercial Association 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

Rio d« Jtneiro — Commercial Muaeum 
Rio d« JuMiro — Council of the Merchanta and Ship Brokers 
Rio d« Janeiro — Federation of Commercial AaeociationB of Brasit 
Rio d« Janeiro — International Chamber of Commerce ot Braiil 
Santos — Commercial Association 

BULGARU 

PIordiT (FUlippopoUa) — Chamber of Commerce 

Knstchnck — Chamber of Commerce 

Sofia — C3iamber of Commerce 

Vanui — Chamber of Commerce 

Vanui — La Corporation des N^gociante en C^r^ales 



- Sociedad de Fomento Fabril 

— French Chamber of Commerce 



Hongkong — See Yap Commercial Guild 
flhartgtiat ^ General Chamber of Commerce 



Havana — Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Navigation of the Island of Cuba 
Havana — Vtatm of Manufacturers of Liquors and Distillers of the Island of Cuba 



Copenhagtn — Chamber of Commerce 
Copenhagen — Grosserer Societetets Komite 



Gnayaqiiil — Chamber of Commerce and Agriculture 
Qnito — Chamber of Commerce 

EGYPT 

Cairo — International Chamber of Commerce 



FRANCE 
Ageo — Chamber of Commerce 
Angonltaie — Chamber of Commerce 
Bai-lo-Ihic — Chamber of Commerce 
BeUort — Chamber of Commerce 
Botng (Ain) — Chamber of Commerce 
BotngeB — Chamber of Commerce 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Dunfelfk — Chamber of Commerce 

Honflenr — Chamber of Commerce 

Limoges — Chamber of Coouneice 

ManeillM — Chamber of Commerce 

HaruiUes — Syndicat dea Importateure de Crainee OI^agiDeiuefl 

HontpeUer — Chamber of Commerce 

Nanc]' — Chamber of CommMce 

Nantes — Chamber of Commerce 

Paris — Chamber of Commerce 

Paris — American Chamber of Comfflerce 

Paris — Auetiia-Himgarian Chamber of Commerce 

Paris — Belgwn Chamber of Commerce 

Paris — British Chamber of Commerce 

Paris — Itahan Chamber of Commerce 

Paris — Netherlands Chamber of Commerce 

Paris — Ottoman Chamber of Commerce 

Paris — HuBsian Chamtier of Commerce 

Paris — Spanish Chamber of Commerce 

Paris — Union dee Cbambree de Commerce franfaiBea k 1'£tranger 

Paris — Comity commercia] franco-allemand 

Reims — Chamber of Commerce 

Ronbaiz — Qkamber of Commerce 

Rouen — Chamber of Commerce 

Tonrcoing — Chamber of Commerce 

Tours — Chamber of Commerce 

Versailles — Chamber of Commerce 

FRENCH POSSESSIONS — ALGIERS 
Oran — Chamber of Commerce 
Philipperille — Chamber of Commerce 



GBRMAmr 

Alz-la-Chapelle — Chamber of Commerce 

Barman — Chamber of Commerce 

Berlin — Deuteoher Handelstag 

Beriln — Die Xlteeten der Kaufmannschaft Ton Berlin 

Berlin — Chamber of Commerce 

Berlin — Eandelsvertrageverein 

Berlin — Verband deutscher Waren- und Kaufh&user 

Berlin — American Association of Commerce and Trade 

Berlin — Coitralverband dea deutschen Bank- und Bankie^ewerbes 

Berlin — Deubsch-franzOeischer Wirtschaftsverein 

Bonn — Chamber of Commerce 

Bremen — Chamber of Commerce 

Breslau — Chamber of Commerce 

Brunswick — Chamber of Commerce 

Chemnita — Chamber of Ctmimerce 

Cologne — Chamber of Commerce 

Ctdogne — Gewerbe-Verein 

Ctdogno — International Association of Hotel'keepers 

Cologne — Verein der ludustriellen des Begierungs-Besirks 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

Danzig — Vorateheramt der Kauf DtaimBohaf t 

Dortmnnd — Chamber of Commerce 

Dresden — Chamber of Commerce 

Dresden — Esport-Verein im KSnigieich Sachsen 

Dresden — Verbond s&chsiecbeT Indus trieller 

Dflsseldoit — Chamber of Commerce 

Dflsseldoif — Netherlands Chamber of Commerce 

Elbeif eld — Chamber of Commerce 

Erfurt — Chamber of Commerce 

Essen — Chamber of Commerce 

FranUort-on-tbe-Haln — Chamber of Commerce 

PMnUort-on-tb«-Hain — Vereinigimg der Exportfiimen 

Halborstadt — Chamber of Commerce 

Halle — Chamber of Commerce 

Hamburg — Chamber of Commerce 

Hanorer — Chamber of Commerce 

Heidelberg — Chamber of Conunerce 

Hildesheim — Chamber of Commerce 

Karisnihe — HandelskfuDiner for die Kreise Karlsruhe und Baden 

EMigsbers — Verein deut«oher Ingenieure 

I^ipzic — Chamber of Commerce 

Iifibeck — Chamber of Commerce 

Magdeburg — Chamber of Commerce 

Uannheim — Chamber of Commerce 

Httnster — Chamber of Commerce 

n«DgeT>doif — Vetband B&chsiacher Industrieller 

Nuremberg — Chamber of Commerce 

Plauen — Chamber of Commerce 

Regensbnrg — Chamber of Commerce 

Sonneberg — Chamber of Commerce 

Soran — Chamber of Conunerce 

Stolberg — Chamber of Commerce 

Stiassburg — Chamber of Commerce 

Stuttgart — Chamber of Commerce 

Treves — Chamber of Commerce 

Wtnbing — Chamber of Commerce 



OBEAT BRITAIN AlID BRITKH POSSESSIOHS 

ENQIAND 
Burow-ln-FumeBS — CSiamber of Commerce 
Birkenhead — Chamber of Commerce 
Bradford — Incorporated Chamber of Commerce 
Bradford — Dyera' Association 

Bristol — Incorporated Chamber of Commerce and Shipping 
Cheltenham — Chamber of Commerce 
&oydon — Chamber of Commerce 
Derby — Chamber of Commerce 
Dudley — Chamber of Commerce 
Halifax — Incorporated Chamber of Commerce 
Huddersfield — Incorporated Chamber of Commerce 
Liverpool — Incorporated Chamber of Commerce 



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122 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

London — British Imperial Council o( Commerce 

London — Chamber of Commerce 

London — Wholesale Stationeia' Aesooiation 

London — Austria-Hungarian Chamber of Commerce 

London — Canadian Chamber of Commerce 

London — Netherlands Chamber of Commerce 

London — Swedish Chamber of Commerce 

Iiondon — Federation of Foreign Chambers of Commerce in the United Kingdom of Great 

Britain and Ireland 
Hanchester — British Weighte & Meflsui«e Association 
Hottingham — Chamber of Ccxnmerce 
Reading — Chamber of Commerce 
Sheffield — Chamber of Commerce 

Wakefield — Incorporated Chamber of Commerce and Shipping 
Walsall — Incorporated Chamber of Commotse 

IRELAND 
Cork — Incorporated Chamber of Commerce and Shipping 
Dublin — Chamber of Commerce 

SCOTLAND 
Aberdeen — Chamber of Commerce 
Dundee — Chamber of Commerce 
Edinburgh — Chamber of Commeroe and Manufocturo^s 
Leith — Chamber of Commeroe 



BAHAMAS 
ITmmu — The Bahamas Chamber of Commerce 



HamUtoD — Chamber of Ctmimerce 

BEITIHH EAST AFRICA 
Nairobi — Chamber of Commerce 

CANADA 
BellerlUe — Board of Trade 
Honcton — Board <^ Trade 
Hontienl — Board of Trade 
Uontieal — Chamber of Commrace 

Montreal — L' Association dea Marchanda dfitaHleurs du Canada 
Now Westminster — Board of Trade 
OtUwa — Board of Trade 
Quebec — Board of Trade 
Sherbnwke — Board of Trade 
St. Catharine's — Board of Trade 
St. John, M.B. — Board of Trade 
Toronto — Board of Trade 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMEBCE 123 

INDU 
CalcntU — Bengal Chamber of Conunerce 
DelU — Punjab Chamber of Commerce 

JAMAICA 
KinsBton — Royal Jamaica Society of Agriculture and Commerce & Merchanta' Exchange 

NEW ZEALAND 
Atukland — Chamber of Commerce 
Christchurch — Canterbury Chamber of Commerce 
Dnnedin — Chamber of Commerce 
Invercafgin — Chamber of Commerce 
Hapier — Chamber of Commerce 
Waogairai — Chamber of Commerce 
WeUlDgtoa — Chamber of Commerce 

SINGAPORE 
Singapore — Chijieee Chamber of Commerce 

SOUTH AFRICA 
Cape Town — South African Manufacturen' ABSOciation 



TRINIDAD 
Port of Spain — Chamber of Commerce 



Atliena — American Chamber of Commerce for the Levant 

Patraa — Chamber of Commerce 

nneu — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 



HONDURAS 
Tegucigalpa — Chamber of Conmierce 



ITALY 

Aleiiandfig — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Boil — Chamber of Commerce 
Bergamo — Chamber of Commerce 
Bologna — Chamber of Commerce 
Breida — Chamber of Commerce 
Coiian — Chamber of Commerce 
Catania, SkUy — Chamber of Commerce 
Catnnzan — Chamber of Commerce 



,y Google 



INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Caaeo — Chamber of Commerce 

Fenno — Chamber of Commerce 

Florence — Chamber of Commerce and Indiutiy 

FoggU — Chamber of Commerce 

Genoa — British Chamber of Commerce 

Giii;«nti — Chamber of Conuaerce 

Lecce — Chamber of Commerce 

Lodi — Chamber of Commerce 

Lucca — Chamber of Commerce and Induoby 

Hllan — Chamber of Commerce 

Milan — Aasociasione fro Commercianti, Esercenti ed Industriali 

Milan — Aesociazone fro Commercianti ed Industriali in Pellicceiie 

Milan — Associacione Granaria 

Milan — Circolo per gli Intereaai AgricoU, Commerciali ed Indostiiali 

Milan — Consonio fro gli Induatriali meccanici e metaliurgici 

Milan — Federadone Commerciale e Industriale Italiana 

Milan — Foderosione IntemaEionale Cotoniero 

Milan — Agricultural Association of Lombardy 

Modena — Chamber of Commerce 

Monza — Federaiione Industriali 

Naples — Chamber of Commerce 

Naples — American Chamber of Commerce in Itafy 

Padua — Chamber of Commerce 

Palermo — Chamber of Commerce 

Placenza — Chamber of Commerce 

Pisa — Chamber of Commerce 

Rome — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

Snsa — Societi Anonima Banchiero 

Syracuse — Chamber of Commerce 

Turin — Chamber of Commerce 

Turin — Associaiione Geneiale esercenti, commercianti ed industriali 

Venice — Chamber of Commerce 

Verona — Chamber of Commerce 



JAPAN 

Kobe — Chamber of Commerce 
Osaka — Chamber of Commerce 
To^o — Chamber of Commerce 
Tokohanu — Chamber of Commerce 
TokObama — Foreign Board of Trade 



LTTXEUBOURG 
Lozemboo^ — CSuunber of Commerce 



Hermodllo — Chamber of Ccnnmerce 

Vera Cniz — National Chamber of Commerce 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 



IIBTHERLAin>S 

Amsterdun — Chamber of Commerce 

Dordrecht — Ch&mber of Commerce and Industiy 

Haulem — Chamber of Commerce 

Huriem — Ma&tachappi} van Ntjveriieid 

Rotterdam — Chamber of Commerce and Industry 

TObnrg — Chamber of Commerce and Induetiy 

Vlaardisgen — Chamber of Commerce and Iiufiutry 



HORWAT 



Bergen — Chamber of C 

Bergen — The Bourse 

Christianla — Den Norake ExporinKimgera Landaforbund 

Christiania — Den Norske Ftelleeforening for Haandverk og Industri 

Chrlstianla — Den Norake Handelsstanda Fffilleaforening 

Cluiatiania — Chamber of Comza^rtx 

Chriadanla — Handelsatands Porening 

Christianla — Import-Export Agenteis Foiening 

Trondl^ent — Chamber of Commerce 



Callao — Chamber of Commerce 
Lima — Chamber of Commerce 
Lima — Stock Exchange 
Ptuia — Chamber of Commerce 



PORTUGAL 

BItbs — Commercial, InduHtrial and Agricultural Aaaociation 

Lisbon — Agricultural, Commercial and Indiutrial Union 

Lisbon — Centro Colonial 

Lisbon — Commerdal Association 

Lisbon — Geographical Society 

Lisbon — British Chamber of Commerce in Portugal 



PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS — AZORES 
Ponta Delgada, Slo Hlgnel — Commercial Aaaociation 



Bucharest — American Chamber of Commerce for the Levant 
Cnjovn — Chamber of Commerce 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 



RUSSIA 

Baku, Tnuucauckda., Asiatic RoBsia. — ChAmbcr of Commerce 
Helsiiigf OTS — Finslu Handeledelegationen 
Riga — Bourse 
^St. PeteraburE — Anoci&tion of Industry and Commerce of Rusaia 
St. Petersburg — Rusao-British Chamber of Commcxoe 
Warsaw — Towarsyatwo Preemyriowcdw 
Warsaw — Aasociation of Polish Merchants 



SPAIN 

BarcolMUt — Chamber of Conunetoe, Industry and Navigation 

Barctimu — Fomento del Trabajo Naeional 

BarcelcHUi — French Chamber of Commerce 

Oeiona — Official Chamber of Conunerce, Industry and Navigation 

Madrid — Official Chamber of Commerce of tliB Provinoe 

Madrid — Official Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Navigatkui 

Madrid — Official Chamber of Industry of the Province 

Madrid — French Chamber of Commerce 

S«nigoss« — Official Chamber of Commeroe and Industry 

Valenda — Chamber of Commerce 

Valkdolid — Official Chamber of Commeroe and Industry 



Gefie — Chamber of Commerce 

Gfltebois — Chamber of Commerce 

JSnkt^tng — Chamber of Commerce 

Malms — Chamber of Commerce 

Stockholm — General Ebcport Aseociation of Sweden 

Stockholm — Chamber of Commeroe 

Stockholm — Merchants' Oub 



SWrTZBELABD 

Basel — Chamber of Commerce 

Berne — Chamber of Commerce and Industry for the Canton 

Genera — Swiss Union of Commerce and Industry 

Geneva — Chamber of Commerce 

Geneva — French Chamber of Commerce 

Geneva — ItaUan Chamber of Commerce 

St. Gall — Directorium de« N^gociants 

Ztuich — CSiamber of Commeroe 



Constantinople — Ammcan Chamber of Commerce for the Levant 
Constantinople — Hellenic Chamber of Commerce 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 



UnnXD STATES OF AMERICA 

Akron, Ohio — Chamber of Commeroe 

Albanj, H. 7. — Chamber of Commerce 

Baltimore, Hd. — Board of Trade 

Bangor, Maine — Maine State Board of Trade 

Bay CIt7, Mich. — Board of Commeroe 

Birmingham, Ala. — Chamber of Commerce 

Boaton, Maaa. — Chamber of Commerce 

Boston, Maaa. — Fruit and Produce Exchange 

Boston, Maaa. — Maaaachuaettfi State Board of Trade 

Boaton, Maaa. — Music Trade AssDciation 

Boston, Maaa. — New England Hardware Dealers' Aaaociation 

BostMi, Haas. — New England Shoe and Leather Association 

Boston, Maaa. — Real Estate Exchange and Auction Board 

Boaton, Mass. — Stationera' Association 

Brockton, Mass. — Chamber of Commeroe 

BnfMo, n. T. — Chamber of Commerce 

Chicago, DL — Association of Commerce 

Chicago, m. — Board of Trade 

Chicago, ID. — Dlinoifl Manufacturers' Association 

Chicago, HI. — National Business League of America 

Clndnnatl, Ohio — Business Men's Club 

Cincinnati, Ohio — Chambw of Commerce 

Clncmnatl, Ohio — Commercial Association 

Cleveland, Ohio — ChamtKr of Commerce 

Dallas, Texas — Chamber of Commeroe 

Darei^ort, Iowa — Commercial Club 

Davenport, Iowa — Greater Davenport Committee 

Dajton, Ohio — Chamber of Commeroe 

Decatnr, m. — Chamber of Commerce 

Denver, Colo. — Chamber of Commeroe 

Detroit, Mich. — Board of Commerce 

Eureka, Calif. — Humt>oldt Chamber of Commerce 

Fall River, Hass. — Chamber of Commerce 

Fltchbnrg, Haas. — Board of Trade and Merchants' Association 

Fort Worth, 'Texas — Chamber of Commerce 

Framingham, Mass. — Board of Trade 

Geneva, H. T. — Chamber of Commeiee 

Haverhill, Maaa. — Board of Trade 

Holfoke, Mass. — Board of Trade 

Houston, Ttfxaa — Chamber of Commerce 

Indianapolis, lad. — Board of Trade 

Indianapolis, Ind. — Commercial Club 

Kalamazoo, Hlch. — Conunercial Club 

Kansas Ci^, Mo. — Commercial Club 

Key West, Fla. — Chamber of Commerce 

Kingston, H . T. — Chamber of Commerce 

Loa Angeles, Calif. — Chamber of Commerce 

Louisville, Kj. — Board of Trade 

LoweO, Hass. — Board of Trade 

Lynn, Hass. — Board of Trade 

Lynn, Hass. — Merchants' Aaeociation 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

H«ld«ii, Hms. — Boud o[ Trade 

Milwaukee, yfiM. — Chamber of Commerce 

Hlnneapolia, Hlnn. — Civic and Commerce Association 

Newark, N. J. — Boaid of Trade 

new Bedford, Hbm. — Board of Trade 

New BHtain, Conn. — BuBiness Men's Associatioii 

newbniypoit, H«m. — Businew Men's AsBociation 

New Haven, Conn. — Chamber of Commerce 

New London, Conn. — State BuaineaB Men's Association 

New Orleans, La. — Progressive Union 

New Toric, N. T, — American Manufacturers' Export Association 

New York, N. T. — Board of Trade and TransporUtion 

New Toric, N. T. — Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York 

n«w York, N. T. — Merchants' AasoHaation 

Hew York, N. Y. — National Asoociation of Manufaeturen 

New York, N. Y. — North Side Board of Trade, Borough of the Bronx 

New York, N. Y. — Produce Exchange 

New York, N. Y. — Italian Chamber of Commerce 

New Yoik, N. Y. — Netherlands Chamber of Commerce in America 

New Yoric, N. Y. — Swedish Chamber of Commerce 

Norfolk, V«. — Board of Trade and Buainess Men's Aesociation 

North Attleboro, Haas. — Board of Trade 

OaUand, Calif. — Chamber of Conunerce 

Pasaaic, N. J. — New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Board of Trade 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Boune 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Chamber of Commerce 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Commercial Museum 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Maritime Exdiange 

Philadelphia, Pa. — National Board of Trade 

Pine BlnS, Ark. — Chamber of Commerce 

Pittsbnri^, Pa. — Chamber of Ctanmerce 

Portland, Maine — Board of Trade 

Providence, R. I. — Board of Trade 

Providence, R. I. — Manufacturing JeweletB' Boaid of Trade 

Readhig, Pa. — Board of Trade 

Rochester, N. Y. — Chamber of Commerce 

Rome, N. Y. — Chamber of Commerce 

Bkhmoad, Va. — Chamber of Commerce 

Sacramento, Calif. — Chamber of Commerce 

St. Lonis, Ho. — Business Men's League 

St. Lottia, Mo. — Merchants' Exchange 

St. Paul, Minn. — Asaocistion of Commerce 

San Antonio, Texas — Chamber of Commerce 

San Prandsco, Calif. — Chamber of Commerce 

Seattle, Wash. — New Seattle Chamber of Commerce 

Somerrille, Mass. — Board of Tnde 

Spokane, Wash. — Chamber of Commerce 

Springfield, Hasa. — Board of Trade 

Syracuse, N. Y. — Chamber of Commerce 

Toledo, Ohio — Commerce Club 

Troy, N, Y. — Chamber of Commerce 

Waltbam, Mass. — Board of Trade 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE , 12 

Wuhlngton, D. C. — Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America 

Wublngtoa, D. C. — Chamber of Commerce 

Wuhington, D. C. — Pan-American Union 

Wasterij, R. I. — Board of Trade 

WMcester, Mass. — Board of Trade 

Yoragstoim, Ohio — Chamber of Commerce 



PoBSxsaioNs or teb United States of Aicerica 
HAWAII 
Bonolnla — Chamber of Commerce 

PHILIPPINE KLAND3 
HanllA — Mendianta' Aaeociation 

URUGUAY 
HontnidM — Chamber of Commerce 
HontnidM — C&mara Mercantil de Fioductoe del Pals 

VBHfiZUBIA 
Cuicu — Chamber of Commerce 



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fttenograpfnc S^t^ott of 0Uitml ftesfstionff 

I ranBHATIOHAL COITGRESS OF CHAMBERS OF COMUSRCS AMD COUHSSCUL AUD 
IHDU8TSIAL ASSOOATIOIfS, AT BOSTOH, MASSACBUSEXTS, O.S.A. 
8BPTBUBBR H, U AHD H 



:fitat ^tgaim 

la cEilled to order in Qie ball-room of the Copley Pl&za Hotel, at 10.28 
T 24, 1912, President Louis Canon-Likiband in the chair. At the deak, Gen- 
era] Secretary £iiiLii Jottrand and Dr. Max Apt. 

On the platform, Bon. Chablxs Naoel, Secretary of Commerce and Labor for the United 
States, Hon. Euoenx N. Fobs, Governor of Maseachusette, Eon. John F. FmaEKALD, 
Mayor of Boeton, Mr. Edwaiid A. Fqxnx, Vice-President of the International Congreee 
ud Mr. Gbobqii S. Skitb, President Boston Chamber of Commerce, 1911. 



ADDRESS OP WELCOME 

Hr. Geoif e S. Smith, Chairman <^ the BotUm Execuike ComviiUee and President of Ute 
Botton Chamber oj Commenx, 1911 

Delegates, Gentletoen, Friends from the four comers of this wide worid, I give you greeting. 

On behalf of the Boeton Chamber of Commerce, the business men of Boston, the men 
ud women who have for weeks and mouths labored hard and faithfully to make this Congreee 
a great conatruotive suocess, I extend to you a most cordial and heartfelt welcome. (AppIauM.) 

From the very first those of us who have been the more closely identified with the plans 
Itx this Congress have had but one high conception. 

The comer stone and the building to stand for international good wiU broi^t about 
directly through the harmonising and unifying of great intematicmal commercial practices; 
through commercial exchange between individuals and nations; those commercial exchanges 
to be initiated and extended upon the highest lines of national and international probity and 
hoDoi; upon the highest lines of individual dignity, integrity, with the keynote, the recognition 
<rf mutuaUty of interest. (Applause.) 

And in that spirit, gentlemen, and in recognition that our atmosphere here is permeated 
with practical ideaUty, I ask the representatives of each of the forty-six nations of the earth 
to, in turn, forge one link that stands for the commercial strength of your country, and bring 
tiwee forty-six links and lay them here upon the forge of this Congress, and we in turn will 
endeavor to take those links upon the anvil of international good will, and link them into a 
mighty chain of international honor, of mutuaUty in commercial practice, and stretch that 
diain all annind this world, encircling it securely with the compact commercial world repre- 
131 



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132 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

sented by all the naticma, who are after all of one blood, and one aspiration and one putpoee, 
and that the practical ideals may be bound blether, one and inseparable. 

And in Qm epirit I give you Boston's cordial greeting and expreee Boston's most soUcitoiu 
hope Ut&t this Congreas will immediately take form in constructive results, and that the infiu- 
ence of this Fifth International Congreae will be cumulative, and go down throu^ all the ages, 
spelling progress as to the equitable and harmonious relations between the nations of the 
earth. {Prolonged appkaue.) 

GentlemeD, we have ae one of the men of the United States to address you this moniing, 
a nation's statesman who stands as one of our President's chief councillors in his Cabinet, who 
ia the Secretaiy of the Department of Commerce and Labor, a man who has traveled up and 
down the vast reaches of this country, that he might ctHne into touidi with the business men 
of all sections, who can impress them, by his own personal word and hand, with his close and 
intimate interests in the business world of his country. And therefore it becomes my bi^ 
honor to present the Secret&ry of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Hon. Cbabixb 
Naqel, who will give you the greeting of the Gorermnent of the United States. {Appiatae.) 



ADDRESS or WELCOME ON BEHALF OF THE GOVERNMENT OP THE UmTBD 

STATES OF AMERICA 

Hon. Chailes Nagel, Secretary of Commerce and Labor 

Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

It is my great privil^e, in the name of the United States, to extend a hearty welcome to 
the members of this Congress. And in doing so I wish to congratulate the United States upm 
the fact that for this occasion this country was selected as the meetii^ place. And I want to 
congratulate the United States upon the fact that the great city of Boston is fbe host for this 
occasion, because the city of Boston has been a pioneer in promoting the idea of a closer com- 
mercial organization in order th&t cities, states and countries may speak wiHi effect. 

I am the more glad of this opportunity, because my short official experience has impressed 
me with the importance of an organisation such as you have. As in our own countiy the im- 
proved methods of communication bring ua closer together and help us realise that there is 
no such thing as ultimate advantage at the unfair expense of our neighbor, so in an equal sense 
the doeer communications between the countries make it manifest that between foreign coun- 
tries there must be a better undetstanding {appUaue and expreasione of apprwnl), there must 
be rules of the game that will make it possible ta base all transactions and to measure than 
according te standards of equity and justice. ("fi«ar, heart" oJtd applause.) 

I know it has been said that in international relations we have no law-giving power and 
we have no tribunal to enforce a law. That is true. But in view of the tremendous trotd of 
over-l^islation in practically all individual countries, I am not sure but what you may re- 
ceive it as a subject of congratulation that there is at least <me field in Triiieh you, the acton 
and the makers of etnomeroe, may have an opportunity to work out your own salvaticaL 
(," Hear, heart" and applaute.) Those of ua who watch Uw toemendous multitude of new laws 
must be impressed with the fact that there was great merit in the old ^ratem of working out 
your rules of the game by the custom of the countiy. And if you have on understanding, if 
you make your rules, and if you are put in a position to enforce ttkoee rules throu^ the agency 
of your government, you may evolve a system of intemationsi commerical law more api to 
re^Kmd intelligently te your needs than any l^islative body could provide. 

Perhaps our country ou^t to confess that in some measure it is not quite up to the stand- 
aids which have been attained in some other countries. Comparatively speaking, we are a 
new country. For obvious reasons our attention has been centered upon domestic queetioiis. 
We have been a country of such vast resources tiiat we have been able from time to time te 
seek out new territory for the employment of our enugies within our own domain. But by 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 133 

8 we are bound to recogniie that there ia a limit to that Bort of employment even in 
our country with ail its vast resources. 

We have a system of govenunent, besides, in which the individual state plays an impor- 
tant part, and under that system much of our attention has been given to the adjustment of 
just such questions involving interstate relations as you are here now engaged to consider with 
respect to the great countries of the world. Furtliermore, we have had a protective system 
which has served to center our attention more especially upon our own affairs. But in respect 
to all these facta the trend is away from the past. We have entered the international field, 
not only poUtically but commercially, and we are interestftd witb you in finding those stand- 
ards and those rules by which international conmierce may be justly and sanely governed. 
We are making progress. The department over which it is my privilege to preside is being 
organised with a view to meet just that situation, and our Chambera of Commerce in this 
country are awake to tbe fact that the old individualistic idea must be abandoned and that 
it must be replaced by the idea of intelligent co-operation, upon the theory that ultimately 
you must be willing to share with your neighbor. 

Our cities no longer estimate their success by the failure of sister cities. Every city in our 
Union reaUzeB that the advantage of every other city reflects upon it and that the failure of 
any other city must likewise reflect upon it. The spirit of co-operation is abroad, and if that 
be true within a country is it not equally true in the relations between foreign countries? 
Is it too much to say that to-day a wholesome, prosperous, succeaaful country may justly 
rejoice in the success of a neij^boring country? {Appbtwe.) Is it not true that our security 
lies in the success of our neighbors and out Chief danger lies in the unrest to which our neigh- 
bors may be subjected? {Applaute.) 

I need not recite to you what the subjects for consideration in a Congress of this kind may 
be. Your own program will indicate that better than I could state it. International relations 
must have true standards. The integrity of the dollar means the integrity of every paper 
based upon it: the integrity of money means tbe integrity of measure and weight; the char- 
acter of measure and weight means the character of the goods; the character of the goods means 
the honesty of the label and of every declaration made with respect to it. ("Hear, kearl" 
and applmae.) The field ia a broad one. If you accomfdish nothing else, the very fact of our 
meeting here together face to face could not be without its effect. Nothing is more dangerous 
than long-range shootii^ and talking. When men get together face to face to consider their 
wants, their needs and their rights; they come to the conclusion that after all we m^tily 
resemble each other. Our desires are about the same, and our ambitions too, and by proper 
consideration of these questions we will all come to the conclusion that each one of us needs, 
as the foundation of his success, justice broad enough to be extended to his neighbor. More 
than that, the spirit of co-operation, of consideration of our neighbor, as the foundation of all 
ultimate success, is bo broad and so general that throughout the world we are talking about 
peace and peace treaties. Suggestions have been submitted based upon standards as broad 
as the highest and most ideal that have ever been accepted, for the settlement of controversies 
between individual men. I care not whether this or that suggestion be precisely worded. That 
is not the question. What we are interested in is the trend which these suggestions show and 
in tbe fact that no one bxiay denies that peace is an end to be desired. {"Hear, hear!" and 
apptave.) 

In my judgment, even more important than agreements arrived at as a result of diplo- 
matic negotiations, far more important than these will be the results of just such Congresses 
as you bere now hold. You represent legitimate self-interest. The questions ttMlay through- 
out the world are largdy industrial. Controversies that arise will originate from that inter- 
eat, and if you succeed in establishing rules of the game that will settle, determine and guide 
your negotiations and your dealings, the main cause for friction and controversy in the future 
has been removed. (Applause.) 

Granmerce is stilt the pioneer of civiliiation. (Applause.) Diplomacy may still open the 
door; dipktmacy may still create an opportunity. It may still secure large influence hoe and 



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134 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

there; but is the final analyeis youi activitiea, your undetstandings among each other, will 
Bmootb the path Tor the diplomat. 

Time was when rulers declared war for one purpose or another; the time has come when 
there is not an intelligent ruler in the world who does not want peace. The change ia complete. 
If there be war or peace in the future it will be because the people declare it or maintaio it; 
and, inasmuch as the responsibility rests with the people, the work of congreases of this kind 
is made the more important, because intelligent self-interest is the foundation of real peace, 
and all selfish interest is intelligent if it recogtuies that the other man b entitled to the enjoy- 
ment of the same privilege. (AppUuiae.) 

What we want to establish ia such a relation, so intimate commercially, and ultimately 
socially, that no country a party to your Congress will permit controTersy, because it cannot 
aSord to have it. 

Gentlemen of the Congress, if a meeting of this kind were held in our country, if men 
representing interests in some measure competitive — as, of coune, the relations of all coun- 
tries with each other are competitive, — were to meet at the present time, there might be some 
fear expressed lest the real purpose did not appear upon the surface. There will be a disposi- 
tion to read into the lines of your discussions a purpose that might have some effect upon com- 
petitive conditions. Be that as it may, and I have no doubt you have similar problems in 
some of your countries, — and if you haven't them now I suggest that you may have them later, 
because we have met some questions by anticipation that you will have to meet as the result 
of experience, — ultimately we will have to realiie that you are not subject to the questions 
and the doubts that might obtain in our countty, because the delegates of these countries 
may be trusted to take care of their interests and are here to promote the general cause of 
equity and justice under which all may thrive and prosper alike. 

That being the plan, you may not be called altruists, as for instance a congresB of artists 
or even scientists might be; but no one can doubt that the purpose which you have in mind is 
to promote a program of general advantage, integrity of standards, quick and keen justice, 
peace among the nations, and ultimately the advantage of eveiy citizen and every part ot 
the community that may participate, however remotely, in your transactions. 

Gentlemen, in closing I want merely to say that any man in public life to-dt^ must ooit- 
template with peculiar gratification any congress whicH may be called to consider queatiims 
aa grave as those which you have up for discussion, and which at the same time cannot be 
charged with selfishness but must have it conceded that its purpose is the general well-being 
and welfare not only of those whom you directly represent but of those whom the Congress 
as such represents throughout the world. (jlppiauM.) 

Chairman Smith: Gentlemen, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, from the stand- 
point of industrial development, is the fourth greatest Commonwealth in our Union of forty- 
eight states. Her present chief magistrate is a great captain of industry. From the outset 
he has given us his most solicitous interest and effective co-operation, to the end that this 
Congress be the success it should be. It now becomes my pleasure to introduce His Excellency 
Governor Euoens N. Foss, of Massachusetts. {AppJause.) 

ADDRESS OF WELCOME ON BEHALF OF THE COMHONWEALTB OF 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Hon. Eugene M. Foaa, Governor of MatmchuseOs 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen: 

It is with great pleasure that I extend, on behalf of the Commonwealth, its greetinca. 
The Commonwealth is indeed greatly honored that you should have chosen this city asd this 
Btat« for this your first meeting on American soil. It is significant that you are coming to ua 
at this time, when a new era of commercial life is opening up. In the eariy years of thia n- 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 135 

public the diiqwr ahtpa of the porte of MasaachusetU circled the world, but of later yeEtrs we 
bsve been engaged, as SecreUuy Nagel haa told you, in the development of our iiit«rnal af- 
fain. It was the oapital of Massachusetts and New England which so largely contributed to 
the development of the western section of the country. It woe New England coital which 
built the great lines of railroads acroea the country and developed Uie great interior Btat«B of 
the West. 

But to-day we are turning our attention to the development of the waterways, of the 
internal waterways of the country, and are looking abroad for new markets. Here in Maaei^ 
chusetts you will find the home of the cotton industry, you will also find the home of the boot 
and ahoe industry, which we like to term the great American industry, for with a small d^ree 
td protection to this industiy we have been able to command the markets at home and the 
maricets of the world, until the American shoe is now found in every part of the world. 

You will find here in Massachusetts not only the financial and industrial organiiationa 
which have ctmtributed so much to build up the country, but you will also find those organi- 
■ations which are conserving the natural resources of the country, like our forests and water- 
power, and which are woridug along the line of the further development of theee resources 
which is going tm. 

We wish for Uie delegates a pleasing and profitable stay here. We know that your min- 
gling among us will bring us much of good, and that thereaultewillbebeneficial toall;andwe 
extend to you the warmest greetings of Massachusetts. (Applause.) 

Chairman Smith: Gentlemen, when you received your appointments as deU^ates to 
the city of Boeton, I apprehend that you looked for the statistical and numerical strength 
of Boston, and you read that Boeton was a city of 670,000 people, with an industrial output 
of S225,O0O,D0O. 

Boston stands alone as to its unfortunate uniqueness of physical position. Our municipal 
area has but 38 square milee. Therefore, owing to congestion within those limits we have 
municipally but 670,000 people. 

Within a stone's throw of where you now ait, and less than one thousand yards from where 
you now sit are two separate municipalities of over 100,000 people surging with industrial 
activity, and on the immediate outskirts of Boeton, in co-terminous teiritoiy, immediately 
adjoining, and whose interests are interdependent, within twelve miles, a population of a 
tnillHai and a half people with an industrial ouput of $560,000,000. 

The Mayor of Boston, in turn, has shown his most intimate interest in the success of 
this great Congress. His effective co-operation has been evident on every hand, and I am sure 
some of you at least will be renewing on old ocquiuntance, because he was one of the Boston 
party of tourists to visit Europe laet summer. 

It now ^becomes my pleasure to introduce His Honor the Mayor of Boston, John F. 
Ftfeqxkau). {Applaute.) 

ADDRESS OF WELCOME ON BEHALF OF TEE CrTT OF BOSTOH 
Hon. John F. Fitzgerald, Mayor t4 (As C^ of Button 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Ilfth Interaational Congress: 

I do not think that any one of ua who journeyed across the water last summer ever thought 
that this gathering which I have the htntor to address this morning, and to welcome formally 
to this great city of ours, would be as large in numbere and aa distinguished in representation 
OS it is, and we all, in Boston, owe a debt of gratitude to Mr. Filene, and to Mr. Fahq', who, 
two years ago at a similar Congress held in London, invited this gathering to Boeton, and were 
the cause of such a distinction coming to this great city. (ApplouMt.) 

Mr. Smith has spoken about the industrial life of this community, its population, its vast 
wealth, the interrelationship of the suburban communities, with Boston; but there is another 



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136 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Activitf going on here to-dfty that I want to any just a word about Man I proceed to 017 
formal addreaa, beeauae it is perhaps a pham <rf our American ciriliBation that some of jrou 
will never dmwhere have the opportunity to see. 

Id this Commonwealth of ours, over which our distinguished Governor who has just 
addressed you preeides, there is a political contest going on all over the state. Right here, 
within a short distance from this hotel, electioneering is going on; and you, gentlemen, irtio 
c(»ne from tboee parta of the world where property qualifications count, where the votca erf 
men with vast property eoimt ten to one hundred times as much ss the vote of the man with- 
out a dollar, will be able to witness a practical exhibition of American democracy, because 
you can see, this morning or at any time until 4 o'clock this afternoon, the laborer waUdng 
side by side with the millionaire many times over, in the same booth, and the vote of one is 
as mighty and as potent as the vote of the other. And there is no better exhibition of Amw- 
ica'e doctrine, there is not a better example of Amerioao democracy, than can be found rig^t 
within the precincts of this hotel; and I hope some of you will take advantage of the occasion 
and go out and see how the voting is done. (Applaute.) 

When a few years ago the American republics first realised that they had interests m 
common, a new word came into use, invented to express a certain unity among the peopke 
of the two continents. To Pan-Slavic and Pan-Germanic, with which you are familiar, 
there was added the term Pan-American. It awakened visions of inter-continental railroads 
and the enrichment of civilisation through the opening of unexhausted tropical lands. 

Today we meet under the inspiration of a still larger concept. Envoys from forty nations, 
men of diveise languages, laws, customs and religions, are assembled in a common cause. From 
the unity of a single race or of a hemisphere our imaginatioDs have pn^reased tiU thfCT encircle 
the globe itself. We might call the movement Pan-terrestrial or Pan-human. Whatever its 
name, we greet you, gentlemen, as its champions and exponents, — rational visionsriee, in- 
nocent schemers, peacefully plotting the good of all mankind. 

The theme of your deliberations is commerce. Was there a time when this word had 
derogatory or even sinister implications? Periiaps in some feudal period, before men had 
learned to respect the dignity of every-day, useful things. Happily we breathe to-day the at- 
mosphere of the twentieth century, in which the builder, the creator of wealth, is honored 
' above the destroyer or the dreamer. You who sit here in council, merchants, bankers, manu- 
facturers, engineers, operators of railroads, are the providers of the human family. Your 
ancestry reaches back to the primitive ages. Beneath war and change, turmoil and migra- 
tion, your patient industry has nourished and clad the race. The statesman and the soldier 
may daisle by their victoriea, but your conquests are less bloody and your influence more 
pervasive. The artist and the thinker may stand higher, but they do not come first. Read- 
ing history, we note that its luminous pages, those that treat of Athens, Rome, Venice, Flor- 
ence, London, Spain and Holland, in their prime, record the expansion of trade and tJie inflow 
of foreign wealth co-exiBt«nt with the bursting of whole generations into art and song. Far 
from being (q>posed, commerce and culture are sister wings of the human spirit. U eitha 
droops, the balance is lost and our flight becomes crippled and erratic. 

One function of commerce is to facihtate intercourse and thus to mediate between the 
famihes of men. Your vessels have grooved the very waters of the sea with lanes of approved 
safety for travel. Your engines ride upon rails laid through moimtain and jungle and oyer 
the inhospitable desert. Upon these highways the nations journey back and forth and meet 
for the exchange of goods. Thanks to this freedom of movement there is no longer any her- 
mit nation, but a univeisal interpenetration of knowledge and ideals. Governments adopt 
common aims and approximate a common type. Universities exchange pntteeon. Great 
actors and musical virtuosi are citisens of the world. The prophets of literature are honored 
in other countries as well as their own. A thousand influencee knit together the peoptea once 
estranged by isolation and ignorance. 

This better understanding is but a preface to great aeoompliahments which await ua in 
the near future. There are problems which cannot be solved exoept by international agr«e- 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 137 

ment, such u universal peace, and until that oomea to pass, a civilised code of warfare; the 
reduction of the cost of living; the prevention of plaguee; the deetructicHi of insect and ai^nud 
peste; the adoption of a uniform calendar; a superior and more economical poetal ^atem; 
rules for safety at sea; llie extradition of criminals; standard weights, monetary ayatona and 
commercial forms; the aneat and control of panics; and laws for the protection of patents 
and copyrii^ta. Some of these are included in the program of your Congress. We look for> 
ward to authoritatiTe discuaakms of tbeee subjects and to conclusions which must carry 
weight with those in authority. For tlds reason the presence of so many representatives of 
governments is a most favorable augury as well as a signal honor. (Applmite.) 

In America, gentlemen, you will find a nation well disposed toward the international 
movement, because we arc, ourselveB, a ooamopoUtan people. Every one of the sixteen lan- 
guages in which your program is printed is spoken in this city, and there are other parts of 
the country far more polyglot than Boston. The extent of our territory and its diversities of 
elimaite and contour give us a continental breadth of view and forbid all provincial narrow- 
ness. It is hardly too much to say that as you continue your travels each of you will find 
something familiar, as well as many features that are new and strange, in the composite fabric 
of our national life. 

But while other and more populous cities await your coming, it is our privilege to wel- 
come you first and to receive you as our particular guests. We believe that Boston m^ pos- 
sess some special attraction for men whose interests are commercial. Our settlement in the 
eariy seventeenth century is one of the romances of the sea, and all our histoiy is salted with 
an ocean flavor. After the Revolution a trade with India and China developed here, and it 
was no uncommon exploit for adventurous captains in vessels of small tonnage to circumnavi- 
gate the globe by way of Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope. The whaling industry, 
now diminished, bad its headquartera in nearby ports. Our fishing fleet, still the foremost in 
America, if not the world, ia about to occupy a new pier with buildings specially designed for 
tliis bufdnesa. Our ooastwiae commerce surpasses even that of Hamburg. Our foreign sail- 
ings are frequent and i^ular. Flotillas of pleasure craft are anchored in every bay and war- 
ships are bunt in an inlet of our harbor. Id short, we New Englanders are still laigely a 
sea-going people and it was no accident that the discovery of the North Pole was made by a 
native of Maine. (Applttuse.) 

To saturate our youth wilJi tlus atmosphere, a special school, the High School of Com- 
merce, has been established, which trains boys for the commercial life. More tiian a tlxni- 
sand pupils attend this institution, and by the generosity of some of our business men ssveial 
of them are sent each year to study the products and business customs of otlier countries. I 
tnist that some of you may be able to visit this school. 

Our parks, water basins and boulevards are also at your aervioe. These, with the ool- 
leges and public buildings, the life akmg the water front, the business and manufacturing 
activities <rf the city and our subuibau homes, may distract you pleasantly in the intervals 
of your more serious occupation. The Chamber of Commerce has already laid all its Ksourcas 
at your disposal for your personal oomfort and entertainment. The oitiEens in goteral will 
follow your proceedings with a friendly and enlightened interest. By the ci^ itself nothing 
will be left undone that may testify to our sentiments of cordiality and esteem. It is one of 
the distinctions of my life, as Chief Ma^strate of Boston, to inaugurate this convention, the 
fifth of its kind and the first to be beld-in the westenk hemisphere. May its deliberations be 
fruitful and hannonious and your personal experioices such as to repay you for the fatigoea 
of the kmg journeys you have made. If the results correspond to the high purpose and bril- 
liant intelligence of this gathering, the f^th Congress will surpass all its predeoeeeors and 
wiQ lay the foundations for achievements still mote massive and substantial in the years to 
come. (AppJouM.) 

Chairman Smith; As the business men of the United States read the commercial history 
of other nations they realiae that long years ago you recognised the necessity for commercial 



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138 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

organuatioDB first im your sevemi cities, and again amalgamated into one national association 
that it might occupy at least a quaei-official relation to your governments who make the lam 
of commerce. We confesB in America — or rather the United States — that wo were eelf- 
centered, bo fierce was the conflict to develop this great country of ours. But twenty-^ve 
years ago, in tbese various and many cities of ours, there came to be Organized boards of trade, 
commercial associations and great chambers of commerce. And only as recently as this laat 
April there was a new National Chamber of Commerce organiied which has even in this short 
period gained an individual membetship of over 100,000. And it becomes my pleasure to 
introduce the President of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Mr. Sasbt A. 
Wheeler of Chicago. {Apptaute.) 



ADDRESS OF WIXCOMB OH BBHAIf OF THE CHAMBER OF COHHERCE OF 

THE DNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

Mr. Htny A. Wheeler, Prttident of the Chamber of ComrMfct <4 She United State* 

Gentlemen of the International Congress: 

It is peculiarly gratifying that I should be able to represent, in this word of welcome to 
this Congress, by some authority, that of a national otgamiation, the welci»ne which the ocm- 
mercial interests of this country extend to you. As Uie presiding officer has said, a year ago 
this would have been impossible, but, followii^ the example which you have set for us in yoor 
countries, we have at last in this country endeavored to found a Qiamber that shall be eoat- 
parable to your own in the force that it shall exert for the benefit of this countiy's ccHnmercial 
interests. We are new and we have much to leam, and we eq>ect to learn at your hands; 
and for that reason, if for no other, this Congress is doubly velcome to the commercial inter- 
ests of this cotmtry. Their welcome to you is doubly cordial because of the benefits which 
we e:q>ect to receive as the result of your deliberations. 

Now, in the point of welcome, that welcome which you shall receive in this most boeiH* 
table city of Boston is but an earnest of the cordial hoepitaUty and the warm welecane that 
will be eitwkded to you as you travel westward for a thousand miles and then retraoe your 
steps to the seaboard. And 1 call you to note that when you have reached your farthest 
western point, my own beloved oi^ of Chicago, there will still lie beytmd an uea more than 
two thousand miles in extent, dipping into the Pacific, and in that area there exist to^y by 
the hundreds chamben of commerce and boards of trade, men in business with hearts as 
warm, with hospitality as cordial as the best that you will meet in that part of our countiy 
which you will traverse, men who are interested in the results of this Congress, who deeply 
think of the things that you are going to do; who are disappointed because they will have no 
opportunity because of your lack of time to greet you with a warm hand and with hearty, 
cordial hospitaUty such as they are accustomed to give to those who visit them. (Applaut.) 
Those who are the absent ones and those '^om you will not see — from them I bring cordial 
greetings and a hearty welcome to this our country. 

The business interests of the United States are deeply sensible of the importance of this 
great gathering. It signifies to us a recognition of a world interdependence; an acknowledg- 
ment that the happiness, the welfare and the prosperity of all the people are so interiaced 
that harm permitted to be done to the least of the nations must necessarily find its adverse 
eflect upon the greatest. Commerce has laid upon its heart and its conscience, by those who 
are willing to attribute wrong to it, many atrocious crimes. Yet, save only for the influence 
of the great worid-religions, commerce is the greatest single force in the world's civilisatitKL 
(Applmue.) And, further, gentlemen, save only for the same influence of which I have 
spoken, commerce will prove the greatest angle force in the world's regeneration. A con- 
gress of this kind means unity of action. Commerce desires unity, because it is self-centered, 
as Secretary Nagel has said, and selfish. But that selfishness which abscdutely resents intet- 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 139 

ference with its progreas — that selfishness which demands that obstacles shall be cleared 
away from the path of commerce — that selfishness which means progress to the world and 
has meant so much in the jeais that are passed, will in my judgment have a greater influence 
in the mtroduction of those tiiii^ which we are looking for — particularly I am referring to 
intematioaal arbitration of individual and national disputes (applaute) — than will obser- 
vance of the Golden Rule or than will the introduction into the minds of the world's people 
the sentiment or the dedre that universal peace shaU result. Commerce will do more in the 
last analysis to create and mBintAJTi world peace than all other forces or influences which may 
be brought to bear upon that subject. ("Hear, heart" and applause.) Conunerce, because it 
is selfish, will again exercise its power and its influence in creating thoae conditions surround- 
ing the industrial peoples of this worid that will take them out of a voluntaiy servitude and will 
place them in such position that they are benefitted with all the people with the good things 
that come to ua in life; that their interests shall be the interests of commerce, that their weU- 
being ahoU be close to our hearts and that their uplift shall be our study and our pleasure to 
prtxnote, because by the promotion of their well-being we are raising the standard of our 
commercial life, and are raising the standard of the products which our countries represent. 
If in no other way, gentlemen, than by the expreesion of the interdependence of the peoples 
of the world — if in no other way than by the influence which such congresses as this and 
such as the commercial int«reste shall exercise everywhere shall have upon the establishment 
(rf universal peace — if in no other way than that of raising the standard of Uving to those 
irito work for a Uving and to make their environments and their conditions better — if in 
those three things these great CongresBes shall succeed in laying broad and fine foundations, 
&ea these other questions that we are settling will largely be solved by the influences that are 
fundament^ to the greater problems. And we will find as a result cS our deliberations that 
those questions of international justice and equity are, after all, questions that will solve 
themselves when right principles have been laid at the foundation of the business worid 
(Applauae.) 

Again, in the name of the commercial interests of this country, I give you a welcome. 
We are expecting much as a result of this meeting that ne may leam from you, and if in some 
small measure we m^r have something to contribute out of our newer experiences to the wis- 
dom of your conclusions in the deliberations you shall undertake, we shall be deeply gratified. 
But go where you will over this country of ours, you will find in our chambers of commerce 
that if given the opportunity they will teach you what it is to be hospitable, they will show 
yoQ that measure of hospitality which we love to extend to those who visit us, and extend 
not on^ because of the cordial relations which we hope to establish, but because we desire 
you to know us better — to know what we have and what we are, what we are trying to do 
and what our aspirations may be. (Applause.) 

Chairman Smith: Two years ago last May a director of the newly-formed Boston Cham- 
ber of Ccmuneroe, and the one man who was the most instrumental in the inception of the 
moTOnent which led to the oiystalliKation of the business bodies of Boston, had the large vision 
that if it were poemble to hold this great Congress in Boston in 1912 it might not be a foriom 
]iope. The board of directors were delighted to pass unanimously their authority that this 
gentleman with others be authorized to extend the invitation in London, and with others he 
journeyed thither, and your presence here marks the success of his and their efforta. I take 
pleasure in introducing him, as he is, first, a splendid citlien of Boston, one of Boston's most 
successful men, the vice-president of this Congress, who will in turn show us the special cour- 
ted, by virtue of his office, of introducing your and our magnificent permanent president. 
And the gentleman I refer to — and to introduce him is my great pleasure — b Mr. Eoward 
A. FiLKNB of Boston. (Applause.) 



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140 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

ADDRESS OF WELCOUB 

Mr. Bdwaid A. FQene, VUe-President of the FifIA Inlenuiiional Confr«»» 
Delegates and Frieods: 

It is my double privilege, having been honored by you in being made vice^>reeident of 
this gatbering, and representing the Boston Chamber of Commerce, to add s brief word 
of heartfelt welcome and then to present to you the dietitiguished president of the Permanent 
Committee of the International Congresa, who is to preside at these meetings. 

To welcome so many capttuns of industry and generals of finance from all part« of the 
world is a great pleasure and a great honor. You are the men who win the decisive victories 
of peaceful times. He intense interest which your coming has aroused in the United States is 
evidence that the fame of 3^ur victories has spread. One proof that this int«re8t is not panive 
is the fact that over ninety North and South American business organiiations have joined the 
Int«mational Congress during the past year, in order to profit by the discussions and to aid 
in this welcome. 

To-day you concentrate here more than three hundred commercial sseociations. You not 
only bring together the official representation of these infiuentiol organiiations, but ceiit«i 
on tliis hemisphere for the first time your combined knowledge. Here is a great opportunity. 
For our guests, as well as we Americans, know that when ton men sit down to reason together 
in a friendly way, a new fund of knowledge is created. Every one may draw on this fund and 
add to bis own store of knowledge that of the other nine m^i. The power of each may be 
increased not once but tenfold, so th&t the result may be, not ten times one, but ten times ten 
or a hundred. And if we coll the individual knowledge of a man a umt of efficiency, then the 
consultation may result in one hundred imits of efficiency. 

And so here, t«o, each of ua miQr command the individual knowledge of his seven hundred 
fellow del^ates. Hie circle of ten has increased seventy-fold among the wisest buaness men of 
the world. Aitd the corresponding possible result becomes neaily half a million units of effi- 
ciency. {AppUtute.) That mt^ seem an American exaggeration (Utvghier); but, gentlemen, 
underneath it lies the truth, and it is that truth that is the surest guaranty that these con- 
gresses will grow and grow and grow, because there will be created tliis new and greater fund 
of efficiency which shall bring nations more and more into c(M>peration one with the other, 
enriching the world and mulring ua all wiser and better. 

I have called you the wisest of business men. This is not flattery, it is the truth. For if 
a successful business man has grasp and vision and imagination enoug^i to give him iotema- 
tional sympathy which is capable of af>preciating the benefits to the world bom of international 
co-operation, he is surely wise. Then if tliis understanding is of strength sufficient to cony 
him over mountains and seas to this great meeting, he is, I say, one of the worid's wisest 
businees men. (Applause.) 

So, also, will the friendships which we form in Bost<m be the wisest of friendships. Hiey 
are to include all of us, I hope, for no member of this Ccmgrees needs a formal introductka 
to a feUow delegate. (ApjimtM.) These friendships, tying us t^igether years after we have 
returned to our scattered homes, mean much to the world. This Congress adjourns Thursday, 
but the friend^ps to which we look forward will keep its influence constantly alive, cco- 
stantly helpful. The worid, as well as all of us, will benefit from such international frieiKlshipa. 

When we were last together in London I had the great honor, on behalf of the Boeton 
Chamber, to invito you to visit the United States, ma-icing at that time some promises which 
I hope we will fulfil. I told you that in coming to the United States, you were coming home. 
I told you that the United States, after all, was not made by the Indians. (Laughter.) I am 
talking of our own Indians now, not of the East Indians, some of whom I see here. (Laughitr.) 
But America was made, I said, by the Englishmen and the Frenchmen and the Germans and the 
Italians — I will stop here, for it would take up too much of your time to oiumerate all of the 
nations which have made up the America and the United States that you are now visiting. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 141 

And so you come this moniiiig to your own, not to a atrange country, but to youi home 
land. You are among your brothers who sailed westward to build a brotherhood nation. 
Here you will instantly recopiiie the colors of your home lands blending to make up the whole 
ve c(dl America. The forty or more nationalities represented by you are the real creators of 
the United Stat«8 and its people, who are honored by your coming. (Apptause.) The State, 
the City, and the Chamber, recognicing this debt of our nation to you, rejoice that this op- 
portunity of being your hosts will enable them to aasigt you in a still greater service. For 
they see in the Congress a long step in the advance towards the day when we business men of 
all nations shall be able to i^ply internationally what we have individually learned from 
our own business, — namely, tbat all business Euid all relations, to be permanent and really 
advantageous, muat be mutually helpful. (Applaute.) 

And it is on this baaia that I predict our advance. We ehall pass onward throu^ the 
questions to which this Congress must now necessarily limit itself. From these, in the ful- 
ness of time, we shall pass upward to those far grestor, far moro important questions which 
are not only fundamental to the best commercial relations between nations, but are as well 
the basis of peace on earth and good will to men. (Applaitse.) Not that I minimis the things 
we are now doii^. Though after all they are only the foundation stones — still they are the 
important foundation stones which must be strong and well laid tf tJie great superstructure 
is ever to be completed. It is with these thoughts in mind that we bid you thrice welcome. 

My privilege has still another great pleasure in store — to present to you MtMisieur 
Loms Caj<on-Leorand of Belgium, citiien of the worid, President of the International Con- 
gress, presiding officer of this meeting. Monsieur Canon-L^rand personifies the initiative 
of our always far-sighted Belgian brothers, who brought the first Congress into being at li^ 
bI905. 

St«adily thereafter, he piloted the work at Milan, at Prague, at London, and now to-day 
be comes to guide us here with the same maatoi-hand which has for years kept this great In- 
ternational Congress on ite safe and prosperous course and off the dangerous rocks of inter- 
national differences. 

Head of the federated commercial and industrial aseociationa of Belgium, Monsieur 
Canon-L^raod has, dnee the International Congress came into enatence, given freely of his 
great tact and his knowledge of international affairs, that we might fulfil our opportunity. 
Many international government conferences and many international economic movemoits of 
great importance owe their life to theae congresses. All received their share of impetus ttotu 
Monsieur Canon-Legrand. And, likewise, here we are to be directed by his knowledge — 
and directed, I feel sure, to great ends, to success which our home lands will look upon with 
iuBtifiable pride. GenUemen, 1 have the great pleasure of presenting to you our presiding 
officer and President, Monsieur LouiB Canon-Lkobanv. (Apptaute.) 

MONSIEUR LOXnS CAKON-UGRAim 
Pmidenl of At PtrmatmU CommiUee of the Inlematumal Congrui 

Monaieur le Pr&ident, Measieurs: 

C'est le cceur plein d'une profonde Amotion que je me l^e pour r^pondre sux bienvenuea 
trop cordiales qui nous ont 6t6 adress£es par les orateurs qui m'ont pr6c£d€ & oette tribune. 
6i je me sers de ma langue, le fran9ais, c'est qu'il est bon d'employer celle que Ton connatt 
le mieux et avec laquelle on exprime le mieux les sentiments de son catur. Sinon, messieurs, 
ie devrais, au nom des d£l^£s de tous les pays, ici presents, vous parler toutee les langues 
dela terrc. 

Je Buis done particuliii«ment heureux de pouvoir, au nom de tous lea dSl^gute itrangers 
venua i Boston, adresser noe remercionents chaleureux & I'ancien pr&ident de la Chambte de 
C<H[unerce de Boston, M. Smith, au secretaire du IHpartement de Commerce et du Travail, 
M.ChariesNagel,augouvemeurde rCtatdu Massachusetts, M.Foae.au maire de laville de 



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142 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

BostoD, M. Fitzgerald, ainai qu'au prSeident de la Chambre de Commerce des £tatB-Utiis k 
Washington; et enfia, je doia dee remerciemente tout apfciaux &moii ami — je I'appelle ainm" 
— M. Fileae, que j'tu eu IlioiuieuT de conualtre il y s deux aus it Londrea, et avec qui depuis 
lora dea relations Be Bont Buivies de la fa5on la plua oordiale. 

Messieurs, laissei-moi yous dire quelques mots en tran^aia — car je me propose de vous 
adreaaer la parole en anglais aussi — pour reconnattre la gracieuse hospitality de nos hAtes; 
laisaee-moi vous dire, k moi, qui ai vu grandir I'ceuyre dea Congrte dea Chambrea de Commerce, 
Gombien il est r^confortant, combien il est puissant pour raveuir de voir le trie grand non^re 
de d£l^u£s presents dans cette salle. Noua avona commenc^e, on voua I'a rappel^ tout i 
llieure, en Belgique, oil noua n'^tiona que quelques centainea, troia cents, troia cent cinquante; 
I'oeuvre s'eat accrue, s'eat d4velopp6e; elle est aI16e en Italie, en BobSme, A Londrea — nous 
fitiona aix cents k Londres, — et aujoutd'bui, messieurB, matgt^ lea difficult^ du voyage, — 
cor je ne vous cache paa que pour noua, europfens, la traverse de I'Atiantique n'est pas une 
petite affaire — nous sommea venus du vieux monde plua de sept cents pour rdpondre k la 
oordiale invitation de nos amia dea fitata-Unia de I'AmSrique du Nord. 

Voil& lea d^veloppementa de I'tBuvre. Et la raison en eat bien aimple ; c'est que les hommes 
de bonne volont^, que voua Stes tous, se trouvent et ae trouveront toujoura de plus en plus nom- 
breux; o'est que, dans lea aSairea de commerce, d'industrie, d'affaires, la mGme mentality nous 
anime toue. Noub aVons tous la mbne conscience des int^r^ts g^n^aux, et en t^e g6n£rale, 
dte que noua diacutons nos questions, immMiatement nous sommea toua d'accoid. VoilA la 
raison dea reunions pareillea & celle-ci. 

J'ai H4 trte heureux tout & llieure d'entendre I'honorable prudent de la Chambre de 
Commerce des £tata-Unis nous dire quelle 4tait I'influence du commerce sur les relations in- 
t«mationalea. En deux mots, on peut dire: Le commerce, c'est la paix — Commerev u peatx. 
(A pplauditMmenit.) 

Je ne veux pas abuser plua longtemps de tos moments, car noua avons A commencer 
notre aeaaion et k travailler. Je vaia done me pwrmettie, par courtoiaie pour nos faAtes, de 
voua dire en anglais de quelle faQon je comprenda notre ceuvre. 

(TnttMldtum) 

Mr. President, Gentlemen: 

With a heart full of profound emotion, I riae to respond to the cordial welcome 
which has been given ua by the apeaketa who have preceded me on thia platform. If I uae 
the French language, it is becauae it is good for one to employ that which he knows best 
and in which he can express best the sentiments of his heart. Otherwise, gentlemen, I 
should have, in the name of all the delegates present, to address you in all tbe languages 
of Ute earth. 

I am particularly happy to be able, on behalf of all the delegates that have crane 
to Boeton, to addresa our heartfelt thanks to the fonner President of the Chamber of 
Commerce of Boaton, Mr. Smith; to the Secretary of the Department of Commerce 
and Labor, Mr. Chariea Nagel; to the Governor of Maasachusetta, Mr. Foes; to the 
Mayor of the City of Boston, Mr. Fitsgerald, and to the Resident of the Chunber of 
Commerce of the United 8tat«a at Waahington; and laatly I owe my moat particular 
thanks to my friend — I call him thus — Mr. Filene, whom I had the honor to meet 
two yean ago in London, and with whom I have had aince moat cordial relations. 

Gentlemen, let me tell you briefly in French, as I propose to addieas you in English 
alao, in order to acknowledge the gracioua hoapitality of our hosta; let me teU you, I, who 
have seen the congresses of the Chambera of Commerce grow, how comforting, how full 
of hope it is for the future, to see thia lai^ number of delegates present in this hall. 
We began, as you have heard it said before, in Betpua, where we were only a few hun- 
dred; the work has grown, haa developed; we went to Italy, to Bohemia, to London — 
we were six hundred in London — and to-day, gentlemen, notwithstanding the difficul- 
ties of the trip — for I will not conceal from you lliat for ua Europeans the croeaing of 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMEKCE 143 

tlie Atlaotic ia not a smaU affair — we have come rrom the old world more than seven 
hundred strong, to answer the coidial invitation of our triends of the United States of 
North America. 

Thua the work developed. And the reason b very simple; it ia because men of good 
will, as you all are, will always be in the majority ; because in the affairs of commerce, 
industry and business, the same thought animates us all. We are all conscious of the 
general interest of the community, and as a general rule, when we discuss our questions, 
we agree immediately. This is the reason for meetings similar to the present one. 

I have been very happy to hear the Honorable President of the Chamber of Com- 
merce of the United States tell us of the influence of commerce on international rela- 
tions. In short, one may say that commerce means peace. iApplauae.) 

I do not wish to encroach on your time, as we have to begin our session and get to 



M. le PrSaident: Messieurs, nous commengons done noa travaux. Je vous dois quel- 
ques explications sur la fafon dont nous comptons proc^der. Lee rapports ont &t6 envoys 
en troiB langues diffSrentee, et chacun des rapporteurs viendra faire devant vous un bref r£sum6 
de ces rapports. Nous prierons les rapporteurs de vouloir bien, aprte ce r§sum£, transcrire eux- 
mftmes, pour I'ezactitude des renseignements i, donner i, la presse, lee r^sumte qu'ils auront faita. 
Messieurs, avant de commencer I'ordre du jour, je dois vous donner conoaissance des 
t^llgrammes que nous avoue re^us. 
(Z*raTuIalton) 

Gentlemen, we are about to begin out work. It is proper that I should give a few 
explanations of our methods of proceeding. Reports have been sent to you in three dif- 
ferent languages, and each of the Reporters will give you a brief summary of these 
reports. We would ask the Reporters, after their brief statements, to kindly transcribe, 
themselves, for the sake of giving exact accounts to the press, the summaries which 
they will have made. 

Now, gentlemen, before beginning on the order of the day, I wish to bring t« your 
no^ce some of the telegrams which we have received: 

Remerciements sinc^res pour aimable invitatbn; mialheureusement impossible en profiter, 
vu Elections k la Douma. MeilleurB voeux pour travaux du Congt*s. Prosp&it* pour votre 
Chambre. De Miller, Pr4*ident de Varsovie. 

(TransIdfMm) 

Sincere thanks for kind invitation; unfortunately impossible to take advantage of 
it, on account of elections to the Douma. Best wishes for the work of the Congress, and 
tor the prosperity of your Chamber. De Miller, PresideiU, Wartaw. 

T^lfgramme de la Chambre de Commerce de Paris et les Chambres de Commerce 4tran- 
gires 4tablies k Paris, expiimant leurs voeux r^uuis pour le succto le plus complet du Congrte. 
(TraruIoUon) 

Telegram from the Chamber of Commerce of Paris and the foreign Chambers of 

Commerce established in Paris expresses their united wishes for the complete success 

of the Congress. 

As PresidBnt and on behalf of Ixindon Chamber Commerce and myself, I wish Congress 
all success; trust that among other useful objects achieved, it may lead statesmen to take in 
haod calendar reform and fixed Easter date; much regret, was prevented attending. 

DESBOROtraH. 

Compliments have also been received from the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce. 



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THE ESTABUSHMENT OF A FIXED DATE FOR EASTER, AIVD THE 
REFORM OF THE CALENDAR 

H. Louis Canon-LeETsnd, Pretident of the Congress 

Messieura: 

Pour les discuseioDfi, je prierais lee oreteurs qui Toudront pi^idre la parole de m faire 
inacrire en donnant leur carte de visite au sect^taire, a£ii de aavoir exactement t'ordre e( 
les Doms des orateuFB. 

L'ordre du jour de la pr^sente stance comporte d'abord use communication que i'ai k 
VOU8 faire au sujet de la fixation de la date de P&ques. 

Voua aves tous re9U le petit rapport, la mise au point de la question que j'ai faite. Je la 
resume en quelques mota: ce fut en 1907 que la variabiUt^ de la f£te de Pfiquea, qui peut st- 
teindie trentC'^anq jours, fut discut^ par noua. Les inconv&iieDts r^daient dans la vie 
commercials, dana le regime dee Scales et dans les transactions conunerciales. Si F&quee 
tombe en mare, c'est une saison manqute pour certaines industries. Aprte le Congrte en 
1908, la question fut portfe 4 l'ordre du jour. Elle 6tait trSa connue en Allemagne, mais pen 
dans les autrea pays. C'eat au Congrte de Londres, en 1910, il y a deux ana, que celte ques- 
tion fut traits i. fond, ainsi que cells de la fixity du calendrier. U est eaeentiel d'avoir, dans le 
oalendrier, un nombre exact de semaines; il faut pour cela supprimer un jour sur les 365. 
Dans toutes les industries, dans tous les commerces, la question de la paye, qui ae fait le 30 
du mois ou le 15 du mois, peut 6tTe r^£e ainsi beaucoup plus r^gulidrement ; pour les banques, 
pour les maisons de finance, il est essentiel que tous lea mois se terminent de I& mkne tatjaa, 
et le Congrte de Londrea a done iaue I'avia qu'il aerait desirable d'arriver k I'^tablissement du 
calendrier fixe international. 

Voua saves, messieurs, comment nous proc^ons. Notre comit^ permanent se borne k 
toettre dee vceux, et nous nous eSor^ons d'obtenir de I'une ou I'autre nation la convocaticxi 
de ccmf^ncee diptomatiques qui ambient les legislatures des diff£rente pays k a'occuper de 
cee questions. 

Ce fut le caa pour la question du calendrier au sujet de laqueUe le gouvemement Suiaee a 
prig I'initiative de conferences intemationalea. Noua n'avons done plus k discut«r c«tte 
question, mais ce que nous t«nons k faIre, c'est de la vulgariser en Am£rique. II est d'autant 
plus int^ressant de signaler la choee, que cette annte meme, en juin demier, il y a quelques 
mois il peine, le Coogria des Chambree de Commerce de I'Empire Britannique a pasafi une 
T^sdution unanime k ce sujet. 

Voil& done, messieurs, le but de ma communication. Je I'ai r^sumd brifrrement. Tons 
avei tous la traduction en angilais et en allemand, mais je suis prft k donner la parole, et 
notamment, j'ai, comme orateur inscrit, M. F. FAiTBycu. Beoo. Je suia done pr6t & donner 
la parole k ceux qui voudront, dans un but de vulgarisation plus grand en Am&ique, entre- 
tenir I'assembUe de la question. 
(Tnauiation) 

Gentlemen: 

During the discussion, I would ask the speakers who wish to be heard to regista 

themselves by giving their visiting cards to the Secretaiy in order that we may know 

exactly the order and names ot &e speakers. 

liie order of the day of the present seseitm containa first a communication widA I 

have to make to you on the subject of the establishment of a fixed date for Easter. 
You have all received a Uttle report containing a brief outline of the question. I 

wiU sum this up in a few words: In 1907 the variability of the aeaaon of Easter, whidi 

can extend to thirty-five daya, was discussed by us. Conaiderable inconvenience is oe- 

caaioned in commercial life, in the school sessions and in commercial transactions. If 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 145 

East«r f&lls in March it is a ruined season in certain induBtriea. After the Congress 
of 1908, the question was placed on the order of the day. It was already well known 
in Germany, but Uttte in other countries. At the Congress of London, in 1910, two 
Tears ago, this queatioa was discussed thorou^y, as well as that of the uniformity of 
the calendax. It is essential to have in the c^endar an eicact number of weeks. It 
therefore becomes necessary to suppress one day of the 365. In all industiies, in all 
businese, the question of p&yment of wages, when made the 30th of the montii or the 
15th, can be arranged far more conveniently; for banks and financial houses it is 
important that all the months should end on the same day, and the London Congftaa 
has therefore expresxd the opinion that it would be desirable to arrange for the est^lish- 
ment of a fixed international calendar. 

You know, gentlemen, how we proceed. It is the duty of our Pennanent Com- 
mittee to pass votes, and we make efforts to obtain from one nation or another the 
convocation of diplomatic conferences which shall lead the legislatures in the different 
countries to take up these questions. 

Such was the case with the question of the calendar in regard to which the Swiss 
Government took the initiative to bring about international conferences. It is there- 
fore no longer necessary for us to discuss this question, but what we have to do is to 
popularise it in America. It is therefore the more interesting to note the fact that this 
present year, in Jime last, that was only a tew months ago, the Congress of Chambers 
of Commerce of the British Empire unanimously passed a resolution on this subject. 

This, gentlemen, is the purpose of my report. I have summed it up briefly. You 
all hftve the translation in English and in German, and I am ready to yield to another 
speaker, having noted Mr. F. FAtmnTu. Beog. We are then reat^ to hear those 
who wish to apeak to the meeting on this question with the purpose of a greater popu< 
lar interest in the topic in America. 

Mr. F. Faithfnll Begg, Chairman qf the Cmtncil of the London OwxnAer o/ Commwee 

Mr. neaident and Gentlemen: 

I desire, having been especially requested to do so, to say a very few words on the sub- 
ject of the President's communication on behalf of the Londtm Chamber of Commerce, which 
I have Uie honor to represent here on this occasion. (Appinuae.) 

The London Chamber of Commerce, ever since it was instructed in the merits of this 
controversy by your respected President some years ago, has been enthusiastically in favor 
of the reforms which he so eloquently advocates. 

There are two questions involved, two questions of veiy great importance. One is the 
regulariiation of the date of Easter, and there is the question of the adoption of a new calen- 
dar system. Now I shall not detain you more than a very few minutes, but I should like to 
say a few words upon each of these subjects. 

Possibly here in the United States you may not have appreciated the difficulties which 
arise in connection with the variable date upon which Easter falls. Those difficulties are well 
explained in the communication of the President, and I do not propose to enter into them at all. 

What I wish to point out more particularly to those who have not perhaps profoundly 
studied this subject, is that there is no reasOQ whatever why you should have a variable date 
for Easter. It is an old arrangement, into the reasons for which I will not enter, but if we would 
only be content to r^ulate Easter by the sun, instead of regulating the date by the mocm, 
we should get to a point where we might have annually a fixed date for Easter. 

That seems a very simple matter, but it is by no means so simple; and it is satisfactory 
to know tiiat, looking at the difficulties from an international point of view, this Congress 
has already been able to interest the various governments in Europe in the question, and I 
tiiink we may fully hope that in a short time a satisfactory result will be brought about. 

One p<mit I desire to mention in connection with both questions: I will state that my 



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146 INTERNATIONAL CONGHESS OP 

own Chamber is in favor, but I niah to draw your special attention to a paragraph in ibe 
Fresideat'a communication toward the close, where he mentions that the seventh Coagftm 
of Chambers of Commerce of the British Empire, meeting last June, passed imanimouely & 
favorable resolution. 

I wish to point out to you that that represents the combined wisdom, if I may use the 
word "wisdom," of the Chambers of Commerce of the British Empire, a new organitation 
which has been brought into existence quite recently which met the other day in London and 
which contained in its membership representative men from all parts of the British Empire. 

Now, gentlemen, with your permiasiDn I should like to say one word about the calendar. 
I am not goii^ to discuss the calendar, because again, the President has provided ua with fnll 
information with regard to what it is proposed should be done in that connection, but I wish 
to mention for a special reason a fact which I think is perhaps not well known to every one 
in this room, and it is this: That there is here, on the American continent, proof that before 
America was discovered by Columbus there existed on these shores a system for the most 
accurate odjuatment of civil and solar time, and a system which was superior in its method 
to that in use in Europe in the days of Columbus, and to the calendar year under which we 
regulate our affairs to^lay, the calendar of the Pope Gr^ory. 

You may see for yourselves, if you choose to visit the place, the calendar stcme of the 
Aitecs of Mexico. It exists in the form of a sun-stone, twelve inches in diameter, sculptured 
with great dexterity and fineness, and this stone is both a sun-dial and a calendar similar la 
that which was used by the Egyptians and the Chaldeans in time long gone by. By Di«ans 
of this stone the Mexican priests determined not only the time of day, but they detemuned 
the solstices, and they kept account of years and of days. On the face of the stone there are 
inscriptions including the division of the year into weeks and into days, and the extraordinary 
thing is that that stone includes also the computation of t^nturies, with greater exactness, 
as I have said, than that of the modem Gregorian calendar. 

The error, and those of you who understand the error in the calendar will appreciate the 
force of this point, b equivalent t« only one day in thousands of years. (AppIouM.) 

This stone is supposed to have been made in the year U79 of our Lord; but the science 
upon which it is based must have token enormous periods lo evolve, wherever that science 
came from, whether it was European or native bom. How that stone came into existence 
nobody has been able to determine; but there it is. 

Now I have mentioned this extraordinary fact because in conversation with tlie Preti- 
dent, who is a mast«rof this subject, I mentioned it to him. I do not suppose he will think I 
am giving away hia confidence when he told me frankly that be had never heard of it. And 
I suppose there must be gentlemen here present from Europe who are in the same positicn. 
I am perfectly satisfied that every one here who comes from the United States knows all 
about Uiis stone {laughter), has carefully examined it and has probably a theory of bow it 
came into existence. My idea is that this stone should be brought into play in OMisectioD 
with the proposal for the refoim of the calendar, and at all events that the system in exis- 
tence, as I have said, in tiiis country before the discovery of the country by Columbus should 
have a show in the negotiations which are going on in connection with the reform of the 
calendar. (Applawe,) 

M. le Prteident: Je remercie M. Begg de son int^ressante communication. H est 
exact que c'est une contribution nouveUe. La question du calendrier a 6t6 ^tudi6e, nous 
n'avons pas I'intention de la diacuter A nouveau, mais il est tr^ int^ressant de savoir qu'avant 
mSme que Christophe Colomb eut d£couvert I'Am^que, il y avait d^i& une pierre hut laqudk 
tm calendrier trte remarquable avait 6t6 trac6, par des Am^ricains qui vous pr€o6daient tous. 

J'ai encore une demande de parole pour le calendrier, de M. Ernst Kbause. 
(TTontlaium.) 

I wish to thank Mr. B^k ^or his interesting communication. It is a fact that this 

is a new contribution. The question of a calendar has been studied, and it is not om 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 147 

intention to discuss it again, but it is vct; interesting to know that even before Chris- 
topher Columbus discovered America there already exiated a stone upon which a verj 
remarkable calendar was engraved bj Americans who preceded all of you. 

I have a further request, that the platform be given, on the subject of the calendar, 
to Mr. Ernbt Kbause. 

Heir Ernst Kranse, Vice-Premdeni of the Lower A^ulrian AModation for Promotion qf Handi- 
craft, Vienna 

Meine verehrten Herren vom FOnften KongreBI 

Wir haben eehr viel darUber gehort und geleaeo, wie die Vereinfachung des Kalenders 

durcbgeftlhrt werden eoUte, und wie es mCglich ist, Ostem auf einen bestimmten Tag eu legen. 
Die Mitglieder der Handelaltamtner, die icb zu vertreten die Ehre babe. Bind voUstindig 

mit allem einverstanden, was in dieser Richtung beschlossen wird; aber, meine Herren, wir 

eind praktische Eaufleute, und als praktieche Kaufleut« mUBBeo wir une sagen, es wird ikm^ 

erne lange Zeit dauem, bis sich alles das durchfOhreii l&Ct, was bier und in den fiUhereii Kon- 

peasen beschlossen worden iet. 

(TTan^alum) 

Greatly esteemed Gentlemen of the Fifth Congress; 

We have heard and read a good de^ concerning the simplification of the calendar 
and Uie manner in which it will be possible to fix a definite date for Easter. 

The members of the Chamber of Commerce, whom I have tbe honor of repreaenting, 
are entirely conformable with everything that is going to be decided in that respect; but 
considering, gentlemen, that we are practical merchants we necessarily must realiie as 
such practical merchants that it will require a long time before everything can be adopted 
that has been decided in former congresses and which may be decided upon now. 

At this point the speaker was interrupted by the President and finished his remarks 
as first speaker in the afternoon session. 
Meeting adjourned at 12.25. 



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Aeconb IkMion 

The members of the CongreaB leaawmbled &t 2.30 P.if. 
Present Canon-Legmid 

Noua i^sumoDS les traTaux de ce matin. 

Je commence d'aboid par vous demonder de l&iaeer, autant que possible, la premie 
rang^ de chaises Hbre. Cela nous pennettra de donner aux d£l^gu£s officials des gouver- 
nemento itrangeis, qui sont une trentaine, la place & laquelle, nonnalement, Qs auraient eu 
droit sur l'«atrade. Comme celle-ci est trap petite, il faut bien que nous leur donnitms satis- 
faction sutt^nent et avoir pour eux lea ^gsrds auxquels ils ont droit. 

La parole est oontinufe & M. Kraube. 

(TVarMJofion) 

We will resume our labois of this morning, 

I will begin by asking you to kindly leave the first row of seats vacant, as far as 
possible. This will permit us to extend to the official delegates of foreign governments 
the right which, ordinarily, they would have to seats on the platform. As thepl&tform 
is not large enough, we shall have to make other arrangements to accord them the pre- 
cedence to which they are entitled. 

Mr. KRAnsB has the floor. 

Herr Ernst Eranse [amlinvtd) 

Meine verehrten Herrenl 

Entschuldigen Sie, daC ich jetit noch eimnal turQckkomme auf das Thuna, welches wir 
heute Tormitt^ begonnen haben. Ich habe Ihnen bereits sum Ausdruck gdiracht, dai 
alle mafigebenden Faktoren in Wien dsmit einverstanden mnd, dafi daa Osteifest auf 
einen bestimmten Tag gelegt wird, und daB ein einheitlicher Kalender fOr die ganse Welt 
eingefOhrt wird. Aber ich wollte auch lum Ausdruck bringen, daQ ea sehr unpraktisch wftre, 
wenn wir darauf wartm woUten, bis die kirchlichen Autorit&ten und die staatlichen Autori- 
t&ten sich bereit finden, sich fiber einen derartigen einheitlichen Kalender ni einigen. Bis 
dahin, meine Herren, mOssen wir proktischen Kaufleute etwas anderee finden, um daa Ubd 
weoigstens ein klein wenig m beeeitigen, und da mOchte ich den geehrt^t Henen ins Ge- 
dfichtnis lurQckrufen, dafi wir in jedem Lande bis heute voUst&ndig ohne Kenntnis dessen 
flind, welcbe Feiertage und Ruhetage in den anderen L&ndem Ublich sind, und wenn wir aucb 
das eine oder anders Mai es in unseren Zeitungen lesen, so vei^iessen wir sehr schn^ darOber, 
und kein Kaufmann konn uch die Tage aller der Lftnder, mit welchen er korreapondiert, im 
Gedftcbtnis behalten, um seine Dispositiimen entsprechend su treffen. Idi will Ihnen gani 
kun ein Beispiel geben: 

Ich hatte meine Dispositionen so getroffen, daB ich am 2. September in New York ein- 
treffe, vom Moi^n dea 2. Septembers bis sum Abend eine beatimmte Albeit verrichte und 
dann nach Chicago weiterfahre. Ich hatte keine Abnung davon, daJi am 2. September der 
Labor Day let, an welchem ea unmOglicb ist, ii^endwelche Geschfif te in Amerika lu veirichten. 
Nun glaube ich, daC dem ein klein wenig abgeholfen werden kOimte, wenn wir, die wir im 
intematJonalen Verkehr stehen, auf unseren Briefbogen, auf unseren Mitteilungen an unaere 
Geschftftsfreunde im intemationalen Verkehr diejenigen Tage annonderen, an welchen wir 
nicht arbeiten. DadurcUkOnnenwichtigelnteressengeschont werden, Viele Gesch&fte bfingn 
davon ab, daS man inn^halb einer gam bestimmten Zeit eine Antwort erteilt. Und wenn 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 149 

man dieae Antwort nicbt bekommen kann, weil der andere Partner einen Feiertag hat und 
keine Telegramme bokommt, 80 kOnnen dadurch grOBSe Interesaen geschftdigt werden. 

AuBetdem, meine Henen, ^ube ieh, daS ea mj^ch ut, auch die groOen Tagesiutungen 
aller Under dahiii lu mt«reeaiei'en, dafl auch dieee jedes Mai, wenn in eiuem anderen Lande 
Feiertag ist, dieee Mitteilung dem Publikum lukonunen lassen. Wenn auf dieee Weiee, eowohl 
doTch uneere eigene Korrespondeni ala auch durch die TageBieitungen verOffentlicht wird, 
wann Peiertage mnd, ao wird bia lur Peatlegung dea intemationalen Kalendera ein groCet 
Teil deajenigen Schadena vertnieden werden, der una ao oft trifft und der una dahin gefflhrt 
hat, daB wir etnen intemationalen Kalender anatreben. Aus dieeem Grunde bitte ich den 
Ftlnften Kongrefi der vereinigten Handelakammeni meinen Vorschlag eu unteratQtzen, dall 
alie Handelakammem aufgefordert werden, ihie Mit^eder dahin ni infonnieren, daS sie auf 
ihrm Briefk&p[en die Feiertage dea eigenen Landee aogeben und ferner dahin wirken, daQ die 
Zeitnngen dee eigenen Landes die Feiertage der fremden LAnder anooncieren. 

(XraulaHon) 



Please pardon me, if I refer again to the aubject which we b^an this morning. 
I have already called to your attention that all important factors in Vienna have 
agreed that the Eaater holidays should be set for a definite date and tliat a uniform 
calendar should be introduced for the entire world, but I also wish to say that it would be 
very impractical if we should wait until the eccleaiastieal authoritiea and the atato 
authorities are ready to unite on auch a uniform calendar. Until then, gentlemen, we 
practical buBineea men muat find another aolution to reduce the annoyance in a measure. 
I think that aa a rule we citiiMia of the varioua countries are at the present time more or 
leas ignorant of the feasts and holidays in other countries. Even tbough we may read 
about them from time to time in our papera we ore liable to foiget very aoon thereaft«r, 
and no merchant can keep in mind the holidays of all the countries with which he corre- 
spondfl and which he must consider in hia arrangements. I will give you a brief example : 

I had made my arrangranents to arrive in New York on September 2 to do certain 
definite work during the day and to continue my trip to Chicago that evening. I had no 
suspicion that September 2 waa Labor Day, upon which it is impossible to transact busi- 
ness anywhere in America. Now I think that this could be somewhat improved if those 
of us who engage in international bunness would state on our letterheads for our com- 
munications to buainees friends abroad the list of days upon which no business is done. 
Ihia would prevent many serious miabape. Many transactions depend on the receipt of 
an answer within a limited time. And if this answer cannot be received because the other 
party has a holidiQ' and does not receive hia telegram, laige transactions are liable to 
miscarry. 

Furthermore, gentlemen, I believe it is poasible to interest all the large newspapers 
everywhere and have tiiem publish, for the benefit of tiie public, the dates of hohdays 
in foreign lands, lu this way, until the inauguration of the international calendar, a 
laige part of the annoyances which have harassed us up to the present time can be 
avoided, imtil we have agreed upon an international calendar. For these reasons I ask 
the Fifth Congreaa of the United Chambers of Commerce to endorse my suggestion that 
all chambers of commerce be asked to advise their members to indicate on their letterheads 
the hohdays in their own countries and further take steps to have their newspapers an- 
nounce the'bolidays in foreign countries. 

U. 1« Pr6sld«nt: Je remercie M.Krauae pour ses observations. II vient de me demander 
que, en attendant que Ton ait obtenu le calendrier g^n^ral, on puisee, au moins, de pays & pays, 
savoir quela aont lea jours f£ri^. Aujourd'hui, dit-il, les conunerQants d'un pays ignotent 
quels sont les joure f^^ dans lee autres pays. O'eet done, en somme, une communication 
dont nous pouvons aimplement faire itat dMU noa proc^vetbaux. De la sorte, toutea lea 



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150 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

cbambrcB de commerce a£Sli£es k notra ccatdi6 pennament sexoot tenues aa c«urant de c« d^eir 
trte l^time. 

Je ne pense pas qu'il eoit autrement question de provoquer ime decision du congrte S ce 
Bujet. J'eBtime done que nous pouvons prendre I'inUressante propoeition de M. Krsuse pour 
notification ft toua noe adherents. Vaie aurei Mtirfaction unai, M. Krause. 

Le congrte, done, donnera notification it toua lee adhfrent^ de rintircMaate obaerration 
que Y0U8 aves faite et qui pennettra ainai sua n^ociants dea diff^rents pays de savoir d'avanoe 
quels sont les joura fdrifs dana un pays ou dans un autre. 

J'ai maintenant comme orateur inscrit, M. Ai<rRBi> Aslsit. 

{TranKlation) 

1 beg to thank Mr, Krause for bis remarks. Be asks me if while awaiting the intro- 
duction of the universal calendar we might at least know from country to country what 
the holidays are. At present, he says, the businesB men of one country are not aware 
of the bolidaye in other countriea. This is, in brief, a communication which we need 
only to note in our proceedii^. In this manner all the chambers of commerce afiil- 
iated with our Permanent Committee wiU be informed of this very reasonable desire. 

I do not think there is any question of demanding a decision of the Congress on 
this subject. I think, therefore, that we may receive the very interesting suggestion 
made by Mr. Krause for the information of our members. This will probably be satis- 
factory to Mr. Krause. 

The Congress will, therefore, advise all its members of the valuable auggeeli<ni 
which you have made which would enable business men of different countries to know 
in advance what the holidays are in countries abroad. 

I will now recf^niie the next speaker, Mr. Aij-hed Aslett. 

Mr. Alfred Aslstt, SterelarT/ and Qmeral Manager Fumtu Sailway; DdegaU from Barrov^itt' 

Fumet* Chamhtr of Commerce 

Mr. President, Goitlemen: 

I feel diffident in speaking on this subject, for many others are more capable of doing 
GO tlian myself. I think I am the only representative of the P-ngiiah railways at this great 
Congress to-day. There are two competitive proposals for the new international calendar 
which have been submitted in the circular which you have all seen and which sets them forth 
in detail. That of Professor Grosclaude is embodied, so far as England is concerned — and 
when I eey England I mean Scotland and Ireland as well — in Mr. Robert Pearce's Calendar 
Reform Bill. The other, the proposal by Mr. John C. Robertson, is embodied in Sir Henry 
Daliiel's Fixed Calendar Bill. Of the first, that of Professor Grosclaude, I will not go into 
details, but that of Mr. Robertson, which I think appeals to most of us — I hope it does — 
provides that Sunday will be the first day in every month and Saturday will be the last day, 
and there will be equal quarters each of three months or ninety-one days. This will give the 
364 days. There are other important details which I will not detain the Congress by going in- 
to, because I might take far too long and we should all be weary. The adoption of this 
plan, as stated in the little post-card which has been circulated, would simplify commerce, 
banking, bookkeeping and the arrangement of all public and private busineaa, and effect a 
saving of woric, worry and waste. To that should be added that the payment of wages which 
are paid monthly would be greatly facihtated. 

Speaking as one of the railway managers in Great Britain, I have no hesitation in s^ing 
that a fixed date for Easter, either as proposed by Professor Grosclaude, — that is, Easter Sun- 
day on April 14; or that of Mr. John C. Robertson, Easter Sunday April 15 — would be (rf great 
advantage. WhitmmdEQr, of course, would come correspondingly later. Take the pieeent 
year, 1912; Easter Sunday fell on April 7. Next year Easter Sunday falls on March 23, a 
difference of fourteen days. Whitsunday fell this year on May 26; next year, it will fall on 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 151 

May 11. Obviousljr, the later Easter day falle the better it will be for tiio general public. 
The daya are longer, the weather is usual^ more favorable than in March. The comparison 
of revenue and expenditure for Uie current year, compared with the corresponding week for 
the previous year, is not interfered with. The receipts, subject to weather — and, may I 
Bay, strikes — are usually better in April than in March. Whitsunday wiU also be corre- 
spondingly later, as I have already aaid, with sisular advantages. 

The religiouB aspect of the question has, of couree, to be faced. This, however, ought 
not to stand in the way of the adoption of some measure of calendar reform, whether in regard 
to the months or the days, or by fixing the date for Easter. It was in the aixteentii century 
— if I remember right, in 15S2 — when England finally accepted — and I think she did so 
largely from a commercial point of view — the Gregorian calendar as it now exists. The 
question had been more or less under covsideratdon for about two hundred yean and many 
difficulties had to be gotten over, and I think the Roman church called in astronomers to adjust 
the Juliui calendar. 

I was present at the Fourth International Congress held in London in June, 1910, when 
an important resolution was passed in favor of calendar reform, which I am pleased to say I 
stipported. Switierland was asked to take some initiative after that resolution. I am not quite 
sure how far Switzerland has been able to do so; I am afraid she has not made much progress. 
It would, I consider, be extremely unfortiinat« if the Fifth International Congress of Chambers 
of Commerce, held in this hospitable city of Boston, should not in principle — I will not say 
in detail — confirm what was done in London two years ago, and I sincerely hope that a reso- 
lution to amend the existing calendar will be carried unanimously. 

M. le President: M. Aslett vient done de vulgariser — je suis heureuxqu'il I'ait fait — 
des cboses qui ont 6ti dites au congrte de Londres il y a deux ans. Je suis heureux de constater 
que les compagnies de chemin de fei aussi trouvent qu'il serait boa d'avoir la date de Pftquea 
fixe et un seul calendrier. 

Comme je I'ai dit en commengant, nous n'avons pas ik discuter k nouveau la question, 
elle a it6 discut^ it fond k Londres, et elle est actuellemcnt aux mains du gouvemement Suisse 
pour provoquet une conference politique Internationale. Ce que Dons d^drons, c'eet avoir ici 
la confirmation de la dteision prise k Londres il y a deux anS, k savoir, qu'il eet d^drable 
d'avoir Pflques fixe, et qu'il est dteirable d'avoir un calendrier uniforme. Voili nmplement 
ce que je demande. 

Mslntenant, au sujet de la question reUgieuse, je tiens k dire un mot. II est elair que ce 
que nous demandons ne va k I'encontre d'aucune conviction religieuse; noua respectons toutee 
les convictions; mais nous estimons que toutes les religions ont intirdt k avoir et peuvent pai^ 
faitement s'arranger pour avoir un calendrier uniforme. Voil& ce que nous disons, nous, 
commergants et gens d'affaires, en respectant d'ailleurs toutes les relii^ons. 

Je viens, au surplus, de recevoir d'un de noa coUdgues allemands un avis qui serait venu 
de I'ambassade allemande k Rome k la Cbancellerie k Berlin, disant qu'il aemblerait que 
la Curie romaine, aussi bien que I'^glise grecque eatholique, ne seraient pas diqKwfes k 
envisager la question. 

n semblerait done — c'eet un avis simplement qui vient d'Allemagne — qu'it Rome, 
comme en Gr6ce, on ne serait pas en ce moment dispose. Cela n'empdche en rien, messieurs, 
que nous confinnions notre vot«. Nous ne voulons Atre d^eagr^ables & personne, nous rea- 
pectons toutes les convictions, mais nous inrastons pour dire, entre hommes d'affaires et 
eommergants, qu'il eet desirable d'avoir P&ques fixe, et qu'il eet desirable aussi d'avoir un 
calendrier uniforme. 

Messieurs, si vous dtes de eet avis, je demands qu'on live la main. (Levte dt main* f/ini- 

Dans ces conditions, on peut done consid£rer qu'^ I'unanimit^ ce Ginqui^e Congrts de 
Boston confirms ce qui a 6t6 dricid^ au congrte de Londres. 
Et nous passons k I'objet suivant k I'ordre du jour. 



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152 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

(Tramialion) 

Mr. Adett thea haa just popularised, and I am glad that he has done ao, thingB 
which have been stud at the London Congrese two years ago. I am glad to obaerre 
also that railroad companiea find that it would be good to have the date of Easter fixed 
and only one calendar. 

As I said at the b^;inniiig, we have not to discuaa the question anew, since it wai 
discussed thoroughly in London and is at the present time in the hands of the Swiss Gov- 
ernment, which will call for an international political conference. What we desire is to 
have here the confirmation of the decision taken in London two years ago, namely, 
that it is desirtkble to have a fixed Easter and also a uniform calmdar. That is all 1 
am asking. 

Now, as regards the religious question I have a few words to say. It la obriooi 
that what we are asking does not go against any religious conviction; we respect all 
convictions; but we hold that all religions are interested to have a unifoim calendar and 
can so arrange it. This is what we think, we merchants and business men, while re- 
specting at the same time all reli^ons. 

Furthermore I have just received from one of my German colleagues a notice 
which is supposed to have come from the Germ'an Embassy at Rome to the Chaaoel- 
lery at Berlin, saying that it would appear that the Roman Curia, as well as the Greek 
Orthodox Church, would not be disposed to consider the question. 

It would then seem that this was a notice which came nmply from Germany, and 
that Rome as well as Greece is not favorably disposed at this time. This does not 
prevent us, however, from confirming our vote. We do not wish to be disagreeable 
towards anybody, we respect alt convictions, but we insist on saying, between businen 
mat and merchants, that it is desirable to have a fixed Easter and a imifonn calendar. 

Gentlemen, if you are of this opinion, I pray you to raise your hands. (Gentral 
mitirtg of handt.) 

In these conditions we may consider that the Fifth Congress held in Boston unani- 
mously ctmfirms what has been decided at the London Congress. 

We now pass to the following subject in the order of the day: 



THE REGULATION OF INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITIONS 
H. Louis Canon-Legrand, Pretwfenl of the Congret* 

MeesieurB, eette question des expositions Internationales est tout simplemc 



question de notification. Ce fut K I'lm de nos pr^cMenls ctmgrte, k Milan, que Ton iaiix 
I'avis qu'il serait desirable de cr6er dans les difi^rentA pays des comitfa qui seraioit chargte 
de decider la participation nationale aux expositions. Le Congrte soumet que cee oomit^ 
devraient fitre li^ entre eux, de fa^on i, former un otgEUUsme international. Cetto fots encore 
nous avons eu la satisfaction de constater qu'un gouvemement, le gouvemement AUemand, 
reprenait nos voeuz et convoquait k Berlin, pour le mois d'octobre proohain, une ccmf^raice 
officielle intemationale pour traitor de cetto question. 

Mon but, done, a 6t^ simplement de vous dire que notre Congris dee Ohambres de Com- 
merce est arrive, eette fois encore, k attirer {'attention des gouvemements, et notre rtaultat 
i nous est atteint, puisque nous devons nous reporter i ce qui se fera le mois procfaain i, BeriiD. 

Nous ne pouvons pas discuter k nouveau eette question des eqmsitions, mais si quri- 
qu'un desire ajouter quelque chose, comme documentation, je lui donnerai volontiers la patois. 

Personne ne demande la parole. Je conud^re done que voue avei tons eu notificaticm de 
mon tspport et que vous £tes au courant de la question. 

M. FiLxm a la parole pour une commimication venant de Chine au sujet du CBlendrier. 
Cela vous montrera comme eette question est d'un int^t g^n^ral. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 153 

{Tranalatum) 

Gentlemen, this queetion of international expoations is atao simply a question of 
notification. It was »t one of our recent congressee, at Milan, that the opinion was 
e^reeeed of tJie deair^ility of creating in difierent countries committees which would 
decide on the national participation in expositions. The Congress submita that these 
committees ought to be joined together so as to form an international oixanism. Once 
again we had the sstisfaction to observe that one government, the German, conincided 
with our wishes and convoked in Berlin for next October an official international con- 
ference t« handle this question. 

My puipoee, therefore, has merely been to tell you that our Congress of Chambers 
of Commerce has again been successful in attracting the attention of govenunents, and 
our own object has succeeded, since we must now await the outcome of action at Berlin 
next month. 

We cannot now discuss anew the question of expositions, but if any one wishes to 
add anytbing, for the sake of record, I will gladly allow him the floor. 

As no one wishes the floor, I consider that you have all been notified of my report, 
and that you are post«d on the subject. 

Mr. FujMsk has the floor to present a communication from China in regard to the 
calendar. This serves to demonstrate the general interest of this question. 

Mr. Edward A. Filene; I have just received a letter from the Chinese delegates in which 
tbey say that the sun of progress, the sun of new times has come to Qiina, and that tbey are 
in hearty accord with the vote that has just been taken by this body in regard to the question 
erf the calendar. (jlppIouM.) 

M. le President: Cela est done particulilremott int^reesant d'un bout & I'autre du 
Doonde, tons les pays s'int^reesent & la question. 

{TrantlaUon) 

This ia, therefore, of particular interest from one end of the worid to the other; 
all nations are interested in the subject. 



ESTABUSHMENT OF AN mXERNATIONAL COURT OF ARBITRAL 
JUSTICE FOR SUITS BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS AND FOREIGN 
STATES 

H. 1« Prtaident: Nona continuous notre ordre du jour et nous amvons au deuxiSme 
sujet: "Creation d'un "nibunal arbitral intonational pour litiges entre partiouliers et Ctata 



M. Max Apt a la parole pom- nous r£aumer son rapport. Vous ave> tons eon rapport in 
tsOento traduit dana les troia languea. M. Apt veut bien nous en donner un i€maa6 ausu 
court que poaible. 

Un quart d'heure est accords ft M. Apt. Je dis un quart d'heure, parce que nous de- 
Tona, ^videmment, limiter le tempe de chaque orateur, car autrement noe Iravaux n'avan- 
ceraient guire. 

(Trantlatum) 

Continuing the order of the day, we arrive at the second topic: "Establishment of 
an International Court of Arbitral Justice for Suite between Individuals and Foreign 
States." 



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154 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Mr. Max Apt has the floor to review his report. You all have hie report in foil, 
tromilaKd into the three languages. Mr. Apt will kindly give us a summary as briefiy 
as possible. 

A quarter of an hour is allowed for Mr. Apt, since we mUBt, evidently, linut the time 
of each speaker, as otherwise our work will be too much delayed. 

Dr. Hax Apt, Syndic of "Die AUesten der Kaufmanmdiafl oon Berlin" 
Gentlemen: 

I must ask you to pardon me if I do not make my entire speech in English as I am afraid 
that my English pronunciation is not of the best; but you have received the report which bat 
already given you a good idea of what I am going to say. I wish to explain to you that it is 
very difGcult for a business man who has business relations with a fore^ State to obtain his 
rights. Therefore I propose the foundation of an International Arbitration Court, established 
at The Hague, in which it shall be possible for business men having dealings with foreign States 
to have their differences settled. 

{ConHniang in French) 

Meaaieurs, vous aves entre tos mains un rapport imprim^ sur I'^t^tissement d'un tri- 
bunal international pour les diff^nds entre les Etats strangers et lee particuliers; il vous 
donne un clair apergu du but que nous poureuivons. 

II est de toute n£cesait£ que ie commer^ant, que Tinduatriel qui fait dea affaires avec un 
£tat Stranger, puisse, a'il a un diffSrend avec lui, soumettre ce diff^rend k un tribunal et ob- 
tenir justice, tout comme quand il a un diff^rend avec un particulier de nationality ^trangte. 
Mais la r^alit€ nous apprend que cette justice, il a toutes les peinee du monde aujourd'hui k 
M la faire rendre dans see diff^rends avec un £it>at Granger. II est done n^cessaire que aoit 
oonstitu^ un tribunal int«mational devant lequel lea commercanta ou industriels puiaeent 
porter leurs diS£rends avec un fitat Stranger. Et je vais dSmonti«r que les arguments que, 
de maints c&tSs, on a fait voloir contre la realisation de ce vceu si legitime, sont sans fon- 
dement. 

(rrotwlorton) 

Gentlemen, you have in your hands a print«d report on the est^Ushment of an 
international court for differences between foreign States and individuals; this wilt 
give you a clear idea of our intentions. 

It is quit« necessary that a merchant or a manufacturer who does businees with a 
foreign Stat« should in case of a difference with the latter be able to submit this differ- 
ence to a court and obtain justice just as when he has a difference with an individual. 
But in reality, we find many difficulties in the way of obtaining such justice t^Mlay. 
It is therefore necessary that an international court ^ould be established before which 
merchants or manufacturer eau carry their suits against foreign States, and I shall 
proceed to show that the arguments which have been advanced on many sides against 
the realization of this most reasonable desire are unfounded. 
(ConUniiiTig in German) 
Meine HerrenI 

Der Schied^erichtsgedanke hat auf dem Gebiete dea VOlkerrechta bereits seine Triumphe 
gefeiert. Die etste Haager Priedens-Eonferenz vom Jahre 1890 hat neben der Eri^Bfechla- 
Eonvention eine Schiedsgericbts-Eonvention geschaffen und lur FUhrung vdlkerrechtlicher 
Streitigkeiten twiechen einzelnen Staaten ist ein permanenter und jederseit Eug&nglicber 
Schiedsgerichtehof mit dem Sitie im Haag errichtet worden, Freilich hondelt ce sich hier nicht 
um einen stftndigen Weltgerichtshof, vielmehr wird durch Emennung seitens der Staalcn, 
von deoen jeder Staat bis zu vier Richtem bestellen kann, eine IJst« von Weltschieds- 
richtem aufgestellt, aus der jederceit ein Schiedsgericbt durch die stieitenden Parteien ge- 
bildet werden kann, um eine schwebende Streitigkeit txi erledigen. Bekanntlich hat Cani^ie 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 155 

ein Kapital von anderthalb Millionen Dollar lur VerfQgung gestellt zur Emchtung eines 
Palastea ftlr eim Weltschiedagericht. Der Palast wird demo&chst seiner BeBtimmung Qber- 
g^xa werden. In den ers1«n 10 Jahren eeit der ersten Haager Friedena-Konferens sind dem 
Btftndigen Weltachiedsgericht seche Streitigkeiten von grofier Bedeulung tlbergeben worden. 
Ich erw&hne luer den Strait Ewischen Deutschland, England und Italien einerseits und 
Veneiuela snderetaeita wegen Fordemngen an die Staatskasse von Venezuela aus dem Jahre 
1903; an den Streit iwisclien Deutscbland, England und Fnmkraich eineneite und Japan 
anderarseits wegen Auel^^ung von VertragabeeCinunungen bezQglich der Steuerpflicht der in 
Japan ansAssigen Europiler aus dem Jahie 1902 und endlich an den berUhmten Cssablanca- 
Streitfall iwischen Deutechland und Frankraich aus dem Jahre 1908. 

' Die zweit« Qaager Friedens-Konferanz im Jahre 1907 hat das Werk der eret«n Konferens 
verfoeseert und ei^&nzt. Wenn eomit auf dem Gebiete dee dffeatlichen intemationalen 
Rectkts groGe Fortachritte su veneicbnen eind, kann man dasaelbe nicht von dem Gebiete des 
intemationalen Privatrachta b^UMtpten, und mit Hecht fordert Zom in seinem kOrdich er- 
schienenen Buche „Das deutache Recht und die Internationale Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit," daU 
die Frage der intemationalen Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit einer befriedigenden Lteung zugef<ihrt 

Zu de&jenigen Fragen, welche in ereter Reihe in Angrig genommen werden mOsaen, ge- 
hflrt die Froge der SchaSung einee intemationalen Sohiedagerichta f Uc Streitigkeiten twiachen 
PrivatpetBonen und auslindischen Staaten. 

Eine Enquete, welche die Xlteat«n der Kaufmannschaft von Berlin in ihrem Wirtechaft»- 
gebiete angestellt haben, hat ergebeu, dalS der jetzt bestehende mangelnde Rechtsschuti eine 
groBe Reihe von Firmen von Anfang an abhalte, mit auslfindiacben Staaten Gesch&ftsverbin' 
dungen einEUg^en, Der mangelnde Rechlaechuti werde von den 8oliuldneiiitBat«n h&ufig 
daiu benuUt, imbegrUndete Bem&ngelungen zu erheben, nicht berechtigte Abzage vom 
Ksufpieia zu machen, die Zahlungsfristen ungebDbrlich auaiudehnen. 

Eb wurde auagefuhrt, wenn das jetzt beatehende MiCtrauen g^enflber ausUndischen 
Staaten durch die Errichtung eines intemationalen Schiedsgeiichts geschwunden set, viele 
Firmen eine groSe Reihe von Geachfiften machen wl^en, die sie jetxt unteriieBen. Schon daa 
bloBe Bestehen einea solchen 8ehiedsgerichts vrtlrde dazu beitrageu, daC die Staaten in ihren 
verm^nsrechtlichen Beiiehui^en zu PriTatpereonen kulanter wUrden, und daS sie nament- 
lich pOnktUcher und schneller zahlten. Das BedOrfnia nach einer gesetzlichen Regelung tritt 
umso dringender hervor, ale unsere ganee wirtschaftUche Entwicklung dahin geht, als die 
Staaten gewerbliche und kommerzielle Untemehmungen in hoherem Maiie betreiben wie bis- 
her und daU aie dadurcb in mannigfache Beziehiu^en eu Privatperaonen tret«n. Wenn aber 
der Staat in den privatwirtachaftlichen Verkehr eintritt, ao widetspricht es unaeiem Rechts- 
bewuSbsein, daC er dann anders behandelt wird wie jede andere Privatperson, und daQ in 
einem aolchen Falle dem Privatmann kein direktes Elagerecht gegen den ausl&ndischen Staat 
suatehen eoU. Denn in Wiridichkeit ist eine Verfolgung privatrechtUcher AnsprQche g^en 
einen auslftndischen Staat mit den grfillten Schwierigkeiten verknflpft. Wenn man den Gl&u- 
biger darauf verweist, daB er den fremden Staat vot den eigenen Gericht«n im Aualand ver- 
klagen kdnne, ao ist doch in Betracht zu ziehen, dalS die rechtlichen Einrichtungen aller 
Staaten nicht so aind, daQ mit Sicherheit auf ein zutrefiendes Urteil Dber die meiat sehr schwie- 
rigen Fragen dee intemationalen Priyatr^chta gerechnet werden kann. Dazu konunt, dall der 
Scbutdnerstaat innerhalb seines Qebietes Oeset^eber ist und bat ea d^er in der Hand, ob 
er vor seinen Gerichten Recht nehmen will. Man braucht keineswega an eine bewuCte Rechte- 
beugung oder Juatizverweigerung zu denken, um die in der Geschfiftswelt beat«hende Abnei- 
gung zu verstehen, die Gerichte des ausl&ndischen Staatea gegen diesen Staat selbst ansuruTen. 

Wenn man den Gl&ubiger femer darauf hinweist, daB er den fremden Staat im Heimata- 
staat verklagen k6nne, so geht die herrachende Meinung in Theorie tmd Praxis dahin, daQ 
kein Staat Qber den anderen zu Gericht aitzen darf, da das geltende Vftlkerreoht die Aus- 
dehnung der inlftndischen Gerichtagewalt auf fremde Staaten nicht geetatte. So hat bei- 
q>ieUweiae das Reichsgericht ea als anerkannten Grundsati dea Vfilkerrechts hingestellt, daB 



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156 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

ein aualfindiBcIier Staat auch aus rem privatrechtlichen AusprQchen tot < 
Gerichten nicM betaugt werden dtirfe. Ea wird dort ausgefiUut, ea atehe feat, daB die b6heren 
Gerichte in Deutscbland, OEterreicb, Frank reich, England und den Vereinigten Staaten vna 
Nordamerika fast Ht&ndig ziim Auadruclc gebracht haben, der aualftudiaehe Staat sei in dex 
Regel auch bei privatrecbtticheo Aiuprachen der Gerichtebarkeit der Gericht« eines andercn 
Staat«s nicht unterworfen. 

Man kann den Gl&ubiger auch nicht auf die in Nr. 2 dee Reich^esetiblattee ron 1010 
verSffentlichte Haager Konvention Uber die „DetteB contractuellee" Tom 18. Oktober 1907 
verweisen. Dieae Haager Konvention trSgt in der im Reichagesetiblatt verOSentlichteo deut- 
Hchen t)berBetBung die tJberaohrift: ,^bkomnien, betrefiend die Beschifinkung der Arnreo- 
dung von Gewalt bei der Eintreibung von Vertragsachulden" und Uutet in den taa£gd>eDdeo 
Artikeln: 



deren Angehorige eingefordert werden, nicht lur WaSengewalt m echreiten." 

Dieee Bestimmung fbdet keiue Anwendung, wenn der Sohuldoeivtaat ein Aneibieteo 
scbiedsgerichtlicher Erledigui^ ablehnt oder unbeantwort«t IfiCt oder im Falle der Annahme 
den Abschlufi dee SchiedsvertrsgB vereitelt oder nach dem Schiedsvertrage dem Sehiednpniche 
Diclit nachkommt. 



Medigung intemationaler StreitF&Ile t 

mangelimg besonderer Abreden der Pa __, 

dee An^nicha, Qber die Hdhe der Schuld, sowie Qber die Zeit und Art der Zahlung." 

Dieee Haager Konvention Qber die „Dettes contractuellee" kann im voriiegenden Falle 
nicht in Betracht kommen, denn aie iat lediglich auf die EinschrSnkung der vOlkerrechtlicben 
Selbathilfe, also auf die Beseitigung einea Kriegafalles gerichtet. Die Konvention will einaig 
und allein die Schuldnerstaaten vor Krieg wegen einer privatrechtlichen Streitigkeit schfitaen. 
Sie gew&hrt daher dem Privatglfiubiger nicht nur keinerlei Recbte, sondem sie nimmt ihm 
sogar die M5glicbkeit, daQ der Heimatastaat eeinetwegen dea fremden Staat mit Krieg Qber- 
rieht. Vor allem aber bestcht fUr den Heimataataat keine Pflicht lur Intervention, vielmehr ist 
ea Bteta in daa Ermeseen des Staates gesetEt, ob er intervenieren will, und er wird in der Regel 
OrOnde finden, aus denen er ablehnt, den dipknnatischen Apparat in Bewepmg lu setsen. 

Dem Privatgl&ubiger steht also ein direktes Klagerecht nicht ni, er muB sich vielmehr an 
den eigenen Staat wenden, der, wenn es sich nicht um gam exorbitante F&Ue handelt, in denen 
nationale Fragen berUhrt werden, wie geaagt, GrOnde finden wird, eine diplomatiache lata- 
vention abzulehnen. 

Hiemacb bieibt nur der Weg Qbrig, daQ eine neutrale Schiedagerichtainttans geechaffm 
wird durch Staat«nvertretungen, die daa Recht hat, tU>er F&lle cu entscheiden, die von Ange- 
h6rigen eines Vertragsstaates gegen einen Vertragsstaat erhoben werden. Die DurchfOhrung 
dieser Idee wird gewiB keine leichte aein, denn der SouverftnititsbegriS ist bei einiclnen Staaten 
BO stark entwickelt, daB aie die Biklung eines derartigen SehiedBgerichta aU Einschr&nkung 
ihrer Souveranitat ansehen werden. Allein dieser Gedchtapunkt wire ein unrichtiger, dean 
wenn ein derartigea Schiedsgericht geschaSen wird, so wird es lediglich geeohaSen aua dem 
freien Willen der Staaten und nicht durch die Unterwerfung unter eine hdhere Gewalt. Ea han- 
delt aich auct nicht darum, daB ein einielner Staat aich dieser neutralen Instana unterwirft, 
sondem daB alle Kulturstaaten sich derselben imterwerfen. Auch aoll in dieeer neutraloi 
Instant nicht eine den Staaten Ubergeordnete Gerichtsbarkeit, sondem eine Jutisdiktion 
kraft gemeinsamen Rechta geechaffen werden. Und so viel ist feststehend, daB sich Staaten 
in den sie berOhrenden Streitigkeiten einem Schiedsgericht unt«rwerfeo, ohne ihrer WQrde 
und Souverinitftt etwaa lU vergeben. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 157 

Der Einwaod aber, daG, wens eine derttrtige Institutitm eingeflihrt werde, der (uiBwftrtige 
Staat ea voraiehen werde, lieber mit seinen eigeneo AngehSrigen Gesch&fte abiuschlieCen 
uod daQ dadurch die weltnirtechaf tlichen Beiiehungen der eizuelneD Volker Abbnich erieiden 
vetden, kaim nicht tutreCTeii, da mao Hchon heute, wie die von dea Altesten der Kauf m&im- 
Bchaft von Berlin versnetaltete Enquele eigeben hat, gerade deshalb, weil ein Rechteweg 
gfigea den aual&ndischen Staat nicht oSensteht, vielfach mit einem Angebdrigen dee betref- 
fenden StA&tes ais Strohm&nn kontrahiert, oder aber, daC man swar mit dem Strohmaon 
dii'ekt abscblieBt, eich jedoch dann die AuBenst&nde durch Privatleute garantieren l&£t. 
Wenn aber ein Staat dieeem Abkommen nicht beitreten sollte, so w&re er lediglich auf seine 
eigenen Stoateangehdrigen angewieaen und wtirde dann vorauseichtlich nicht diejenigen 
BedtlrfniBse ffir Krieg^swecke beechaffen kOnnen, ftir die ee auf die AngehOrigen anderer 
Staaten angewieaen iat. 

Die Idee der Errichtung eines solchen intemationalen SchiedagerichtB hat, seit die Xl- 
testen der Kaufmannschaf t von Beriin sich lur BefQrwortung dieser Frage entschloaaen haben, 
weitgehende Zustimmung gefunden. Der Mitteleurop&ische Wirtechaftsverein und der Han- 
delsvertragsverein haben eich dafOr ausgeaprochea. Der Ausschul! des Deutechen Handels- 
tages hat in seiner dieajahrigen Kslner Tagung einstimmig einen gleichen BeachluS gefaQt. 
Der Hans^imd hat die Foiderung in seine Richtlinien aufgenommen. Die InterparUmen- 
torigche Union wild aicli dem Vemehmen nach in ihrer Tagung im September 1912 in Genf 
mit der Frage beechfiftigen. Der Veiband der intemationalen Verst&ndigung wird auf seiner 
Heidelberger Tagung die Errichtung dee Schiedsgerichte behandeln. Die ,rAmerican Associa- 
tioo of Commerce and Trade" in Berlin hat in ihrem Berichte vom 15. August 19II die Anie- 
gung g^eben, die Vereioiglen Staaten von Amerika mOchten diese wichtige Angelegenheit 
jetit ihierseita eneipsch in die Hand nehmen. Der in Boston im September dieaes Jahiea 
etactfindende Internationale Handelskammer-Koi^reB hat die Frage auf seine Tagesordnung 
gesetst. In Amerika hat sich auf der dieej&farigen amerikanischen Schiedsgerichta-Konfereni, 
die Ton etwa vierbundert Feisonen beaucht war, Frofeeeor Wheeler fiir daa Schiedsgericht 
au^eaprocben. 

In gleicher Weiae, wie die Vertreter von Handel und Industrie die SchaSung eines inter- 
nationalen SchiedsgerichlahofeB wQnschen, haben aich aucb die Vertreter der Wiasenscbaft 
fOr eine solche Idee ausgesprochen, wie Freund, Meili, Nippold, Zom, Fischer, v. Mariti- 
Wehberg und Meadelseohn-Bartholdy. Auch hat der Marburger Professor Walther SchQck- 
ing jetit darauf hingewiesen, die SchaSung einer Instani fOr PrivatiechteansprQche gegen 
fremde Staaten werde zu den orgaoiaatorischen Aufgaben der dritten Haager Konferem 
eehfiren. 

Hiemach bitte ich, daQ der Kongress beechlieSen m6ge, daQ ein intemationalea Schieds- 
gericht errichtet werde, welcbes benifen ist, venuCgensiechttiche Streitigkeiten iwischen 
auslindischen Staaten und Privatpersonen xu entscheiden. 

(ZVunddtton) 
Gentlemen: 

The idea of a tribunal of arbitration baa already gained a victoty in the domain of 
interuational law. The First Hague Conference, in the year 1899, established a conven- 
tjon in respect to international war and likewise for international arbitration and a perm»> 
neot and always available court of arbitration for causes of intenkational law betwe^i 
individual States bas been permanently established in The Hague. Ae a matter of fact 
this is not a permanent international court, but rather a list of inteniational judges of 
arbitration of which each nation may appoint up to four judges from which a court of 
arbitration can be drawn by the parties to the diqnite to settle some question which 
may arise. As is well known, Cainegie has given the sum of one million and a half 
dollars to erect a palace for an international court of arbitration and this will shortly be 
turned over for this puipoee. In the first ten years since the Fint Hague Peace Confer- 
ence ax disput«e of great importance have been submitted to this court. 



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« INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

I i«fer bere to the dispute between Germany, England and Italy on one side and 
Veneiuela on the other, arising out of demands on the treasury of Veneiuela in the year 
1903; the dispute between Germany, England and France on one aide and Japan oo 
the other side in 1902, in reg&rd to the failure to cany out agreemente relating to the 
taxation of Europeans residing in Japan; and finally the celebrated Casablanca dispute 
between Germany and France in 1908. 

The Second Hague Peace Conference in the year 1907 has improved and completed 
the work of the first conference. While thus great progreae may be recorded in the do- 
main of the international law of nations the same cannot be said in respect of inieraa- 
tionol personal legal r^ts, and Zom property asks in his recently published book, "Das 
deutsche Recbt uud die intemationale Scbiedageiichtsbarkeit" (German Law and In- 
ternational Arbitration) for a eatisfactoiy solution of the question of Internationa 
arbitration. 

To those questions which must be taken up in the first place belongs the question of 
creating on international court of arbitration for suite between individuab and foreign 
States. 

An invest^tion mode by "Die Xllesten der Eaufmannschaft von Berlin " in iia 
territory has shown that the existing lack of l^al protection has withheld a number 
of firms from entering on business relations with foreign States. The defective legal 
protection is often utilised by debtor States to advance unfounded claims, to make un- 
fair deductions from the purchase price and to extend unreasonably the tenn for 
payment. 

It was contended that if the mistrust which now exists towards foreign States were 
removed by means of an international court of arbitration, many firma would do a 
great deal of business which they now do not undertake. The mere exist«nce of such s 
court would contribute towards rendering the States more liberal in their relationships 
to private persons as regards the property laws of said States, and that they would pay 
more promptly. The need of legal regulation becomes more imperative as the Stales 
are to a greater extent than before entering upon mechanical and commercial under- 
takings, thus coming into closer contact with private persons. But if the State takes 
up n^otiations on a private basis it goes against our feeling of justice that the State 
should be treated otherwise than any other private person would be, and that in such s 
case no direct right of complaint should be allowed to the private pereon against a foreign 
State. For, in reality, the pursuance of private legal cltdms against a foreign State on 
only be done with the greatest difficulty. If one points out to the creditor that he can 
prosecute Uie foreign State in its own courts in a foreign country one must take into 
consideration that the l^al arrangements of all States are not so that one con reckon with 
surety on on accurate judgment on the generally very difficult question of international 
private rights. Added to which the indebted State in the range of its own territoiy is 
its own lawgiver and therefore looks for its rights to its own courts. One is in no vise 
obliged to consider a conscious yielding to the law or refusal of justice, in order lo 
understand the aversion existing in the business world to calling on the courts of a foreign 
Stat« against that very State. 

If one furtlier points out to the creditor that he can prosecute the foreign State 
in the home State, the reigning opinion in theory and practice goes to show that no 
Stat« con try another one, as the existing national law does not allow the interior legal 
power to extend to foreign States. For example, the Supreme Court of the Empire has 
mode it on acknowledged fundamental clause of the national law, that a foreign State 
cannot be called before the courts of the interior for a purely private reason. It is there 
carried out and is firmly established, that the higher courts in Germany, Austria, France, 
England and the United States of North America have made it almost a settled point 
that the foreign States, se a rule, also in claims of a private nature, cannot come under 
the jurisdiction of the courts of another State. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 159 

Neither c«d one refer the debtor to No. 2 of the pamphlet on "National Law of 
1910" of The Hague Convention on the "Dettes contractuellea" of the 18th of October, 
1907. This Hague Convention in the German translation is called "Regulations re- 
garding the Limitation of the Use of Force in collecting Contract-Debts" and is given 
in the articles refening thereto ae follows; 

"Art. 1. The contracting powers have agreed not to have recourse to warfare to en- 
force tiie pa]mient of contractrdebts- which the government of one country exacts from 
the government of another country for its subjects," 

This rule is not carried out if the indebted State refuses the offer of a settlement 
by a court of arbitration or if it leaves the ofier unanswered, or in case of an acceptance, 
binders the settlement of the court of arbitration, or aft«t the arbitration contract has 
been drawn up does not carry out the decision therein specified. 

"Art. 2. It has further been agreed upon that the decision mentioned in mragraph 
2 of the above article should be subject Ui the process described in Chapter 3, Title 4, of 
The Hague Convention for a peaceful arrangement of international disputes. Failing a 
particular agreement of the parties, the arbitration decides on the reason of the claim, on 
the extent ^ the debt, or the amount of the debt as well as on the time and place of 
payment." 

This Hague Convention on the "Dettes contractuellea" cannot be taken into con- 
eideration in the case on band, for it is principally directed to the limitii^ of national 
aelf-help, therefore to the removing of a reason for war. The ctmvention wishes only to 
protect the indebted States from war on account of private legal disputes. It therefore 
gives the private creditor not only no rights but it even deprives him of the possibility 
tiiat his home State might declare war against the foreign Stat« on his account. But 
above all no obligation exists for the home State lo interfere; on the contrary it is left to 
the judgment of the State, if it wishes to intervene, and it generally finds reasons to re- 
fuse to put the diplomatic apparatus into motion. 

The private creditor therefore has no right to a direct complaint. On the con- 
trary, he must have recourse to his own State, which, unless it is a quite extraordinary 
case, in which national questions come into play, will find reasons for refusing a diplo- 
matic intervention. 

Accordingly, there is only one way left, that of creating a neutral coiu^, of arbitra- 
tion by State representation, which would have the right of deciding in cases which are 
brought by subjects of a contract State against another contract State. The realization 
of this idea will certainly not be easy, for the feeling of sovereignty is so strongly de- 
veloped in single States tltat each would look on the formation of such an arbitrary 
court as an encroachment on its sovereignty. Nevertheless, this view would be incorrect, 
for if such a court of arbitration were created it would be so essentially by the free will 
of the States and not tbroi^ coercion by a h^her power. The question also is not that 
of a single State giving way to this neutral court, but that all civilized States should 
subject themselves to it. Also in this neutral court there should not be called into exis- 
tence a l^al body having power over the States, but a jurisdiction founded on mutua 
rights. One thing is certain, that States which subject themselves to a court of arbi- 
tration in disputes affecting themselves can do so without losing any of their dignity 
or sovereignty. 

The objection, however, that if such an institution were established the foreign 
States would prefer rather to do business with its own subjects and that therefore the uni- 
veraal business relationship of the individual nations would be injured, cannot stand, as 
one already to-day often contracts in the person of a dummy with the subject of the 
State in question, there being no legal way open to act gainst the foreign State, all of 
which was shown by the investigation effected by "Die Altesten der Kaufmannschaft 
TOD Berlin"; or it may happen that one can come to a direct termination with the 



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160 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

diunmy, but hu the guanmty for tLe outride tiSftin fuiuished by priv&te putiefl. Should 
tlie State, however, not join in this agreement, it would be essentially dependent on it« 
own State eubjecta and would probably not then be able to fumish tboee necessary 
materials for puipoees of war, for which it ia dependent on the mbjecta of other States. 

The idea of forming an international court of arbitration of this kind, has found 
widespread faTor, since "Die XltestenderKaufmannschaft von Berlin" decided l^j further 
this question. "Der Mitteleuropftische Wirtechaftaverein" and the "Handelavertrsiei- 
verein" have expressed themselves in favor of it. The delegates of "Der Deutsche 
Handelstag" adopted a unanimous resolution of similar tenor at its session of this year at 
Cologne. The "Hansabund" has also voiced the demand. The Inteiparliamentary 
Union will occupy itself with the question at its session in September, 1912, at Geneva. 
The League for International Understanding wHl take up the question of creating a court 
of arbitration at iM meeting in Heidelberg. The American Association of Commerce 
and Trade in Berlin in it« report of August 15, ISli, has introduced the questkHt of 
having the United States of America <m its part take up this important matter eneiget- 
ically. The International Congress of Chambets of Commerce which will take place in 
Boston in September has placed the question on its order of the day. In America at 
the conference on arbitration held this year, which was attended by about four hun- 
dred persons, Professor Wheeler spoke in favor of the cottrt of atbitrKtion. 

In the same manner, as the representatives of commerce and industry desire the 
creation of an international court of arbitration, the representatives of science haVe 
expressed their approval of this principle, as Freund, MeiU, Nippold, Zom, Fischer, v. 
Marits-Wehbeig and Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. Professor Walther SchQoking, of Mar- 
burg, has drawn attention to the fact that the formation of a court for private suits 
against foregin States belongs to the organising tasks of the Third Hague Conference. 

I therefore request that the Congress should decide that an international court (d 
arbitration should be established for the purpose of deciding diqmtes afieeting property 
between foreign States and private individuals. 

(Continuing in BngUah) 

Gentlemen, I have explained all the arguments in favor of the establiohment of the 
international arbitration court. When that court is in operation, it will be a good foundation 
for the development of export trade and industry. But the chambers of commerce are not 
able to put it into existence. So much the more is it necessary that the States take tl^ initia- 
tive. And therefore I beg you, that in your States you may influence your govenunenta. 
And I hope that the American Government will be the first of the States to invite the (Aba 
States to form that international court. The realiiation of that idea would not only mean im- 
mense progress in the development of commerce and industry, but would also fill a great void 
in the path of justice and civilisation. 

(.Cotitinuinff in French) 

Messieurs, je crois que les explicationsque j'ai eu I'honneur de vous pr&saiter, ont laige- 
ment suffi i, d^montrer que I'institution d'un tribunal international d'arbitnge, k Ia Haye, 
ne peut que contribuer au d^veloppement du commerce et de I'industrie d'eqtortation. 

Mais oe tribunal international ne peut 6tre cr^ que si les £tats preaoent, vtfri-vis lee 
uns des autres, I'engagement, scell6 par une convention r^iproque, de le oonstituer. n 
faut que les chambres de commerce de chaque £tat pr^eentent k leur gouvemement respectif 
le vceu pressant que soit convoqu^ une conference dea £)tats, pour le r^ement de cetts 
question si importante pour le commerce mondial. 

A vous, messieurs, j'adresae I'instante pri^re de lutter de toutee vob forces, dans vos 
fitatA respectifs, pour la realisation de cette id6e. 

Ea consequence, je vous prie, messieurs, de vouloir biea imettre le voeu que soit oonstitufi 
un tribtmal international pour lee diftereads entre lee particuliers et les £tats etrangers, qui 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 161 

rcpitecntenit un immenae progrte, non seulement dans le d^veloppement du commeree et 
de I'industrie, m&ia uusi remplirait une grande lacune dans U recberche de la justice et de 
la civilisation. {Appiaudiuemenlt.) 
(Trmulalion) 

Gentlemeo, I believe that the a^umenta which I have just bad the honor of present- 
ing to you have BufGced to demonstrate that the establishment of an international court 
of arbitration at The Hague cannot fai] to contribute to the development of com- 
merce and e^Ktrt buainese. 

But this international court cannot be created unleae the goremments will mutually 
agree, and be bound by a reciprocal convention to establish it. The chambers of com- 
merce in each country should present to their reepecUve governments the urgent wish 
for the convocation of a conference of the nations for the settlement of this question 
which is so important to the commerce of the world. 

To you, gentlemen, 1 address Uie sincere desire Ibat you use all your efforts, in your 
respective countries, for the realiiation of this idea. 

Accordingly, gentlemen, I beg you to express a wish for the establishment of an 
international court for suits between individuals and foreign States, which would not only 
mean a tremaidous advance in the development of commerce and industry but would also 
fill a great void which now exists in the path ol justice and civilisation. (Applaiue.) 

Bit. R. S. Frawr, Member of Council of Lmdon Chamber of Commerce 

Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

In secraiding the resolution moved by Dr. Apt favoring the establishment of an Inter- 
national Court of Aibitration for the adjustment of differences between individuals and 
States, I would wish to take the opportunity of felicitating Dr. Apt on the excellent, eshaustive, 
and may I say flluminating paper which he has written on the subject and which I fancy will 
take a very hi^ place in the literature of arbitral justice when that literature becomes history. 
iApplauee.) 

It is a veiy great pleasure to one who has taken a considerable part in the establishment 
of international staDdardised courts of arbitration, commercial arbitration, to speak on this 
subject and to support Dr. Apt. In the past it may be said that arbitration has not made 
great advance. Mr. President, the astonishing thing is that in the absence of any fixed prac- 
tice or settled procedure, arbitration has advanced at all; and it is only consequent on the good 
sense of good mm that arbitration is now in the forefront of practical politics. (.Apptauae.) 

Since this Congress met in London great strides have been made in the direction of plae- 
ing commennal arbitration on a direct woricing basis. 

I have the honor to be a member of the International Law Association which met in Lon- 
don two years since and in Paris this last Whitsuntide and on both occasions this important 
subject was dealt with and pressed forward. Then again consequent upon the agitation for 
tliis movement in the British Board of Trade, a veiy active inquiry b proceeding with a view 
to concerted steps for establishing standardised courts in all parts trf the world, the awards 
of which will be enforceable wherever compliance therewith is required. 

Sir, it is not only in Great Britain that this great movement is taking root. Our good 
friends in Germany, in one of the most carefully prepared treatises that has ever been written, 
pronounced by the Economical Council of Berlin, have submitted to the London Chamber 
of Commerce a proposal for establishing a commercial court of arbitration for dealing with 
differences between British merchants and German merchants. (Apptaiue.) 

Sir, when once we establish a court d arbitration commanding and deserving pubUc con- 
fidence, whose judgments will command the respect of all, we shall indeed have established the 
bridge over which other movements will subsequently follow. Not only will the great claim 
which my friend advances be conceded of being able to establish a claim against the State, 



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162 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

but that BtiU greater question of inteniation&l peace will be moet materially advanced. lAp- 
plauM.) And for this reason: if you educate men in the study and practice of acfoitration m 
their own aSaire, they will hesitate a long time before acting otherwise in community proceed- 
ingH at the terrible cost to life and property. 

I do not wish to intrench on the question of imperial arbitration. I leave that to othen. 
I confine myself to the desire for establishing a strong court of oonuneicial aibitration to which 
you and I and every one having a difference can have recourse. 

Let me say one thing in conclusion: commerce is the subject of no State and it is the sov- 
ereign of all. And I feel that justice is a matter of right and not merely of privilege. 

In the past it has been a matter for rulers to decree whether they would open their'courta 
during three of the moat important mouths of the year. In arbitration I hope we will have 
forever put a stop to that abuse. 

Well, sir, it may be some years before you will secure the court of arbitration which Dr. 
Apt and myself have advocated. In the meanwhile you have large power in your own hands, 
power not only to secure the unification of law but also to provide the means for speedily 
adjusting your difficulties. I refer to the need for revising the commercial contracts which you 
are in the h^it of entering into. Many (^ you have used obsolete forms tmly to be thrown 
into the waBl« basket. May I suggest to you that when you return to your home you should 
carefully look at the provisions of these forms of contract and if, as I surmise, you see occasiro 
to modify them you will at least do so to your own advantage. 

I have very great pleasure in seconding the resolution. (AppIouM.) 

Dr. Louis VujasBf, Secretary of the ChcuiAer of Commerce and Induitry of Arad, Hwigary 

Messieuis: 

II y a deux sortee de questions dont nos congrte doivent s'occuper. L'une est consacrte 
aux exigences du moment et aboutit k des propositions qui peuvent se r^aliser immMiate- 
ment. L'autre est non moins pratique, mais se heurt« pour le moment k des objections, dee 
pt^jugia, des jakiusies nationatea, et il faut de grands efforts pour airiver, malgr^ oes difficult^ 
presque insurmontablee. Je suis forc6 de constater avec un profood r^p«t que la trte impo^ 
tant« question qui nous oc«upe en ce moment, de r«mplacer les posubilil^ de I'aibitmire par 
les principea de la justice, de I'impartiaiit^ et du droit, n'est pas encore realisable. 

La question d'un tribunal arbitral international pour litiges entre particuliers et £t«ts 
Grangers a d£i& ktk discut^e k plusieurs reprises, et elle a eu pour elle et contre eQe de grands 
partisans. C'eet surtout en AUemagne qu'elle a 6t£ €tudi6e d'une fagon trto ^jprofondie et 
I'assembl^e gSn^rale du " Mitt«leurop&ischen Wirtschaftsverein in Deutscbland," qui a eu lieu 
le 14 octobre 1911 k Munich, a pass6 en revue tous lee arguments et toutee lea objections pos- 
sibles. Malgri les sympathies incont«atables qu'elle a soulev^ ches ses membree, elle ne 
pouvait aboutir k un r^aultat pratique. A mentioimer encore le ess trte impressionnant de 
I'Institut du Droit International qui, dans son congrte tenu k Hambourg en 1801, a'eet oft- 
Gup4 de ce sujet et a rejet^ I'id^e de la cr^tion d'un tribunal arbitral international, £tant d'avia 
que cee sortes de litiges doivent £tre jug£s par les tribunaux r^guliers. 

Stant done donn^e cette grande divei^ence des opinions comp^tentes d'une part et I'in- 
d^niable int^t du commerce et de rinduetrie d'autre part, il n'est pas facile de trouver une 
solution tout k fait satisfaisante. Avant d'airiver k une conclusion, je me permettrai d'ez*- 
miner succinctement quelquee objections et quelques details importants. 

La premiere objection qu'on eouldve imperturbablement est celle de la restriction de la 
souverainet^ des £tats. Cest I'objection la plus habile, k une £poque oA I'augmentation des 
rapports intemationauz nous devrait obliger de restremdre les aspirations particuli&ve at 
faveur de toute I'humanit^; et sans cela, il ne s'agit pas dans le cas present d'une reetrictioo 
d^ahonorante, impost par des &tats strangers, mais tout aimplement d'une restriction voloD- 
taire. 

£n ce qui conceme la seconds objection, celle qui vise ia convention des trente-quatn 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 163 

£uts BUT lea dettes controctuelles et d'&pr^ l&quelle tout« convention nouvelle en faveur dea 
crfanciers strangers serait superflue, puiequ'en cas de besoin ik peuvent ae servir d'un tribunal 
international, je suia compl^temeDt d'accord avec Monsieur le rapporteur. II manque d'abord 
k cette convention le caract^ d'obligation, en outre elle ne donne paa aux cr^anciers le droit 
k Taction directe ne pouvont agir que par I'interm^diaire de leuis gouvemements. II n'en 
est psa moins viai que la ausdite convention a £t£ un grand prt^rte dans ce domaine, et pour 
le completer, il ne faut qu'driger le tribunal arbitral international dont nous nous ocoupona 
en ce moment. 

La troisiime objection qui £tait celle de I'lnstitut de Droit International conaiate dans ce 
qu'on n'a paa beaoin de recourir dans lea cas mentionn^s k un tribunal ap^cial, puiaque les 
tribunaux nati<maux eont en £tat d'offrir lee m&nes garanties. L'ind^pendance dee juges 
envera les gouvemementa est tellement assurfe k notra 6poque dans tons les pays civiUste et 
leur impartiality, leura hautea id£ea sur le droit et la justice sont eatim£s k vat degri, que lee 
cr£ancien strangers n'ont aucune raiaon de les mettre en doute. En outre, la crtetion d'une 
cour arbitrate Internationale serait I'expreaaion tacit« d'une m^Sance regrettable enveia lea 
tribunaux nationaux. Ces objections ne aont pas tr^ conchiantea. En reconnaiaaant sans 
reserve la haut« valeur morale des jugementa nationaux, il n'en est paa moina vrai qu'il exiate 
d£jji des jugemente diff£rents, m6me opposia, rendua dana des cas an^<%uee suivant les in* 
Urita dea pa^ en question. Et Ton n'a pas le droit de reprocher aux cr^aociers 6trangen 
d'avoir plus de confiance dane dea juges qui ne sont pas influence par des pr^jug^, des aen- 
timents patriotiques et un milieu trop tentant. 

Et maintenant, j'arrive au point saillant, C'eet I'objection que lea aentencea d'un tri- 
bunal arbitral international n'ont paa de sanction, elles ne sont pas exteutoirea et, par cons^ 
quent, elles n'auraient aucune valeur pratique pour des commerfants et dea industriela. Dans 
le rapport dea "Alt«steii der Kaufmannachaft von Berlin," cette difficult^ est 61imin£e par 
I'espoir que lea fltats se soumettront volontairement aux sentences du tribunal international. 
C'est bien poadble et tout k fait sOr, en ce qui conceme lea pays moins puissants, mais la posai- 
bilit^ d'une rtsiBtance fatale n'est pas et, h^lasl ne peut pas Atre exdue. Je n'ai pas I'intention 
de diaeimuler ce cAt£ faible du tribunal k cr6er malgr6 toutes mes empathies pour lui. Maia 
les jugements dea tribunaux nationaux peuvent-ila ofFrii plus de garantie? Si c'eat le tribunal 
du propre pays, I'on ae trouve en face des mSmea difficult^ en ce qui concenie I'extoition; et 
ei c'est le tribunal du pays d^iteur, c'eet Timpartialit^ qui eat en piril. 

Pour terminer mon discoura, je ne veux que mettre en relief les intirfita des paya dibiteura. 
Je le peux avec autant plus de droit parce que j'appartiens moi-mteie k un paya d^iteur, maia 
i un pays dfibiteur hoimfite qui veut agir confonn&nent k ses devoirs et qui n'a aucune ob- 
jection contre I'idte d'un tribunal impartial, tnalgt^ qu'il a d£j& perdu una partie de bod 
territoire dana lea Carpathes, en consequence d'un jugement arbitral international. Nous 
comprenona trie bien que la cr^tion d'un tribunal neutre peut avoir de f Acheuses consequences 
pour certaines aspirations ill^times, mais nous comprenona ausst bien que les pays d&iteura 
peuvent en tirer des avantages considerables en obtcnant des conditions moins on&euaea. 

Messieurs, si j'ai commence mea paroles par des alluaions peaumistes molgrS mes con- 
<Jusi<ma, c'^tait parce que je sais qu'un tel progrte vera la justice et vera la vict(»re du droit 
anra k lutter contre tous les pr^jug^ et toutes les jalousies d'un faux patriotiame. Et je savais 
ea outre que ce n'est pas seulement I'id^ d'un tribunal international qu'il faut rendre qympa- 
thique aux difi^renta pays; il peut y avoir de a£rieuses divergences quant aux details de la 
Question. Notre Congrte en tant que repr^ntant du commerce et de I'induatrie et comme 
avant-garde des progrte intemationaux, n'a qu'& appuyer ttia chaleureusement la propoeition 
du rapport auquel je m'attacbe au nom de toutes les chambres de commerce hongroises. 

{TrantiaHon) 
G«ntlemen: 

There are two questions with which our congressea must busy themselves. One is 
devoted to the actual exigencies and may be reduced to propositions which could be imme- 



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M INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

diately realiEed. The other la not lees practical, but finds at present some objections, 
prejudices and national jealousiee; and great efforts are needed to succeed against Ihe^e 
almost unsunnountable difficulties. I am compelled to acknowledge with profound regret 
that the very important question before us at present, namely, to replace the poflmbihtieB 
of the arbitrary by principles of justice, impartiality and right, ia not yet realisable. 

The question of an international tribunal (or arbitration of suits between citisese 
and foreign States has already been discussed msny times before and has bad great par- 
tisans for and against. In Germany especially it has been studied in a very tborou^ 
way and the general comicil of "Der MitteleuropHiache Wirtochaftsrerein in Deutocb- 
land," which took place October 14, 1911, at Munich, has conaideied all the aiguxDeoQ 
and all the objections. Notwithstanding the miquestionable sympathies of its metnba*. 
it could not reach a practical result. I would mention also the very impressive caw 
of the International Institute of Law, which in the congress held at Hamburg in ISSl 
considered the subject and rejected the idea of &e creation of an International tribanal 
of arbitration, beheving that this sort of suits should be looked after by the regular couita 
■of justice. 

In the pieaence then of this great divergence of competent opinioos on the <»« btod 
and the imdeniable interests of commerce and industry on the other hand, it is not euj 
to find a solution entirely satisfactory. Before arriving at a conclusion I will take the 
liberty to examine briefly some of the objections and important details. 

The first objection brought forth is that of the restriction of the sovereignty of the 
State. That is the cleverest objection, just when the increase of international relations 



should oblige us to restrict private aspirations in favor of the whole of r 

without this it is not a question in the present ease of a dishonoring restriction, imposed 

by foreign States, but simply a voluntary restriction. 

As regards the second (dsjection, that which refers to the convention of tlie thirty* 
four States on contract debts and accordii^ to which any new convraitian in favor of 
foreign creditors would be superfluous, since when necessity arises they can use an bt- 
temational tribunal, I am entirely in accord ynth the Reporter. This conventiott, at the 
outset, lacks the character of obligation, and does not give the oreditoiB the ri|^t to an 
immediate suit, since they can only act through the intervention of their govemmoitB. 
It is none the less true that the above-mentioned convention has indicated great Tptog- 
ress in this domain, and in order to complete it, it is ordy necessary to establidi the 
international tribunal of arbitration with which we are occupying ourselves at present. 

The third objection, which was that of the IntMnational Institute of Law, ooosists in 
the fact that no need exists for having recourse in the cases mentioned to a special tii- 
bunal, since the national tribunals are in a position to offer the same guaranty; that the 
independence of the judges towards the governments is so well osured in our time in 
all civilised countries, and their impartiality, their high ideals of right and justice, are 
held in such esteem, that foreign creditora have no reason whatever to doubt them; that 
the creation of an international court of arbitration would be the silent expneaaa of a 
r^rettable mistrust of the national courts. These objections are not very ooticluaive. 
While recognizing Fully the high moral value or worth of the natimud verdicts, it is none 
the less true that there exist already verdicts that differ, that are wea contrary, i«d- 
dered in similar cases according to the interest of the countries that are involved; and 
no one has tlie right to reproach foreign creditwm for having more confidence in judges 
who are not influenced by prejudices, patriotic sentiments and an envircmmait too full 
of temptation. 

And now, I come to the main point, the objection that the decrees erf an inter> 
national court of arbitration are without sanction, that they are not executory, and oon- 
sequently have no practical value for men in commerce and induet/y. In the report 
of "Die Alteeten der Kaufmannschaft von Berlin," this difficulty is eliminated by the 
hope that the governments will submit wiUin^y to the sentences of an intemaliopal 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 165 

tribuiul. It 18 quite possible and perfectly sute, u far u it coaoema less powerful 
countries, but the possibility of a fatal resistance is not and cannot, alast be pre- 
cluded. I have no intention to conceal this weak side of a tribunal to be created, in 
^ite of all my sympathy. But are iha verdieta of national courts ^le to offer better 
guaranty? If it is the tribunal of one's own country, the same difficulties are es- 
perienced in r^;ard to execution; and if it is the tribunal of the debtor's country, impar- 
tiality is in peril. 

In cloang I only wish to put in a conspicuous tight the interest (rf the debtor coun- 
tries. I can do so with so much more rig^t seeing that I myself belong to such a coun- 
try, but an honest d^tor country, which wishes to act conformably to its duties and has 
no objection to the idea of any impartial tribunal, notwithstanding that it has lost a 
part of ite t«rritory in the Carpathians as a result of an international verdict of arbi- 
tration. We understand very well that the creation of a neutral tribunal may have bad 
consequences for certain illegitimate aspirations, but we understand as well that the 
debtor countries can gain considerable advantages by obtaining lees onerous conditions. 

Gentlemen, if I have b^un my speech by pessimistic utterances in spite of my con- 
clusions, it is because I kiMW that in such progress towards justice and towards the 
victory of right we shall have to struggle against all the prejudices and all the jealousies 
of a false patriotism. And 1 know besides that we must first have the different countries 
sympathetic to the idea of an international court; that the serious divergences arising 
in cormection with the details of the subject must be woriced out afterwards. Our Con- 
gress, in BO far as it repreeente commerce and industry and is the vanguard of all interna- 
tional progress, must warmly second the proposition reported, which I support in the 
name of all the Hungarian Chambers of Commerce. 



H. Engtae AUard, PraideiU of the Bdgian Chamber t^ Commerce <{f Parie 



La cr^tion d'un tribunal arbitral international pour les litigea entre particuliers et £tats 
ttrangers pr^occupe ft juste titre, depuis plusieuis ann£es, la plupart des £ltata civilises. C'est 
depuia notre dernier congrds de Londres que la question a kik pos^e d'une mani^ precise par 
I'honorable M. Xa. Lanite, le dSl^guS des fltats-Unis d'AmMque. 

II nous a 6mis des consid6rations teUement Mdentes que dte ce momoit, notre o^union 
Itait faite. Le commerce mondial liclamait I'^tablissement d'un tribunal intemational d'ar- 
bitrage. 

M. le rapporteur nous a ^mis de nouvellee considerations qui nous ont sattsfaite en toue 
points; seulement, je trouve que devant I'unanimit^ de noe <q>iniona, I'unanimitfe de nos sen- 
timenta, le rapporteur propose un ordre du jour qui me eemble prolonger beaucoup trop 
longtempe la solution du probl^e que le commerce r^lame avec tant d'impatience. II vous 
dit: Renvoyons i. nos chambres de commerce la question pour proposer & noe gouvemementa 
respectifs le d£sir du commerce de chaque nation de voir s'£tablir un tribunal arbitral. 

Sous ce rapport, je crois que la Ghambre de commerce de Paris, par I'organe de son dh- 
Tout president, M. Charles Legrand, membre du comity permanent, & foiis le vceu qui devra 
rallier tous nos suffrages, et qui pourra faire avancer la scdution du probl^me avec une n^tidit^ 

J'ai le bonhetir de pouvoir vous eitpoaer le vceu de la Chambre de commerce de Paris, 
an nom de M. Charles Legrand, que son ttaX de sante a malheureusement empAch^ d'etre 
paimi nous. Le v<bu de la Ghambre de corrmierce de Paris est formula d'une mani^re trte 
precise. II expose: "Qu'une section ^conomique Internationale soit adjointe k la cour de La 
Haye, et charge sp^cialement d'arbitrer souverainement, en ^uit^, tous lee difi^rends int^r- 
nationaus d'ordre commercial et industriet, soit des fitats entre eux, soit des industriels avec 
Im fitats strangers. 



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166 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

"Que lea membres de ce tribuikal atbitral international soient choieds parmi les membna 
dee chambres de commerce et des aaaociationa oommercialee et industrielles." 

Feniiett«z-inoi de lire la partie du r^tport de M. Charlea Leiptiod qui juEtifie U cr^ 
tioB de cette section commerciale intemationale, devant laquelle eeraient port^ lee diffgrenda 
d'ordre iconomique et uon juridique, qui nous apparattrait comme juatifi^e par la diveisit^ des 
l^islations commerciales, par I'importance de plus ea plua mondiale dee choeee de Tindustne 
et du commerce et leur d^veloppement but tous les points du globe, par ce mouvanent coo- 
sid^rable du cr^t qui Kdete entre tous lea £!tatB, qui rend de plus en plus n^ceaeaire la d^ 
fense des int^rSts dea partieuliers souacripteuia d'emprrmts Straogera, et enfin, par oette 
tendance de plus en plus accentu^ d'un grand nombre d'Etate h cr6er, dinger et expkala 
des entrepriees de commerce et d' Industrie. 

"Nous ne miconnaissons pas le r61e important que les membres de ee nouveau tribunal 
arbitral seraient appel^ & jouer, d'autant plus que, dans notre penate, ils auraient pour 
mission d'^tprScier en fait et oon pas de juger en droit, d'interpr^ter les canventiona faitca 
r^proquement et de bonne foi, les contrats bi-Ut^raui, et d'arbitrer en ^uit6 tous les oigage- 
menta non observes et leura consequences. 

"Leur sentence serait exMitoite sans opposition, recours, ni t^pel. 

"Poui s'acquitter d'une telle mission, il y auiait lieu de faire appel & la competence d'in- 
duatriels et de commer^ants, notables et experiments, choiais parmi les membres des chani- 
brea de commerce dignee de collaborer k une oeuvre de pr^pitation et d'enteate universeUe 
k tsbt6 des hommea eminents en droit international, jurisconsultes de la plus haute valeur, qui 
constituent, k I'heure actuelle, la cour intemationale d'artitrage de La Haye. 

"VouB appr^ciereK, messieurs, s'il n'appartient pas aux cluunbres de commerce du 
monde de revendiquer, au point de vue int«mational, I'exerciee de prerogatives d'aibitrage et 
de conciliation qui sont de leur essence mfime dans leur propre pays, en se renfermant dans le 
rAle economique qui leur est assigne par les lois, sans empieter but le terrain juridique. 

"Vous moDtierez ainsi, une fois de plus, la place primordiale que les commerfant« et ks 
industriels tiennent dans I'univers, et la part importante que leurs repreaentanta attittes 
doivent prendre deeormais dans les conseils de leurs gouvemements." 

{Trarulaticn) 
Gentlemen: 

The creation ot an international tribunal of aibitration for suits between individuals 
and foreign governments has for several years past with good reason commanded Uie 
serious attention of most civilised States. Since our last London Congress the queatiou 
have been proposed in a very pracise manner by the Hon. Mr. La Lanne, delegate 
from the United States of America. 

He has placed before us considerations so obvious, that from that mcaoent om 
minds were made up. The worid'a commerce requires the establishment of an into^ 
national court of arbitration. 

The Reporter has shown us new considerations which have satisfied us fuDy; oely 
I find that before our unanimous opinions, our unanimous sentiments, the Reporter 
proposes an order of the day which protracts to a large extent the solution of the 
problem which commerce requires with so much impatience. He tella you: Let us stnd 
to our chambeiB of commerce the question in order to propose to our respective govent- 
menta the wish of the commerce of every natiim to see the establishment of an arbi- 
tration court. 

In Uiis respect I believe tliat the Chamber of Commerce of Paris, throu^ its 
devot«d President, Mr. Charles Legrand, member erf the Permaikent Committee, has ex- 
pressed a feeling with which we are all in hearty accord, and which irill be of great aaeiB- 
tance in the rapid solution of the problem. 

I have the good fortune to be able to e3q>re8B the wish of the Paris Chamber of 
Commerce, in the name of Mr. Charles L^p-and, whose state at health has tmfor- 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMEHCE 167 

timately prevented Iub being vdih us. The wish of the Paris Chamber of Conunerce is 
' expreesed in a, very preciae manner, namely, "That an economic international section 
be associated with The Hague Court and entrusted especially to aibitrste, in sovereign 
manner, in equity all international differences of a commercial and industrial order, 
either (tf States between themselvea, or of manufacturers with fcoeign States. 

"That the nmnbers of tiiis international tribunal of arbitration be chosen from 
among the members of tlie chambers of commerce and' of the commercial and indus- 
trial associations." 

Permit me to read to you the part of the report of Mr. Charies L^rand which 
juatiGee the creation of this international, commercial section, before which differences 
(tf economic and non-judicial order would be brought. It 4>pean to us justified by the 
diversity of commercial l^islation, by the importance, more and more world-wide, of 
indnstay and commerce and their development on all the points of the globe, by this 
extensive movement of credit which now exists between all countries, which renders all 
the more neceesaiy the protection of the interests of individuals, subscribers to foreign 
loans, and lastly by the tendency more and more accentuated of a great many States, 
to creste, direct and exploit commerical and industrial enterprises. 

"We do not Blight the important part the members of this new tribtmal of arbi- 
tration would be called upon to play, and the more so, since, in our mind, their miaaion 
would be to appreciate in fact, not judge at law, to interpret the agreemente made re- 
ciprocally and in good faith, the bi-lateral contracts, and to arbitrate in equity all the 
pledges not observed and their consequences. 

"Their decision would be executory without opposition, recourse or ^tpeal. 

"To fulfil such a miaaian, it would be advisable t« call upMH competent manu- 
facturers and merchants, well known and experienced, chosen from among the members 
of the cbambera of commerce, found worthy to coUaborate, working towards a univeraal 
entente, with men eminent in international law, jurists of the highest worth, such as 
now constitute the International Court of Arbitration of The Hague. 

"You will appreciate, gentlemen, whether it does not rightly belong to the cham- 
bers of oomnterce of the world to ask, from the international point of view, the exercise 
of arbitration and conciliation, which is fundamental to them in tlieir own countries, 
Gtmfining themselves to the economic rOIe which b assigned to tliero by the laws, 
without encroaching on the legal ground. 

"You will tiius show once again the prominent part that merchants and manu- 
facturers hold in the universe, and the important part that their ^tpointed representar 
tives must hereafter take in the counsels of their government." 

H. le President: Je n'ai plus d'inscrite pour la question qui est r^ellement I'ordre du 
jour: "Oration d'un Tribunal arbitral international, pour litiges entre particuliers et Cltats 
itrangeis." 

Nous Bommes done saisiB des oouclunons de M. Apt, qui dit qu'il eat desirable de voir 
Aablir un orgaiUBme de I'csptee; et il ajoute qu'il serait peut-£tre opportun de demander aux 
Gtat»-Unis de prendre I'initiative de convoquer une conf&«nce. 

Nous n'aycms pas la question & I'ordre du jour, Tn ai ^ je prends sous forme de motion les 
Hem que I'on pourrtut 6mettre au sujet de voir I'aibittage s'etablir entre commer^ants 
d'abord, peut-Mre plus loin aprte. J'ai, au sujet de ce d^sir, une demande de parole de la 
part de M. Robhbto Pozzi. 

{TrcauiaUm) 

I have nobody else <m the list cm the question which is actually the order of the 
day: namely, "The Creation of an Intenialionl Tribunal of Arbitration for Suits between 
Individuals and Foreign States." 

We have before us, therefore, the conclusions of Mr. Apt, irito avga that it is 



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168 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

demrable to aee the esUblishment of a tribunal of Uua kind, and adds that it would p«r> 
haps be opportune to ask the United States to take the imtiative for the eaamkmg of 
B conference. 

While it is not on the order of the day, I take in the form t^ a motion wiidtee that 
couid be expressed on the subject of arbitration, as meant to be establiahed between 
merchants first, perhaps extended lat«r. Along this line I have a request for the floor 
from Mr. Robebto Pozzi. 

H. Hohtaio Poid, Intentational Cotton Federation of Milan, Italy 

Mr. Poui made extended remarks in Italian, summarised later, and aSend the foUowioK 
motion; 

"La FM^tion Internationale des Associations Patnnalee de Filateurs et Manuf actuiien 
de Coton, en exprimant la plus vive approbation k la proposition dee 'Xlteaten der Kauf- 
mannschaft von Berlm' k I'objet de la creation d'un tribunal d'arbitrage pour lee diS&ends 
entre particuUera et Etata Strangers, recommande aux eoins du comity ex&utif dee congiH 
I'Stude de la question relative k 1 um&cation des diff6rents syst&nes de droit en matiftre (Tar- 
bitnue entte particuliere, surtcut au sujet de la validity ou non de la elwiae compromiasoiie; 
prie k oonpte de vouloir bien prendre en consideration la question et la passer au bureau 
afin qu'elle soit pr£sent£e a.'prfa I'instruction au prochain congrte." 

"The Intemational Federation of the Pabonal Aeeooiations of Weavers and Manu- 
facturers of Cotton, express the keenest approbation of the preposition of ' Die Xltesten 
der Kauf mannachaf t von Berlin' for the creation of a tribunEd of arbitratioofor the differ- 
ences between individual and foreign States, recommends to the attention of the Executive 
Committee of the Congresses the study of the question concemiiw the unification of the 
different systems of law, in the matter of aH>itration between individuals, eqpeciallj as 

Xds the validity or otherwise of the clause of compromise, and requests tne Congreas to 
into consideration this question, and to refer it to the desk so that it may be preamted 
to the next Congreaa after instiuction." 

11. le PrMdemt: M. Poui porte I'adbMon de la FMeration suadite k la pnqtositian 
relatiye i. la oration d'un tribunal d'arbitrage pour les diff&oids entre partieuliers et £tats 
strangers; oependant, le thtaie ne repr^aente qu'un caa partjculier de la plus vaste questioo de 
i^ement dee (luestioni qui puiasent suigir entre oitoyens de diff^tenta pays, ou entn les pays 
eux-m6mes. 

Ia question a dijk et£ touchy par lea orsleurs prScMents. M. Poui insiste k ce que soicnt 
unifides lea di£F6rent«s l^slations au sujet de I'arbitrage de droit priv6, legislation qui prisente 
les plus notables disparity. Us s'entretiennent surtout but lee inconvduents auiquels dmine 
lieu le fait que telle legislation ne reconnalt pas la validity de la clause comprominoire, et 
propose une motion afin que la question soit examinie pei le comity ex6cutif et portte k la 
discussion au prochain congrte. II ajoute — ce qui est important k connaltre — que le cont- 
meroe intemational de coton, en Europe, k la 6uit« de longues etudes, a pu obtenir I'^tprobatioa 
de toutes les associations cotonniSres k un r^ement de I'arbitrage qui va entrer en vigueur 
dke le mois de novembre de cette aimee. 

Je remercie M. Po»i de son interessante communication. D a'agit d'lme motion avee 
renvoi au comite permanent, pour faire eventuellement de cette question I'objet d'un ordre 
du jour du prochain coi^r^. 

M. PoEsi a d^eloppe tris largement aa propoeitioD. Je ne sais si le service de st&io- 
graphie a pu prendre le texte italien. Je le prierais en tons cas de bien vouloir completer le 
lAnimtf qu'il vient de nous donner en fran^ais. II serait aussi desirable, H me semble, — si 
c'est I'ftvis du congris — d'avoir £galement un court rfeume dans lea autree Ungues, afin 
que ceux qui ne comprennent ni le fran^ais ni ritaliw puiseent quand mbne Atre au courant 
de la propontion. Un de noe colldguee allemands du comity pramanent voudra bien nous 
dire en quelques mots, en allemand, le resume de la propoeitian de M. Poui. Je pense que tous 
lee memLres du eongrha auront (unsi satisfactitm. 



,y Google 



CHAMBERS OF COMMEKCE 169 

{Trwuiation,) 

Mr. PoEzi brings the support of the aboTe-mentioaed Federation to the proposition 
concerning the creation of the court of arbitration for differencea between individuals and 
foreign States. What has been said merely suKests the great differences which may 
arise between citiiens of different countries, or between the countries themselves. 

The question has already been discussed by the preceding speakers. Mr. Poiri 
insista that the different l^ielatitai on the subject erf arbitration be unified, such legislation 
DOW preeentii^ the moat noticeable disparitieB. He emphasizes especially the incon- 
veniences which arise from the fact that such legielation does not recognise the validity 
of the clause of compromise, and offers a motion that the question be examined by 
the executive committee and brou^t up Cor discussion at the next Congress. He adds 
— and this is important to notice — that the international cotton business in Europe, 
after a long study, has obtained the approbation of all the cotton associationa to a ruling 
of arbitration which will be enforced nert November. 

I thank Mr. Poui for his int«resting communication. He oSen a motion with refei~ 
ence to the Permanent Committee making eventually of this question the subject of an 
order of the day at the next Congress. 

Mr. Poui has developed very extensively his proposition. I do not know if the 
stenogn4>hic service has been able to take down the Italian text. I will request him to 
kindly complete the r^eumd which he has just given us in French. It would also seem 
desirable, — if it is the opinion of the Congress, — to have a short t^eum6 in the other 
languages, so that those who do not understand French or Italian could be informed 
on the proposition. One of my German colleagues of the Permanent Committee will 
now tell us in a few words, in German, the r^aumg of Mr. Possi's proposition. I tliiak 
that all the members of the Congress thus will understand it. 

Dr. Soetbeer (Berlin) Obersetit die AusfOhrungen des italienischen Rednera wie folgt: 
Der Redner stdlt sich auf den Standpunkt, dall der Vorschlag dee Herto Dr. Apt gut- 
iDheiBen sei. Hauptsftcblich aber betont er, daO man auch ein Schiedsgericht iwischen 
Kaufleut«n sum Qegenstande der ErArterung machen soUe. Er weiet darauf hin, daB eohieds- 
gerichtliohe Enteclwidungen fOr Streitigkeiten twischen Kaufleuten wtinschenswert seien, daS 
sber nineit grofie Schwierigkeiten fOr die Durchfllhrung dieses Gedankena beetAnden. Die 
Sehwiraigkeitan findet er haupta&chlich daiin, daC es Btaaten gibt, welche Vereinbarungen 
fOr schied^eiichtliobe Entscbeidungea ttberfaaupt nicht anei^ennen, und dafl andere Staaten 
gewiase Bediugungen stellen, von denen sie die Aneikennung abbftngig machen. Hieraus 
entstinden gioBe Schwierif^eiten, und es eischeine wUnschenawert, dieee Schwierigkeiten lu 
beeutigen. 

Da aber dieeer Gegenstand nicht auf der Tagesordnung des heutigen Kongreases stehe, 
sdit der Vorschlag dee Redners nur dahin, daQ bei dem st&ndigen Koniitee eine Prflfung der 
Frage stattfinden mOge, damit eie gegebenenfalls auf die Tagung des D&chsten Kongreeees ge- 
setit werde. 
(TrowWum) 

Dr. BovTBEEB of Berlin translates the remarks of the Italian speaker as follows: 
The speaker is of the opinion that the proposal of Dr. Apt is to be approved. 
Mainly, however, he emphasises the desirability of an expresion in favor of arbitration 
between buaiueee men although at the present time there are great difficulties in the 
way of carrying this into execution. He considers that the difSculties mainly consist in 
the fact that there are States which do not recognize agreements for arbitral justice 
at all, nhSe other States preacrSie certain conditions upon which they make its recogni- 
tJm dependent. This creates great difficulties and it appears desirable to remove them. 
As, however, this subject is not on the order of the day of the present Congress, 
the speaker proposes that the Permanent Committee should make an investigation of 
this question, so that it might eventually be placed on the program of the next Congress. 



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170 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

Ur. lAivrence V. Benet, American Chamber <ff Commerce of Parit 

Mr, nhiLir mftn* 

After most cueful cooBideratioa of the masterly and exhaustive report of Dr. Apt, the 
delegation of the American Chamber of Commerce in Paris have requested me to place be- 
fore you certain considerations which may throw a little light on this subject from another 
point of view. It is in no spirit of opposition to the principles of arbitration that we are in- 
clined to believe that the sulsject as stated is not of general and immediate interest to cham- 
bers of commerce, but that in a modified form it might become a most fruitful subject of 
discussion at a subsequent Cougtesa. Three reascma have led ua to this conclusion: — 

Firtl: It is not apparent, nor has it been demonstrated, that there is any great or utgent 
need of such a tribunal on the part of individuals or corporations engaged in what is generally 
recognized as commercial relations with foreign governments. I may say, that I have been 
engaged for neariy thirty years in a business whose dealings have been almost exclusvdy 
confined to governments; tbat our transactions have aggregated in that period very many 
millions of doUais, and have involved relations with nearly every government in the world, 
recognised or unrecognized, rich or bankrupt, stable or on the verge of levoluticm; and dvir- 
ing that entire time I can only recall two instances of uncollectible claims, and tJiese fw rela- 
tively unimportant amounts. Even should such a tribunal be constituted, a man of btutDcn 
vitb his future bef<»e him might long hesitate before haling a government before a coort of 
international arbitration or international equity. 

Second: Such a court might even be of direct danger to the interests of individuals hav* 
ing commercial relations with foreign governments. It is hardly conceivable, if the ri^t be 
given individuals to summon governments before such a court, that governments sbould oot 
enjoy a corresponding right to summon individuals or corporations before the same tiibunaL 
No man of business can lightly contemplate such a possibility, aside from all question of the 
expense involved, in time and money. 

Third: The establisbment of such a court seems to be beyond the range of present poeei- 
bility. It would appear to ns visionary to expect that any government would agree to sub- 
mit to the j'ursidiction of such a court, unless all other countries had made a like agreement; 
and it is hardly probable that any country with highly developed legal machinery tor obtain- 
it^ justice against the government thereof, would lightly abandon such practice. If such a 
court were established, it is more than probable that claims antedating the eatablJHhmmt of 
the court would be excluded from the jurisdiction thereof, and in such case our present in- 
terest in such a court might perhaps lose much <rf its enthusiasm. 

FinaUy: We believe that the subject in its present form is one that is so foreign to the 
usual activities of chambers of commerce that better wisdom might be to leave its diseuanon 
to international lawyers and others more competent in the premises. 

If, however, the subject could be modified to read: "International Court of Arbitration 
for disputes between individuals or between cmporations of difierent nationalities," then we 
believe that the subject would become one capable of more intelligent discussion by chambers 
of commerce, and one which might lead to results of the greatest value to all engaged in 
foreign trade and commerce. In this couiection it is worthy of note that the Chamber of 
Conmierce of the State of New York, the American Chamber of Conomerce of Paris, aivl 
other organizations in close touch with international trade have already provided means for 
the voluntary arbitration of commereial disputes between individuals of the same or of differ- 
ent nationaUties, and we therefore strongly advocate giving a broader and more authoritative 
scope to this more comprehensive principle of commercial arbitration. 

Once the authoritative arbitration of commercial disputes has been realized, success will 
surely be found for the settlement of such special eases as are covered by Dr. Apt's sugges- 
tions. 

H. le President; Cette motion est done prise en consid^tion pour renvoi au comity 
permanent. 



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J'ai, d'aube part, une demande de parole de la part de certaina de nos coll^guea de Boston, 
toujoura BUT cett« question de Tarbitrage, mais port^ un peu plus haut. Je donne dmo 
volontiera la parole k M. Edwin D. Mead. 
(Trarulotton) 

This motion then ia taken under consideration for reference to tbe Pennanent 
Conunittoe. 

1 have a request for the floor on the part of certain of our colleagues in Boston, still 
on this question of arbitration, but cairied a little higher. I gladly give the floor to Mr. 
Edwin D. Mead. 

Mr. Bdirin D. H«id, Boalon Chamber qf Commerce 

Mr. Preddeot and GenUemen: 

I am very glad that after the g^ieral consideration of international arbitration in previ- 
ouB conferences, we have htd the subject introduced here to-day of the settlement of cases 
between States and individuak. I have listened with great interest to Dr. Apt's paper and I 
am gUd that the subject has been introduced here on American soil by a German interna- 
tional thinker. Dr. Apt has quoted Dr. Zom of Bonn, for whom all men of international 
acquaintance in America have such high regard, and he mentioned Dr. Zorn'e desire that 
the basis of this international court should be much wider than that proposed from Berlin. 
He was not speaking of the outline by Dr. Apt, but of the previous suggestions of " Die Xlte- 
Rten der Kaufmannschaft von Beriin." There are many <A us who wish that this whole dis- 
cunion might have had a broader basis; and it was expected that the general question of 
arbitration, as a result of the action at London and subsequently at Paris, would have been 
open for discussion ss a regular part of the program; but it was ordered otherwise. 

A great step has been taken leading I think far more directly than Dr. Apt may think, 
to the end that he has in view; and 1 am glad, I repeat, that Dr. Apt made his proposal cm 
American soil. I wish, as an American, to express the thought which I believe is in the minds 
of international thinkers in common, that the proposition for the court of arbitral justice 
which was made at The Hague by our American representative, Mr. Choate, and ably aec- 
onded by Baron Marshall von Biebetstein, the leading German delegate at the Second Hague 
Conference, now the Getman Ambassador at London, and adopted by the conference, may 
soon become an accomplished fact.> 

The Secretaiy of the Department of Commerce and Labor said here this morning that 
commerce is always the pioneer. In this matter I wish to remind you that commerce has not 
been the pioneer. Here the governments have been distinctly in the lead; but the men of 
commerce in this world and particularly this great assembly, have the opportunity to creato 
the strong public opinion which will reinforce the govetnments in this endeavor. 

We remember here in America that it was our former great Secretary of Stato, Elihu 
Root, who was the author of the idea of the establishment of a court of arbitral justice, and 
we remember how he appealed to us all to create that public opinion which should thus rein- 
force the governments in their efforts for its eBtsblishment. In his paper Dr. Apt has referred 
to the Court of Central America at Cartago, Costa Bica, established by five States, which 
has the power to decide not only disputes between those States, but also the disputes between 
private persons and the governments of Centr^ America. But he did not make a far greater 
appeal, and one far more illuminating; he did not refer to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. The Supreme Court of the United States exists not only for the purpose of adjudicat- 
ing cases between states, but between individuals and states and between individuals of dif- 
ferent states, as well as between the states and the nation. Now I believe that the court of 
arbitral justice, when it is established, will in time have its jurisdiction and its functions so 

in Biab«nt«la ^ptsnd in the btsoIdc Banptptn ol ths day on which 



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172 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

extended u wiU assure that it will cover all these cases, and I believe that that oourt of ari»- 
tral juBtice will be the true instruinentality which will accomplish the great end which I>. 
Apt has in view, and which it is so necessary to emphasiie. 

I do not believe in advocating a new court at this time, instead of pressing for tlie fotmd- 
ing of the court of arbitral justice which has already been decreed at the Second Hague Cod- 
ference, and awaits only its organization. I beUeve that in urging stron^y tlie establiehment 
of the court of arbitral justice we shall best accomplish what Dr. Apt has at heart. Upon 
this matter there is room for Intimate differences of opinion. But there is no room for dif- 
ference of opinion I think as to the importance bo conunercial men of the eetablishmoit of 
the court of arbitral justice. The commercial bodies of America are a unit in this thing; and 
it is the duty of commercial men everywhere to hasten the establishment of the court. I 
therefore venture to submit the following brief resolution : 

"The Fifth International Congress of Chambers of Commerce, representing the great 
interests of industrv and commerce which ore increasing so rapidly the interdependence of 

nations and demand, so imperatively for their advancement and prosperity the i>eace and order 
of the world, ui^es the commercial organizations of all countries to earnest efforts for tie 
widest extention of arbitration to the settlement of international disputes and for the eariieet 
possible establishment of the Court of Arbitral Justice provided for by the last Hague Caa- 
lerence." 

H. le Prfisident: Cette resolution, comme la pi^c^ente, ne peut £tre prise que pour 
notification au comit4 permanent. La question n'est paa it I'ordre du jour et nous D'avons 
pas k voter sur cette resolution. 

Nous odmiions beaucoup les bonnes raisons que vient de nous donner M. Mead. Sa re- 
solution eat done k tranametti«, pour notification, au comity pennanent. 

J'ai aussi une demande de parole de la part de M. EnwiN Gum. 

This resolution, like the preceding one, can only be regarded as a notification to the 
Permanent Committee. The question is not on the order of the day and we do not have 
to vote on this resolution. 

We admire greatly the excellent reasons that Mr. Mead has just given us, aiMl the 
matter will be transmitted, for notification, to the Permanent Committee. 

I have also a request that the floor be given to Mr. EnwiN Gink. 



Mr. Edwin Ginn, BoOon Chtmber of Commenx 
Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

The subject before ua tonlay is one that affects all nations alike. It ia for the interest 
of all that peace and order should reign and anything that will contribute to that end abould 
receive serious consideration. Commercial bodies should use tbeir utmost influence to bring 
about the establishment of a judicial court and urge their governments to take advantage of 
it in all future difBcuIties. Such a court composed of the ablest jurists in the world woukl 
naturally command the confidence of all nations. 

I am iu hearty sympathy with every effort in this direction, but it seems to me we should 
go even further and bend our energies to the education of the people to a right idea of inter- 
national relations. 

It ia the claim of military men that large armaments are necessary to preserve the peace 
of the world, — a sort of insurance premium paid to secure it. This assumption is not woi- 
lAQted by tike facts. Large armaments inspire distrust, fear and antagonism, ctmditiona 
directly opposed to good will and peace. It is natural, peritapa, that the nations ahould fed 
that they must rely for safety upon a physical force, for until recently such protection has 
been necessary. But now the individual nations compel their subjects to settle their diq«t(B 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 173 

in the courtfl; and tlie nations themselvea alumld lefer their difiScultiea to a judicial court for 
aettJement. 

The mihtary syBtem is ft tremendous power to cope with, for it is supported by such vast 
intefeete that it is almost overwhelming. Five million men are constantly employed in the 
armies of the world and twenty-five million a part of the time, all of whom are looking to the 
trade of war for their promotkm, as a business, and their families are dependent upon their 
aalariee tor a livelihood. Then, nearly two thousand millions of dollars' worth of contracts 
are given out each year for the building of war ships and for military suppUea of all kinds, 
wtiich men are seeking to secure for the profit that is in them. They are pursuing this busi- 
ness as they would any otiier, and it is only light to state that the majority probably consider 
their occupation entirely legitimate and necessary for the protection of the world. It has 
been stated that nearly one-aixth of the people of the various countries are financially intereBt«d 
in keeping up the present war eyBt«m. When we consider these things it gives ua an ineigbt 
into the tremendous obstacles against any change. 

What have we to oppose them? A handful of men who are willing to put their hands in 
their pocketa to advance the cause of peace, with a very limited amount ot money. Not one 
person in ten tluusand ever contributes a dollar to further the interests of peace. Each goes 
about his daily work as if war did not exist, as if it were not the greatest scourge that man- 
kind has to endure. The best men and women desire that thia murderous system be done 
away with; that the arnuunenta be reduced; that so many men need not be takm from their 
liomes to be supported in idleness at the expense of those who are left behind, aikd that so 
many livee need not be sacrificed in the strength of eariy manhood. But while this feeling is 
prevalent, it is latent and a change cannot be brought about suddenly by a few good speeches 
and books scattered in a limited way. No matter how good the speeches made or the books 
pabMied, tbey do not reach the public to any great extent, and as a general rule only come 
to the attention of those who need no conversion. 

Our conventions ne^ect one of the most important objects to be attained, that of ap- 
pointing a committee of ways and means to discuss matters from a financial atandpotnt. 
The woi^ heretofore has been too indefinite, too limited. It has been largely undertaken by 
■tbolara and theorists in an academic way rather than on business principles. The co-oper- 
ation (A men of finance has not been secured. The best plans that can be made and the beet 
men that can be engaged will be of Uttle avail unless funds are available for carrying on the 
woric, I do not underrate the effort to arouse the people to activity through conventions, for 
everything that creates interest in this great cause is helpful, but sudden or temporary emotion 
dies away as suddenly as it is created. The only way to succeed is by educating the people 
and this education must of necessity be of alow growth. Not until men shall have learned to 
subordinate individual preferences and selfish interests, their pride and their passion, to the 
B^ieral welfare of the pe<^le, and can be brou^t to work shoulder to shoulder for the highest 
inteteste of mankind will rai^ progress be made toward permanent peace. 

The individual nations have been treating peace and war as a national affair. Each has 
felt it oeceseaiy to arm itself to ward off attacks from all sources. The larger the armaments, 
the greater the fear of each otiier, and this fear can ordy be disaipatod by inauguratmg some 
Qslem of cooperation which ahall moke the interests of all nations identical. Would it not be 
well for us to join hands and see how much benefit each can secure for the other? The nations 
will not cut down their armies voluntarily until provision has been made for securing protec- 
tion in some other way. This can be done by establishing a small international force for the 
preservation of peace, consisting of a certain proportion, say ten per cent, of the armaments 
of each nation. Such an arrangement would in no way disturb the relative efGciency of exist- 
ing armies. Hub international force, instead of being organised on the selfish plan of each 
nation securing as much as possible for itself, should be oi^;aniied on the broader plan of pro- 
tection for all, which also would insure greater protection for the individual nation. Any 
State tiiat is working for the good of all is as much greater in its efficiency as the whole is 
greater than its parts. Such a wholesome power would strengthen with the years and when 



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174 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

it had been in operation Bufficiently long to Batiafy the nations that they oould rest aeeuirij 
upon its protection, they would not continue to tax themselves so heavily for national arma- 
ments no longer needed and those armaments would gradually disappear. 

Why should there not be a repiesentative parliament of the nations summoned to settle 
on some plan of co-operation, similar to The Hague Court? It is not a very great Bt«p from 
the one to the other. Then we should have the three necessary branches <rf a wftrld federation, 
— the legislative, the judicial and the executive. When such an organisatii^ is f<Mined, the 
peace of the world will be assured. 

In this work of education we shall need to ayail ourselves of every avenue of influence, 
and first among these ia schools. Here is our greatest opportunity for impressing upon the 
young minds, — those who will soon undertake the world's work, — the true piincq>les whid 
should govern international affairs. 

Our attention should be directed especially to the couisea of study in order that we may 
improve conditions in the schools. It is surprising that our children should receive the im- 
pression that war has contributed cardinaLy to the development of mankind when so large a 
part of OUT histories and so much of the literature studied are devoted to detuls of the battle- 
field, — the picturesque features of war, — the maraballing of soldiers in glittering aimor, 
stirring music and brilliant charges, — everything to inspire the young to become a part of 
tiOB magnificent display. The other side of the picture should be as (carefully pcHtrayed, — 
the return of the regiments reduced to a tenth of their original number, maimed and feeble, 
carrying torn and bloodstained battle flags. That side of the picture is necessary for a proper 
comprehension of the meaning of war. That a hundred thousand men should have been 
killed upon the battlefield should be mentioned, not as something praiseworthy, but as ft 
great lose to the world. History should dwell largely upon the peaceful punuite of life wfaidt 
have made for growth and progress in civilisation, — agriculture, trade, commeToe, scbo<^ 
science. 

Then there are the churches which come in contact with all classes and condititxis of men 
the world over. Here is a tremendous influence that should be taken into oonmdeiatian. 

The press is a most powerful influence in this educational woric, and one that the worid 
responds to most readily. Editors should be urged to use the greatest care in the selectkm of 
material for their pubUcations, and to eliminate as far as possible such matter as would incite 
the people of one nation against another. Those who write for the newBp4»er8 i&auld have a 
eerioua appreciation of their responsibihty. 

Another great body of men of great influence are the merchants, the msnufactureis add 
financiers of the world. They hold within their grasp the means for carrying on war, and they 
should have the fullest information bearing upon this subject in order that they may see the 
wisdom of withholding their support from a system that is exercising such a baneful influence. 

In this connection I would recommend heartily Norman Angell's book, "The Great Illu- 
sion," for it shows very clearly the impotency and utter unfitness of the old war syston in 
this modem commercial age when investments are so largely international and whcm the 
real commercial interests of one nation are the interests of all the workl. If nations would 
put more money into peace budgets instead of so much into war buc^^ts and devote them- 
selves to constructive measures in bringing about mutual good underatanding, it would be 
the chief and the effective instrumentality at the present time. The court must take the 
place of the gun in settling disputes among nations, as it has already done in setthng disputes 
among individuals. 

When the well-organised war powers and selfish interests are united in taxing the whole 
world yeariy for the enormous sum of nearly two Hiousand million dollara, what will a few 
million dollars do to meet this enormous forceT It will take many mtUions to carry on thk 
woik successfully and the funds given by a few generous people are wholly inadequate. More- 
over it would not be well for the people to feel that this responsibility had been taken tmm 
their shoulders and that the woric could be accomplished without their assistance. A person 
is interested in that in which he has an investment, either in time or mcmey, and it ia thia 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 175 

inTestment, tikis responsibility, that the friends of peace muHt take upon tfiemselvefl if this 
ptoblem is ever to be solved. Great as is the power of moral and int«IlBctual forces, we have 
before us a task that few comprehend. It is for us not only to inBtitut« the measures neces- 
sary to curtail this awful waste of life and property, but to bring conviction to the masses 
that this question cannot be handled successfully by a few people. It is a woric, a most diffi- 
cult woric, for the whole worid. We must do our part towards bringing the subject so force* 
tafiy before each and eveiy one that all will feel that it is necessaiy to take a hand in it. 

It would be veiy desirable that this Congress should pass resolutions creating in each 
country, better still in each organiaation, a committee to take in hand this great question, to 
study it as the one problem above all otheis affecting their own private interesta, and to adopt 
such measures as will secure the means to prosecute succe^ully the woric. 

These are some of the considerations which command commercial bodies everywhere to 
work earnestly for the system of arbitration and international law to supplant Uie war eysUaa 
and the next important step to this is the establishment of the Court of Arbitral Justice. 
(Applause.) 

H. le PrCddent: Messieurs, j'ai laiss^ la parole express^ment & IlKoiorable M. Edwin 
Ginn, d'abord parce que c'est un de nos hAtes de Boston, ensuite, parce que c'est un philan- 
thiope bien connu, le fondateur de la "Fondation Universelle pour la Paix." Je le remercie 
des bonnes paroles qu'il a bien voulu nous apporter, et je propose de verser le texte de Bon 
discours aux documents, et le comity permanent en fera le meilleur ua^e. 

La parole est maintenant k M. Sahuel Capbn. 
(TVonatolum) 

I have given the floor to the Hon. Mr. Edwin Ginn, in the first place because he 
is one of our Boston hosts, and moreover because he is a well-known ptuUnthropist, the 
founder of the "Worid Peace Foundation." I thank him for the good words he has 
kindly brought us, and wiU refer his address to the Permanent Committee for their 
careful consideration. 

Mr. Saiiubl Capbn now has the floor. 

Ur, Sanrad B. Capen, BoOon Chamber 0/ Commerct 

Mr. Preaident and Gentlemen: 

The hour is so late that what I shall have to say will be very brief. Before speaking of 
the Mohonk Arbitration CcMiference 1 wish to second the broad resolution that Mr. Mead 
has introduced. 

It is a matter of great interest that there are two hundred boards of trade and chambers 
of commerce representing every large city in this country that are practicBlly affiliated with 
the Mohonk Arbitration Conference and are pledged practically to support the United States 
government in every move that it makes in the effort to settle every international diSereaoe 
by a court of arbitral justice. I have here and will leave with the Secretary the businesa 
men's resolutions offered at Mohonk, and also a tapy of the report of the last Lake Mohonk 
Conference. As an evidence of this position on the part of tbcae organizations, let mc call 
attention also to the fact that nearly two himdred boards of trade endorsed the pacta with 
other nations made by Presidoit Taft a few months ago, and these two hundred organiEations 
repreaented cities having a, population of twenty millions of people. 

It is certainly true in this country that the business men and the financial interests rec- 
ogniie that anything which interferes with peace — a war or a rumor of war — throws all 
business into (Mnfusion. But the thing to which I wish especially to call attention is this. 
We glory in the position which the business interests in this country and other countries 
have taken on this great movement; but I want to make this one point — that in keeping 
our leadership we are going to have splendid allies. In the first place, we will have with us 



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176 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

if we take this etrong position all the labor iiit«r«(i1«, for theae men i«oogniae tliat tliey are 
the greateat aufFeren when there ia a contest. And in this countiy I am very glad to say that 
we have on our (dde the Grand Anny of the Republic. Last Memorial Day I ^>oke before 
one of their Posts, and I never bad a more interested audience than those men who had fou^t 
tbrou^ the great Civil War. For those men knew that General Sherman was ri^t when 
he said "War ia hell," and they did not wi^ their children or their grandchildten to 
suffer what they suffeivd. One of the beet addreeeea at-Mohonk this year was made by cne 
of the admiralB of the United States Navy. Not only that, but we have with ua the schook 
and the colleges and the universities of this country. They are being lined up back <rf this 
great movement. These young people are beginning to see that the university in fuU opera- 
tion is OS much a matter to ^ly in as a war ship, and it will Uve forever, while the war ship 
will be on the Bcr^)-heap within twenty years. And not only that, but we have back of us all 
the great movements which are represented by Mr. Ginn's world peace movement, and also 
by the money which is invested under Mr. Carnegie. We have the Worid's Student Federa- 
tion, and especially in these recent days the great CbriEtian Endeavor Union, which numbers 
79,000 eoeietiee in every country represented here, with four millions of members, and Uiese 
young men and young women are being pledged to this great movement. So I submit, busi- 
nesH men, that we want to hold the right of the line. We have hod it thus far. We have these 
great allies. But let us take a strong position in this Congress. Let us pass some resolutions 
of this kind and strike a note that will be heard round the world. We have got through the 
age of simple toleration and competition; we have come to co-operation. Nationalism is a 
great word, but there is a greater word — that is, intetnationaliam. We learned in the last 
generation to be neighbors; we want out of this great Congress more and more to let the 
world know that we are brothers. (Applause.) 

f Trade, Premdrnt NatUmal Board of Trmk, 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Congress: 

Two years ago, when in London, t had the honor of proposing the resolution irtiich is 
now before you. While it has been modified, I want to second it in ite modification, i<a I 
think the resolution before the Convention b>day is ideal. It provides for the settlenwDt of 
cases between nations, and it provides for the settlement of cases between individuals and 
nations. Nothing could be more ideal than thia proposition. I believe if the business men 
represented here, who to my mind represent the most intelligent set of merehonts, manufoo- 
tureiB and bankers <d the world, will go out with a decisire ^>proval of this rescdution, the 
nations of the world, the diplomata of the world, will bow down their heads in req>eet to the 
decisions of thia powerful Congress. 

I have very little t« aay except to uidorse these resolutions. But after offering the reso- 
lution in London two years ago, I was delighted to see that my friends from Germany woe 
highly pleased with tiie thou^t, and they took it in the proper spirit; and to-day tfie eloquent 
papers that have been read show the prc^p-ess of the wodd and the thought of an oibitnl 
court of justice. It is not necessary, if that court ia created, that all cases diall, nolens volen^ 
come before it. Such coses as two nations wish to have settled can voluntarily be taken to 
that court. It is not necessary that under the creation of such a tribunal we must have dis- 
armament, but if the tribunal is created the result will be in the future the gradual disarma- 
ment of the nations, for it will be cheaper, it will be more honorable to try the cases before on 
arbitral court of justice than it will be to fight them out and stand after the fif^t in the same 
unh^ipy position towards each other as before. 

Before I close I want to read a abort letter from Secretary Knox which shows the views 
of our great Secretary of State, following the views of his predecessors. This letter he writes 
me on April 26: 

"I sincerely hope that a resolution at the International C(»igress of Chambers of Com- 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 177 

merce urgiiig the eBtabliahment of & pOTmaneiit arbitral court of justice will be paaBed, and I 
will feel very hopeful when such a bapp)' event occurs" — and he adds in a paientheeiB that 
be has had from hia identical note urging Uub thing to all the nations of the world very favor- 
able replies from nearly ail. 

Gentlemen, it has been an honor to be here, and before we adjourn I wish to eay that I 
reprceent the committee of the Allied Boards of Trade and Chambers of Commerce of my 
dty, Fltilaidelphia- It is a great pleasure to be told that your itinerary brings you to Phila- 
delphia on October IS and October 16. There we want to show you our industrial establish- 
ments, and we want to show you that while we are a peace-loving city of Quakers, we have 
in Phfladelphia the greatest shipyoida of America. The New York shipyard is in Philadel- 
phia, and the Cramps'. We want to show you that we can drop into the water every year if . 
neee«eary in Philsdelphia alone eight of the greatest Dreadnaughts in the two shipbuilding 
establishments, so that in building them we hope that we are only creating instruments of 

Following our invitation to Philadelphia I am instructed by the conunittee to say that 
all del^ates will be invited to my bouse in the country to dinner on the evening of October 
16. While later on you will receive fonnal invitations, which are now being printed, I take 
this method of expressing my hope that you will all be with me in my country home the eve- 
ning of the 16th to dinner, and I ho[>e you will put it down as a memorandum. {Applame.) 

H. le ^fisideot: Je remercie M. Ia Lanne pour la contribution qu'il a donn£e & la 
question de I'arbitrage, contribution qui sera versfe, oomme les autres, & titre de document, 
pour le comity permanent, 

Je n'ai plus maintenant qu'un orateur inscrit, et il est absent. 

Dans ces conditions, messieurs, le nombre des orateurs inscrite £tant 6puis£, la seconde 
question JL I'ordre du jour peut Ure consid^rte comme termin^e. Nous avons done lecueilli 
des mat^riaux pour le prochain congr^ aussi bien, de nos auiis d'ltalie, au point de vue de 
I'aifoitrage entre particuliers, que de nos amis de Boston et des £tats-Unis, au point de vue 
de I'arbitrage vu de haut, entre nations. 
(Trmulaliott) 

I thank Mr. La Lanne for his contribution lo the subject of arbitratirat which wiU 
be handed over, like the others, to the Permanent Committee. 

There is but one speaker remaining on the list, and he is absent. 
Under these conditions, gentlemen, I consider that the list of appointed speakers 
is exhausted and that the second question on the order of the day may be considered 
closed. We have, then, gathered material for the next Congress, — from our friends 
from Italy on the point of view of arbitration between individuals, and from our friends 
from Boston and the United States, on the point of view of arbitration on a broader 
scale, between nations. 



IC. Benurd J. Shoninger, PreMmtt of the Ameriean Chamber of Commerce <ff Parit 

Je craini qu'il y ait malentendu. Les Am^cains et les An^aia n'ont pas bien compris 
ri le congrte a accepts, selon votre jugement, seulem^it la premiere resolution propose par 
M. Apt. Est-ce que le congrte demande au gouvetnement des Cltata-Unia de riunir un con- 
grte pour decider de cette question-l& seulementT 
{TrmOatum) 

1 fear there is a misunderstanding. The Americans and English have not clearly 

understood if the Congress has accepted, according to your judgment, only the first 

reaolution proposed by Or. Apt. Does the Congress ask the government of the United 

States to call a conference lo decide this question only? 



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178 INTERNATIONAL C0NGHE88 OF 

H. 1« PtMdMit: Senlement, oui. Je vais rappder en quelquee mote, measieura, et 
qui a 4t£ fait. Le second objet & I'ordre du jour porte exclunvement but I'aibitnge entn 
"individuala and foreign States," et lee cosoluaions de M. Apt ont 616 adoptees, penonne n'a 
fait d'objection auz conclusions de son r^tport. Alors, on a miggiri que, peut^tre, — pane 
qu'enfin cela depend du bon vouloir du gouvemement — que peut4tre le gouvemement dn 
fH«te-Uni8 pourrait prendre I'initi&tive d'une conference & ce sujet. Le comity permanent 
pourra se tenir en communication avec le gouvemement dee £ltata-Unis pour eavoir si tel est 
. son bon plaisir. Nous ne pouvons, naturellement, pas agir autrement. 

Le second point, c'est tout simpletuent une motion relative & voir itudier I'^tnhlinnrfnfrit 
de I'arbitrage entre particuliets. Ce second point n'^tait pas k I'ordre du jour. J'ai laiȣ 
d6vel(^)per la question afin que cela constitue dee matiriaux pour le prochain congrte. Ia 
question sera port^ devant le comity permanent, qui, d'ici Uk, rasBemblera dee mat^rianx 
nouveaus, et la question viendra abrs, complete, avec rapporteur, devant le prochain oongrte. 
Et enfin, la demi^re motion, relative k I'arbitrage vu de haut, sera 6gslement port^ aa 
comity permanent, qui veira quelle suite pratique on peut lui donner. 

Le congrte a done voU une resolution sur lee conclusions de M. Apt, et il a pris la meil- 
leure note, avec la meilleure attention, dee deux motions d^poafes, ausai bien pour ratbitnge 
entre paiticuliers que pour I'arbitrage en gSn^rai. 
(TrantJatum) 

This question only, yes. I will sum up, gentlemen, in a few words what has been 
done. The second topic on the order of the day bears exclusively on arbitration betweoi 
"individuals and foreign States," and the condusioiis of Dr. Apt have been adopted, no- 
body having obiect«d to the eonduaons of his report. Then it was suggested — peiitaps 
because, after all, it depends on the good will of the government — that peifaap« the 
Qovemment of (he United States might take the initiative with regard to a CMtferenee 
on this subject. The Permanent Committee will enter into conmiunication with the Gov- 
ernment of the United States to ascertain if this course will be agreeable to it. We can- 
not, manifestly, proceed in any other manner. 

As to the second point, it is simply a motion relative to an investigation of tlM 
establishment of arbitration between individuals. This second point is not on the 
order of the day. I have permitted the question to be discussed in order tliat it might 
afford material for the next Congress. The question will be referred to the Penuanent 
Committee, which from now till then will be gathering new material, and the questiwi 
will then come, complete, after consideration by a Reporter, before the next Congress. 

Finally, the last motion, relative to aibitration from a higher point of view, will like- 
wise be laid before the Permanent Committee, which will decide what practical form can 
be given to it. 

The Congress has, then, voted a resolution on Mr. Apt's conclusions, and it has 
given the most careful consideration, with the best attention, to the two motions offered, 
as well for arbitration between individuals as for aibttration in general. 

M. Shonloger: Si vous voulec me permettre, je vais dire quelquea mote en anglais. 
(TnauiaHon) 

If I am allowed, I will say a few words in T^^giMh, 

H . le President: Certainement. 
(Tramlction) 

Certainly. 

Hr. Shoninger: There seems to have been a mieundetstanding. When the motkai was 
made by the honorable President, the fellow memben here, who do not q>eak FVencb, some 
of them, supposed that that was merely an explanation of tbe position that bad b«en taken 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 179 

by some of the speaken to draw the line between the argument that had been proposed and 
BO ably presented by Dr. Apt, and the arKumente that have also been propoeed additiimally 

H. le President: II faut faire une distinction entre le rapport de M. Apt, rapporteur, 
rapport £tudi6, complet, et lea motions, ^loquentes, qui nous ont 6t& pr^sentjes iei «x abrupto. 
(Trandation) 

One must draw a distinction between the report of Mr. Apt, the Reporter, a studied 

and complete report, and the eloquent motions which have been presented here kc 

abrupto. 

Mr. Shoniiiger: I concede that, yes; but we did not suppose that we were coming here 
odIj to listen to discussion and adopt, without opportunity to make an amendment, in the 
form of addition or otherwise, something we had read a few weeks ago. What would be the 
object of coming here thousands of miles if we could not, bj some slight amendment, perfect 
the resolution we were considering? Remember, there is no one that is oppoaiog the resolu- 
tion of Dr. Apt; we are all in favor of it, but many of us think that that is impossible of reali- 
sation, while we all think that by enlaiging the scope and by inviting the Government of the 
Cnited States, of which we are the guesta to-day, to enlarge the sphere of the inquiry, we 
would be reaHy placing this Congress in the position that we intended to have it place itself 
— that is, to invite the United States Government to take the initiative in asking other gov- 
ernments to a conference which shall have for its object the establishment of a tnbunal of 
justice for commercial disputes between individuals or corporations belonging to different 
nations, and not alone the question on the order of the day, which we consider of far less 
importance, because it is not so customary, for there is one case of that kind to millions of 
the other. That is, there is peihaps one case of commercial dispute between an individual 
and a foreign government against a million disputes between individuals redding in difierent 
countries. Therefore I say there has been a misunderstanding here, and since the question 
has just come up we would like to know now whether in the future procedure of this Congress 
we ore only going to be allowed to vote on questions as they are put in the prt^ram, or whether 
any amendments or corrections or differences of opinion would be allowed to prevail. That 
is a question that we want to have cleared up now. (Applause; "Hear, hearl") 

M. le n^^ent: Je ne puis que vous r£p£ter ce que j'oi dit. Nous avcms vot^ les con- 
dusions de M. Apt. Ce que vous ditea en ce moment n'est pas un omendement, o'eet une 
autre question, et cette autre question n'eat pas i Tordre du jour. Je ne puis ainsi pas vous 
demander de prendre une resolution sur une question qui n'eet pas & I'otdre du jour. 
(Tntntlalion) 

I can only repeat what I have already said: we have voted in favor of Mr. Apt's 

conchisiona. What you now state is not an ameikdment, it is another question, and 

this other question is not on the order of the day. I cannot, therefore, ask you to pass 

a resolution on a question which is not on the order of the day. 



(Tronrioliim) 

We consider that it is the same question, enlarged, and with more chance of 
realisation. 

U. I« Fr^ddent: Je ne vous die pas non; je dois cependant, logiquement, m'en tmir k 
I'ordre du jour. 
(Tran^ation) 

I would not contradict that; I must, however, adhere to the order of the d^. 



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180 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

If. SKminger: Maia c'est la mbne. 
{Tnntialion) 

But it IB the same thiiigi 

U. le Pr^aldent: Je dia que, moi, qui conduia lea dglib^tiona en oe moment, je dois 
voue faire d^Urer sur cette question et non paa but une autre. Vous avea d£liMr£ but U 
premiere queation, noua sommea d'accord. Vous voudriei maintenant £largir . . . 
(Trantiatum) 

I conaider that in conducting the meeting at the present time I must oblige you 
to deliberate on this question and not on anoUier. You have acted on the firet ques- 
tion, we are agreed. Now you wish to amplify . . . 

H. Shoninger: Noua ne aommes paa d'accoid, 
iTrarulation) 

But we are not agreed. 

If. le Prtsldsnt: Vous n'^tea pas d'accord but les concluedons de M. Apt? 
(Tronrialion) 

You are not agreed on the conclusitm of Mr. Apt? 

M. aioninger: Non, parce qu'il ne va pas aases loin. 
(Xnmdatum) 

No, because it does not go far enough. 

H. le President: Pardon. Voua pouvei toujours dire que, pour ce qu'il a dit, vous 
(tea d'accord. Nous nous aommea occupy de la question dea litigea entre particuliera et 
£tats, qui £tait k I'ordre du jour, et pas autre chose; il n'y a pas i, aller plus loin, et dans 
I'eap^ je consid^ la chose acquise. Vous avez eiit«ndu les conclusions de M. Apt et il n'y 
a paa eu d'obaerration; je consid^ done que, juaque-li, nous aommes d'accord, 
(TrantUUum) 

Excuse me. You can in any event say that aa far aa what he has stated goes, yrra 
are agreed. We have been conmdering the question of litigation between individuab 
and Btat«B, which waa on the order of the day, and nothing else; there was no occasion 
to go further, and under the circumstances I consider the matter cloeed. You have 
heard the conclusiona of Mr. Apt, and no comimente were made; I therefore conaideT 
that up to that point we aie agreed. 

U. Shoninger: Jusque-IA, oui; maia attendez . . . 
iTramtaHon) 

Up to that, yes; but wait . . . 

M. ie PrfiBident: Bon, nous voiU done d'accord. Mais vous demandes d'aller phis 
loin. J'aurais pu, dja le d6but, dire: non, la queation n'est pas k I'ordre du }Our. Je n'ai 
paa Toulu le faire, parce que j'ai trouv6 trim int^reaaant d'avoir lea motiona que nous avons 
eues, aussi bien pour rarfaitrage entre particuliera que pour I'arbitrage en g£n£ral, et je vous 
oi dit: nous accueillona cea motiona avec la plua grande faveur; nous les verserons cooune 
document au comity permanent, lequel lea mettra k I'ordre du jour d'un prochain congris. 
Je ne pouvais rien faire autre choee. 

Voua ae pouvei paa, meaaieurs, prendre, k pied lev6, une decision eana avoir £tudi£ la 
question. Juaqu'4 present, dans nos travaux de congrte, nous avons toujoura pToc&i6 avec 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 181 

ordre et m^thode; 1m questions ont ^t£ mflries, eOee out €t£ ^udi^ea, et c'eet aur les eonchi- 

Boaa de cee rapports que le eougrta 0*681 d^id^. Je ne peux paa faire ftutrament. (Applait- 

diMementt.) 

(Trarulation) 

Good, we are therefore agreed. But you wish to go BtQl further. I might have 
said fnnn the outset that the question was not on the order of the day. 1 did not 
wish to do so, because I have found the motions which we have beard most interesUng, 
both thoee for ubitration between individualB as well as fw arbitration in general, 
and I have stated that we would gladly listen to these motions, but would collect them 
in the forms of documents for the Permanent Committee, which would place them on 
the order of the day for the next Congress. I could do nothing else. 

You cannot, gentlemen, adopt a decision on the spur of the moment, without 
having studied the question. Up to the present, in the woi^ of our Congress, we have 
alwajTB proceeded in an orderly and methodical marmer; the questions have been studied 
and deliberated on, reports have been presented, and it is on the conclusiona of such re- 
porte that the Congress has acted. I cannot do otherwise. (Applaute.) 

H. Sboniiicer: Je ne veux pas abuser de votre temps, 
(rranslotfon) 

I do not wish to waste your time. 

H. le PrCddsnt: Je dMn une chose, c'est gviter tout mal oitendu. Pesptee qu'il n'y 

{Traiuiaium) 

One thing I denre above all, to avoid all misunderstanding. I hope that there 
will be no more. 

H. GQiminger: Oui, il y en a toujours, parce que si on avait dit, dis le commencMnent: 
il faat voter oui ou non sur la proposition telle qu'elle est port^ k I'ordre du jour, et il t'y 
aura pas d'amendement . . , 
(Translatton) 

Yes, there is always likely to be, for, if it had been stated at the begimiing that we 

must vote yes or no on the proposition as it is laid down in the order of tiie day and no 

amendment will be allowed . . . 

H. le PrMdent: Je voua demands pardon, ce n'est pas un amendement, c'est ime 
autre proposition. 
(TrwuJofum) 

I beg your pardon; this is not an amendment, this is another proposition. 

H. Shoolnger: Nous aorions peut-£tre votd autrement si vous aviei posfi la question de 
cettefaQon. 
(TntuUitian) 

We might have vot«d otherwise if ytm had put the question in that manner. 

H. 1« Prteident: Monsieur, nous ne sommes pas d'accord. Un amendement, dans 
toutes lea diseussiraa, c'est une modification k une proposition dfiposfie. I>ans I'esp^ce, votre 
proposition e«t une proposition Donvelle. Nous discutons la question des diff^rends entre 
particuHera et fitats, pas autre choee; vous venei maintenant nous demander d'adopter des 
rjsolntions aur la question des diff&ends entre particulieis. Ceci est urte choee abeolument 



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182 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

(Trantlation) 

We do not agree. An amendment in all debates is a modification of a atat«d jimp- 
oeition. In tbe present case your proposition is a new propodtion. We were dieeuaaiiis 
tlie question of suite between individuala and States and nothing else; you now reqoeat 
us to adopt resolutions on the question of disputes between individuals. This ia an 
entirely different tiling. 



K, Shoninger: Vous allei plus loin; vous demandes que nous, Am&icfUDS, den 
k notre gouvemement d'inviter lea autt«a gouveniementa k diacut«r une question qui est, i 
notre avis, trop timit^e; et c'eet cela que nous ne voulons pas adopter; noua voulons alia 
plus loin. 
ITratulalion) 

You go even further; you ask us, Americans, to petititm our government to invite 

other goveminente to discuss a question which, in our opinicm, is too limited, and it is 

this which we do not wish to adopt. We wish to go further. 

H. le President: Je ne demande pas mieux que d'aller plus loin avec vous, je suis avcc 
Tous la main dans la main, quand la question sera £tudite; maia la question des litigee entre 
particuliers n'est pas ^tudi^. 
(TranalaHon) 

I would ask nothing better tJian to go further with you, I am with yon IuhmI in 

band after the question has been studied; but the question of suits between individuals 

has not been studied. 

H. Shoninger: Par qui? 

(Xrannhium) 

By whom? 

H. le President: Pat nous. Au iMocboin congrSa, vous aur^i.un rapport oonq>let. 
{TranttaUon) 

By us. At the next Congress we will have a complete report. 



(Trantlation) 

We have received these reports some five or six weeks ago and we have studied 



U. le Prfirident: Vous n'avei pas re^u un rapport sur lea difF£rends entre particuliers: 
il n'y en avait pas, la question n'^tait pas k I'ordre du jour. 

Enfin, monsieur, il me aemble que c'est bien simple. Vous ditcs: noua voulons aller plus 
loin. Moi auBsi, moi, personnellement; mais moi, prudent du congrde, je ne peus pas *Der 
phis loin aujourd'hui. H faut de I'ordre et de la m^Uiode. 
(TVontlofMnt) 

You have not received a report regarding suits between individuals; there was 

none. Tbe question was not on the order of the day. 

Finally, it seems to me that the case is very simple. You si^, we wish to go fnrtbei 

and so say I also. That is, petHonally. But, as President of the Congress I cannot go 

further to-day. We must have order and method. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 183 

H. Shwifngw: Peut-Atra que M. Apt aoc«pt«ra I'Mnoideiiieiit. (AppIouduMmenti.) 
(Tronclafum} 

Feiii^M Mr. Apt will accept tlie amendment. (XppIauM.) 

H. le Pt6Mm.t'. Ce n'eet pas un amendement. Je voue en prie, agisaons aveo ordre 
et m^tliode. Soyei msuj^ de toute notre bonne volont^. Comine voue, je veux aller plus 
loin, maia <!« ne aera pas aujoutd'hui. Step by »Up. 

Maintenant, I'invitatiDn aux fitats-UniB de conToquer une conference, o'est une idte que 
M. Apt a eue. Ce aeront lea £tata-Unia ou ee sera un autte Ctat; mui ce n'eet pas parce que 
voB compatno1«8 d'Amdrique voudraient aller plus loin qu'ils devroieut s'oppoeer & la premie 
meeure sur laquelle nous sommes d'accoid. Ce aera le gouvemement des Ctate-IJnis ou lut 
autre. Laissei la question teUe qu'elle est; elle est bien paa&e, m^tliodiquement pas£«. 

Je pense qu'il n'y a phis de malentendu. Nous avons nettement d^lib^r^ sur une question 
k I'ordre du jour, avec un rapport fait et observations faites. Nous avons accueiUi avec la 
plus grande faveur, je le r£p£te, les observations qui nous ont iU faites en deliors de la ques- 
Uon k I'ordre du jour. J'aurais pu empAcher cette discussion; je ne I'ai pas voulu, et j'ai 
m&ne tenu, sur la question d'arbitrsKe international, & laiaaer parler nos amis de Boston aveo 
toute I'ampleur qu'ils ont voulu. Ce Bont d'ailleun des persouualit€s iiAportantes, A qui je 
suis heureux de lendre personnellement hommage. 

Je pense done, messieuis, qu'il n'y a pas de malentendu et que vous pouvei parfaite- 
ment adopter la beeogne teUe qu'eUe a iti faite aujourd'hui. 
(TraTulatim) 

It is not an amendment. I beg of you proceed with order and metliod. Be assured 
of our beet wishes. Like yourself I would like t« go further but we cannot do so to-day. 
"Step by step." 

Now the invitation to the United States to convoke a conference is one of Mr. 
Apt's ideas. It mi^t be the United States or it might be anotliec country; but your 
American eompatriota should not oppose the first measure, on which we are agreed, 
because they h^tpen to desire to go stiH further. It might be the government of tiie 
United States or some other. Let the question be as it is. It is properly put, methodi- 
cally put. 

I do not think there is any further miaunderstaikding. We have carefully debated 
on the question on the order of the day. A report was made and comments heard. We 
have heard with the greatest favor, as I said before, the remarks which were made be- 
yond tiie question on the order of the day. I could have prevented this discussion. I 
did not wish to do so and I have even encouraged our Boston friends to speak on the 
questiMi of international arbitration. They are, moreover, petsons of consequence to 
whom I am glad to pay my respects. 

I think, therefore, gentlemen, that there is no misunderstanding and that you con 
perfectly wdl accept the proceeding as carried out to-day. 

Mr. WHUun J. Thomas, Amariean Chamber of Commerce of Paria: Mr. President, may 
I ac^ one question? Are we to understand your ruling to mean that should we desire to 
ofier an amendment to any of the propositions here discussed it will not be in order to 
bring that fonraid and to vote on the question? Suppose we have an amendment to pro- 
pose, will it be in order to do so and to have the question put up to the meeting? 

H. le President: Un amendement pent toujours ttK admis; mais ce dont vous paries 
n'eet pas amendement, c'est une autre question. Je pense que vous pouvei vous en rapporter 
& toute notre bonne volenti et k la m^thode que nous apportons dans tons ces travaux. 

Si peisonne ne demande plus la parole, je declare la s&mce levde. Reunion domain k 
dix beuree. Je dois vous informer que, k la demande de I'un des orateurs qui desire prendre 



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184 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

la parole ewt la qnatridme queetioit, relative aux i^ormea poeUlefl, oette qtMstkm, m lieu de 
veoir demain, aera remiae & jeudi. II y aim done une interrenioii entre lea queetioiu & I'or- 
dre du jour. 

La efance eet lev^. 

An amendmmt is always admissible. But what you an ipeakiiiE of is not an 
amendment; it is another question. I think you can yourself bear witness to all our 
good feeling and the method which we follow in all our proceedings. 

If no one wishes to speak further I declare the session adjourned to meet to- 
morrow at 10 o'clock. I ought to inform you that, at the request of one of the speakos 
who wishes to take the floor on the fourth question, with reference to poetal iWwms, 
that question, instead of coming up to-morrow, will be postponed to Thursday. Then 
will thus be a change of order in the question on the order <d the day. 

The session is adjourned. 

Adjourned at 6 rji., to meet on Wednesday, September 26, at 10 AJi. 



,y Google 



CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 



The session weis called to order at 10.08 a.m., September 25, 1912, President Loms 
CAHON-LxaKAND in tlie cbair. At the desk. General Secretary T^mt-'h Jottoand, Dr. Max 
Apt and Mr. EIdwabd A. Fiusnx, 
ftesident Canoii'LeKruid 

Je donne la parole i M. le vice-prfaident Filene, pour qu'il explique amt AmMcaina la 
fagon ezact« dont nous procMons dans les travaux du Congrte, afin d'^viter lee petite malen- 
tendus comme ceuic qui se sont produita hier. M. Fokne a la parole. 
(Tronilafton) 

I give the floor to Vic«-Preeident FDene, who will explain to the Americaoa the exact 

way we proceed in the woric of the Congress, so as to avoid such little miBimderatandingB 

as have occurred yesterday. Mr. Filknii has the floor. 

Mr. Edward A. Filene, Boiton Chamber of Commeree; Viob-Prendent of the Congren 

Mr. President: 

I am going to try to explain very briefly once more just what the question at issue laet 
night was. On the pn^ram of tlte session we had a question which wsa the first question 
presented by Dr. Apt yesterday, "Arbitration between Individuals and Foreign Nations." 
Through the courtesy of the officera of this Congress an opportunity was given to present two 
other questions of arbitration. I eay the courtesy of the officers, because it is an unwritten 
law eetabtiHhed in each of the conventions eo far held — established as a matter of common 
sense aiul aelf-^)reservKtion — that no question shall be acted upon except such as have been 
placed upon ihe program after consideration by the Permanent Committee. This rule is 
one which I think is backed up and wiU be backed up by all of us as we go from one Congress 
to another, for we realise that these Congresses cannot continue to be succenful if questions 
which have not been considered and studied are acted uptm hastily. Not only will the semi- 
official representatives from different countries cease coming to these Congresses, but I think 
that none of us who are members of chambers of oommerce which are not semi-official will 
want to go to CongresBea where we may be involved in votes on large questions which our own 
diambers have not had time to conrader and to instruct us as to tiieir attitude. I say, by the 
eourte^ (rf llie officers, two other questions were allowed to be discussed, with the understand- 
ing stated in advance that they were not to be voted upon. The first of those two questions 
was presented by Signor Poui, who advocated arbitration between individuals of different 
countries. The third was pneented by Mr. Edwin D. Mead, who offered a resolution asking 
for arbitration between the different nations of tbe world. Mr. Bernard J. Shoninger, presi- 
dent of the American Chamber of Coounerce of Paris, and my friend, with his well-known 
■eal for the good things for the commercial men of the world which has placed him in the 
forefront of the American Chamber of Paris, desired that the first question, which had al- 
ready been passed on and vot«d on affirmatively, should be amended, and our President, M. 
Canon-Legrond, while saying that he was personoUy in favor of the extension of arbitration 
between individuals of different nations, said that he was compdled to rule that that was not 
an amendment, but a new question, which would have to be sent bock to the Permanent 
Committee and studied, to be presented at the next Croigress. 

Now, it uudoidttedly seemed to Mr. Shoninger and others tliat our President's ruling 
was pedu^ a bit arbitrary. As a matter of fact, it was not our President's ruling, because 



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186 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

the questitm had already been decided by the Permanent Committee &t Paris, and in this 
fashum. We of America and Boston presented in London two years ago the question of ar- 
bitration between nations, and we expected and hoped that it would be preeented &t thia 
CongresB for vote. The Permanent Committ«e, meeting in Europe this spring, decided that 
in their judgment another question ought to take precedence as leading up, periiape, to this 
question in the future. They decided that the question preeented by Dr. Apt, aibitntam 
between individuals and foreign nations, should be the one question on the pragram ot this 
Congress. By that decision they made the distinction between otiier typee of arbitration^ 
whether it be between individuals of different nations or between different nations tbem- 
selves. And so our Presidrait simply confirmed what the Permanent Committee had already 
carefully gone over. I need not say to you that we Americans were disappointed at that 
result. But we saw that if these Congresses ore to continue we must help to so adjust the 
proceedings that they will more and more bring the important business mea of all nalioiu 
really togetiier in this consultation. For finally, gentlemen, what we aie fiiat aft«r, what we 
must first get, is international understanding, and through that we h(q>e to go on to inter- 
national a) 



H. le Prudent: En ouvrant la stance, j'ai k vous donner connaissance de t^^grammw 
de felicitations re^us. Nous avons re^ des t^l^rammee de f£Ucitations de Pera (Constan- 
tinople), de Norv^e, de la Suisse, de Csemowits, de DQsseldorf, de Christiania, de Bud*- 
peet, de Londres et de Milan. 

M. Shoninqxb demande la parole pour une question d'ordre. 
iTramlalion) 

In openii^ the seesion, I must make you acquainted with the telegrams of eon- 
gratidations which we have received. We have received tel^rams of congratulatioiis 
from Pera (Constantinople), from Norway, from Switzerland, from Ciemowiti, fnxn 
DQsseldorf, from Christiania, from Budapest, from London and from Milan. 
Mr. Shoninoer requests the fioor for a question of order. 



Hr. Bernard J. Shoninger, American Chattier of Commerce of ParU 

Mr. President: 

PeAaps, as our distinguished Vioe-Preddent has spoken in English, it will be bettts for 
me to make a brief explanation in English. The misundentaoding yesterday aroee from two 
causes, — first, because the majority of the del^ates here had not been told at the begin- 
ning of the Congress, the opening sessicm yesterday, that, in order to make amendments or 
to propose amraidments to or corrections of any of the eight orders of the day that were <m 
the program, the matter would have to go back to the Permanent Committee to be reported 
at a future conference. If that had been told us at the veiy beginning, or if we had recuved 
written notice to that effect at the same time that we received the various pamphlets eoo> 
taining the very ^le reports of the different Reporters, all this misunderstanding would have 
been avoided. 

That was the first cause. The second was, that the majority, oS wbiab I was one — and 
I understand French thoroughly — did not hear the proposition when it was put to a vote 
by our honorable President. Therefore, we did not know that the proposition, as piopooed 
by Dr. Apt, had actually been carried and voted for unanimously, because the majority of 
Americans — and, I dare say, a number of others — would periu^w have said, if I mi^t 
use language perhape a Uttle bit common in this particular instance, we are begiiming with 
the tail of the d<% insUad of with the dog itself (faughltr), and the dog, even for one of that 
particular breed, is a very short tailed one at that, (f/aughler.) 

So 1 think I am merely voicing the sentiments of those who did not quite understaitd 
the customs of these Congresses, as we have now been told, in q>esking as I do at this tinM. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 187 

The mJauDd^etttading uose through faSure to explain, and also through failure to hear the 
deaision as put by the Pitddent yeeteiday in connection mth the vote. 

We are all here for a single purpose. Delegates from all oountriee have one idea in view, 
and that is to facilitate conunerciol intercourse. We want to do all we can; we have but one 
idea. None <d us wish to put any obstacles in the way. I would be the very last person in 
the world to put obstacles in the way of good achievement by this Congress. ("Good, 
good ! " and appIatMS.) 

Dr. Sovtbeer, "Der Dmttekt EanddOag" <^ Berlin 
Meine Herrent 

Wir sind mit der Stellungoahme dea Herm Prfisidenten einverstanden. In London 
wurde in Aussicht genommen, die Frage dea Schiedsgerichte beim nAchsten KongreD su ver- 
handeln. Eb wurde ober der Wunsch geftuEert, daC wir dut solche Fragen behandeln, Dber 
die gute Beriehte vorliegen. Ala das „Comit£ Fennanent" in diesem Sommer Uber diese Frage 
vethandelte, lag kein Bericht vor Qber die Frage des Schiedagerichta im allgemeinen. £!s lag 
all^dii^ ein Beiicht vor ttber die Frage des Schiedagerichta zwischen Privaten und Staaten. 
Nach einer eingehenden Diskussion im „Comit^ Permanent" hat man uiit«r BerQcksichti- 
gung dieser Sachlage sich dafOr entschieden, den Gegenstand unserer Tagesordnung ho eu be- 
■chrflnken, wie es gesohehen ist. Wir konnen und konnten nicht anden ala einen BeschluS 
faseen lediglich Uber den Antrag des Heim Dr. Apt, und wir haben vollst&ndig verstanden, 
dafi der Prftmdent eine Abetimmung darQber hetbeigefOhrt und das Ergebnis dieser Abstim- 
mung featgeatellt hat. {BeifaU.) 
(Trantlation.) 

Gentlemen, we agree with the position taken by the President. The intention 
was, in London, to consider the question of a court of arbitration at the following Con- 
gress. The deeiro was, however, eiipressed that we should only consider questiona regard- 
ing which proper reporte were presented. When the Fennanent Committee handled 
the question this summer, no communications had been presented regarding the gen- 
eral question of arbitration. There was only a communication regarding the question 
of arbitration between individuala and States. After an exhaustive discussion in the 
committee, it was decided, in view of the circumstances, to restrict the subject on our 
order of the day in tiie manner which has been done. We cannot and could not do 
otherwise than pass a resolution based solely on the conclusions of Dr. Apt, and we 
have entirely understood that the President called for a vote thereon, and the result 
of the vote was declared. (Applause.) 

H. le Pr£ddent: Je ne voudrais pas rouvrir la discussion, nous ne devons pas la 
rouTiir. II ne faut pas confondre un amendement avec une proposition nouvelle. Je dois 
maintoiant donner la parole & M. Filenb. 

Avant de commenoer pratiquement nos travaux je rapelle ceci: la nomination dee mem- 
bres du comity permanent ae fait par lea d^figufa dea divera pays au CongrSe. 
(TraadtUian) 

I would not like to reopen the discussion, we must not reopen it. An amendment 

should not be confounded with a new propoaition. I must now give the floor to Mr. 

FlLENE. 

Before entering upon the practical part of work on band, I call attention to the 
fact that the appointment of the members of the Permanent Cominittee is affected by 
the delegates of the various countries repreeented at the Congress. 

H. L«doiiz: Monsieur le pr&ident, je demande la parole pour une queetim d'ordre. 
(TrmuiaHon) 

Mr. President, I wish to raise a point of order. 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 



H. 1« Pr6ild«nt: Pardon, voue a'aves p«s la paiole. 
(IVansIaiton) 

Excuse me, you have not got &t iota. 

M. Ledoitx: Alora, je tous la demande. Queetion d'ordre. 



U. 1* Prfisldeiit; Laisses-moi, monsieur; je euis & foire une uHnmunication, et je von* 
prie de me Itueser continuer. 

Je dis done, meetdeuiB, que lea membres dn comiU sont d^aign^a par lee dj)^u& au Cob- 
grte dee diS£renU pays. C'eet-a-dire que e'il y a ici des d61£gute du Dr^sil, du Pirou, de 
I'Ciquateur, ila peuvent entre eux designer un dSl^gui au comity peimanent. 

Dans lee pays oA il existe une FMiration Nationale des Cbambree de commerce, on peut 
abandonner k cette F4d6ration le droit d'61ection pr6vu. 

Voil&, meaaieuTs, ce que je d^sirais vous dire, afin que, avast la fin de la eeeaion, d'id 
demain, ceuz 'd'entre voua qui scmt venue de toua lea pays du monde au present Congrte 
puissent, avant de la quitter, avaot de nous quit(«r, faire leur designation pour lee d£l£gu£s 
au comity permanent. Et je prie M. Filene de vouloir bien, dana aa langue, voua eiqiUqaa 
la m&ne chose. 
{Trandation) 

One momoit; I am making a statement, and I would request you to let me 
continue. 

As stated before, gentlemen, the members of the Permanent Committee are desig- 
nat«d by the delegates of the various countries represented at the Congreea: tiiat is to 
Bay, if there are here, for inatance, del^atea from Braiil, from Peru, from Ecuador, 
they may designate amongst themselves a del^ate to the Permanent Committee. 

In the countries where there exists a National Federation of Chambers of Commerce, 
the said federation may be conceded the right of election provided in tiua respect. 

This I wanted to tell you in order that prior to the termination of the seesion, 
to-morrow, those amongst you who have come from all parts <d the woiid to this 
Congress may, before leaving us, desisoate the members of the Permanent Committee 
that they choose. I would request Mr. Filraie to eiplain the same thing in English. 

Hr. Fnene: Provision seven provides that the effective membeia and the deputiea HhaQ 
be nominated by the delegates to the Congress of the different countries; delegates of coun* 
tries having a Naticmal Federation of Chambers of Commerce or of industrial and oommercial 
associations may abandon the right of nominating members of tiie Permanent Committee in 
favor of such a federation. Members of the Permanent Committee shall enrciae tlie man- 
date thus conferred upon them until the succeeding Congress. 

The whole issue, gentlemen, is this: There ia no objection and can be no objectitm to, and 
there is no power to prevent a proper amendment of any question before this Congreea. lite 
only issue is that no new question shall be thrust upon the Congress and voted upon before 
it b studied. 

Hr. Urbalii J. Ledooz, Union of Iniemalimuil AmKiaiion, Sntweb, Bdffium: Mr. 
Chairman, please: Has the previous question been closed by the Ctoigress itself or by <ma 
man? I ask whether the Congreaa movea or doea not. The chairman ia to rule, but shall the 
Congress follow him7 Our principal purpose in holding the Congreaa in America was to 
insure that business men should have a voice, and that voice was towards arbitratioD, 
peaceful aibitration of disputes between nations. I have just returned fnxu E>ut>pe, and I 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 189 

have been at the Fourth Congress at London, one of the delegates with Mr. Filene and Mr. 
Pahey of the Boston Chamber of Commerce. Our principal purpose in going to Europe 
was to secure a better underatanding between the commercial and the industiial men of 
the Old World and the New. But our main purpose was to secure on the program of the 
Congren the incluaion of the question of aibitration between nations, and that has been 
sidetncked. I aak in f ull justice to all tlie delegates of Europe, to all those who are receiv- 
ing you, the members of the Permanent Conimittee, tliat in some way tiiia may not be. 
There is a question there that was discussed before your Permanent Committee in Paris, 
that has been changed from the arbitration of disputes among the family of nations to dis- 
putes between individuals. And we are, I believe, in America broad enough and progree- 
dve enough to believe that we can differ in some ways in our opinions, but that we can at the 
present moment think mora of the family of nations than of the individual or of our own 
personal interests in business. 

Dr. Soetbeer {Berlin): Der Herr Prfisident hat daran erinnert, dafi die Wahlen sum 
„Comit^ Permanent" auf iweierlei Weise vollflihrt werden kfinnen, n&mlicb, entweder in- 
dem die Angehfirigen einer Nation hier unmittelbar die Wahlen vomehmen, oder indem die 
Hetren einer Zentral-Organisation, wie sie beispielsweise fOr Deutschland im Deutschen 
Bandelstage besteht, ihre Vertratung Qbertragen. Dieses mCge iwischen heute und morgen 



Ich bitte die Herren aus Deutschland, dch nach ScbluS der Vormittagssitiung in dieser 
Ecke dee Saalea (weitt von der Trilnlns out thuA Unkt) cusammensufinden, damit wir uns lUier 
die Aogelc^enheiten veiBtftndigen. 
(rronslofum} 

The President has reminded us that the selections for the Permanent Committee 
may be msde in two ways, viz. by the del^ates of any (me nation here mn-lting their 
election direct, or by their appointing any central organisation to which tbc^ may be- 
long as their representative for the purpose, as for instance for Germany "Der Deut- 
sche Handelstag." This may be done between to-day and to-morrow. 

I would request the members from Germany at the close of the morning aeaaion 
to assembte in this comer of the hall (indicating the l^t of Ike ptafform) in order tltat 
we may come to an understanding on this subject. 

Mr. Ledoux: I ask whether the Congress rules or notf 
H. le President {interromparU): Fardcm, M. Ledoux — 
{Maigri les infemipftons, M. Leioux eontmne.) 
(TnitMlafum) 

Panhm me, Mr. Ledoux — 

(Afr. Ledaw, eotdinvtt in spite <^ Oie intemiptum.) 

Ur. Lsdonz: I ask whether the Congress ehall decide. (Criet i^ "Ovt border.") I would 
ask ~ lHi»»e*.) 

Mr. mene: Whom are you representing? 

H. le PiMdMit: Je vous en prie, M. Ledoux, la question a 6t6 termini; nous ne vou- 
Ions pas la rouviir. 
(Tronslatiim) 

I beg your pardon, Mr. Ledoux; the question hss been dosed; we do not wish to 



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190 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

H. Ledouz; Mais, voub I'avei teiminte vous-mSme, non psa le CoDgr^. 
(Trvm^alum.) 

But you have cloeed it youreelf, and not the Congreaa. 

H. le Prfrideat: Je vous denumde pardon, ne rouTTons pas la question. 
Nous continuoiiB done la discusmon, L'ordre du jour ^pelle maintenant "The Unifi- 
cation of Legislation relating to Checks." 

Le rapporteur Apt a la parole. 
(TraJuUdion) 

I beg your pardon; let us not reopen the question. 

Let us continue our discussion. The order of the day now calls for " The Unifica- 
tion of L^islation relating to Checks." 
Dr. Apt, the Reporter, has the floor. 

THE mnncATioN of legislation relating to checks 

Dt. Uu Apt, Syndic i^ "Die AUetten der Kaufmanntctufft von Berlin" 
G^tlemen: 

Before I b^n to make my speech on the subject of the unification of the taws of the 
oheck, 1 must call to mind the great succees that the Second Hague Cooferaice had conoenung 
the unification of the laws of exchange. Almost all States with the exception of Uk United 
States and England have accepted a convention dealing with the unification of the laws ot 



The International Congress of the Chambers of Commerce has continually asked for the 
unification of the laws of exchange, and I believe that the Congress has reason to be very 
satisfied with that success, and I hope that the States which have not yet accepted Uie con- 
vention will in time follow the example of the other States. 

It is not possible at such a great meeting to discuss all the pointa of the check, but it is 
Buffici^t to deal with the most important principles. Therefore in my report I will speak of 
tite rules that "Der Deutsche Handelstag" has proposed. 

iConHnuing by repeatinfi in French the irtirodtietory gtaUment) 
Heaueurs: 

Avant de commencer mon n^port but I'unification des legislations conoemant le di^ue, 
3 me faut faire mention du grand succte qu'a eu la seconde conference diplomatique de Ia 
Haye sur Tunification du Droit relatif & la lettre de change. Presque tous lea fltats — k 
I'exception des Etats-Unis d'Am&ique et de TAngleteire — ont adopts une convention sur 
^unification dea droits relatifs aux lettres de change. 

Ce eongrte international des Chambtes de commerce a r£clam6 sans cesse I'unification 
de cea droits et je crois qu'il a tout lieu d'etre satiafait de ce succis. J'eepite que les fltats 
qui n'ont pas encore adhSie & cette convention, suiviont bientAt I'exemple dea autree £tats. 

li est impossible dans une si grande assemblie de discuter tous les details du cheque. 
On devra done se bomer aux points easentiels. C'est poutquoi je vous pr^eente dans mon 
lapport les id^ea que "Der Deutsc^ Handelstag" a adoptees. 

iContinving in German) 
Sehr geebrt« Heirenl 

Der im Juni 1910 in London abgehaltene Vierte Internationale Handelakatmner-Kongrefl 
faQte in Betug auf daa intemationale Scheckrecht folgenden BeechluB: 

„Der Koi^rell nimmt mit Intereese die ihm schon voigdegten SchriftstQcke eDt« 



intemationalen Geeetsgebung Qber den Scheck lum Ausdnick bringt." 



„Der Koi^rell nimmt mit Intereese die ihm schon voigdegten SchriftstQcke entsegen 
und stellt die F^age tur VervoDstAnd^ung des Studiums fOr die Tagesordnung der nachsten 
Sitnmg EurQck, indem er seine voile Sympathie for den Gedanken der Vereinneitlichung der 
'-"-■'-'-" * ' ■ ' ikbringt." 

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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 191 

Die VOD dem Kongrefi erwartete VervoUst&ndigung dee Studhima iat, aoweit Deutsch- 
land in Betiaclit kanaat, dadurch eifolgt, daB einm&l Herr Dr. Tnimpler im Auftrege der 
Hatwinltih ftinnier lU Frankfurt a. M. eine „Systematische rechtBrergleicheiide Danrtellung 
des Scheckrechta aller Kulturvfilker" gegeben hat «nd femer Herr Geheimrat Dr. Felix Meyer 
im Anftrage der Xlteaten der Kaufmaimschaft von Berlin in gleicher Weise wie beim Welt- 
vecbeeliecht eine aiufOhrliche Untermichung Dber die Vereinhejtlichung der Weltacheck- 
lechte angestellt hat, von denen die etsten Lieferungen beicita der Offenttiohkeit Dbergeben 
worden sind und von denen eine Reihe von JExemplaren hier auf dem Tisch dee Hauees auf- 
liegt. £b hat femer der AuaechuC dee Deutachen H&ndelstages sich in seiner am 24. Jimi 
d. J. in KOln a. Rh. Btattgehabten AusachuC-SitEung mit der Frage besch&ftigt und die t)ber- 
leugung gewonnen, daQ eine Vereinheitlicbung der Scbeckrecbte im Interesse von Handel und 
Industrie nicht nui wElnscbenswert, sondem aucb durchfdhibar sei. £r hat eine Seihe von 
Leits&tKn aufgestellt, die mir eine trefHiche Gnmdlage fOr die SchaSung einee Weltocheck- 
rechte lu bilden scheinen, und ich werde deahalb mich darauf beschrfinken, ohne auf Details 
einiugehen, dieae Leitefttie n&her lu begrOnden. 

Bevor ich hierzu Obergehe, kaim ich nicht unteriaaaen, dee hervorragenden Erfolgee lu 
gedenken, den die iweite, auf den 16. Juni 1912 nach dem Haag berufene diplomatiache Welt- 
wechaebechts-Konfereni gehabt hat, die eu einer Konvention gefOhrt hat, der, at^esehen 
von den Vereinigten Btaaten von Nordamerika und England, alle Staaten beigetreten sind. 
Der Intemationale HandelHkammer-KongreB, nelcher die SchafFung eines Weltwechaelrechts 
wit jeher betrieben hat, hftt alien Grund auf dieses Eigebnia stoli zu sein, Der Veriauf der 
Veihandlungen liber das Weltwechaelrecht erCffnet aber auch auseichtavolle Aspekte fOr die 
Schafhing eines Weltscbeckrechta. 

L Begriffabestimnmng 

Die erste Frage, welche sich eihebt, ist die, soil das Weltacheckrecht eine Begriffsbe- 
stimmung des Scbecka in das Gesetz aufnehmen oder nur die weeentlichen Bedingungen auf- 
Ktdlen, unter denen die Uricunde als Scheck angesehen werden soil. Das eine, glaube ich, hat 
die historische Entwicklung der gesamten Scheckfrage ergeben, daC die Anaicht, die von der 
en^isohen Gruppe vertreten wird, ab ob der Scheck lediglieh als eine Unterart des Wechsela 
ansusehen sei, nicht mehr aufrecht erhalten werden kann. Aber auch die Venniche der franz5- 
eischen Gruppe, eine Legaldefinition dee Schecks zu geben, veranlassen eu iweifeln und be- 
Bl&ttgen den alten Grundsati: omnia dtfinitio eii pericidota. 

Eine Definition des Schecks zu geben erscheint auch unnAtig, wenn man, wie ea daa deutr 
sche Scheckageseti tut, sich darauf beschrankt, die wesenUichen Erfordemisse des Schecks 
aufzuifihlen. Dem Vernehmen nach hat auch die diplomatieche Weltwechselrechts-Eonfe- 
Koi, die sich kursoriseh auch mit der Scheckrecbtfrage befaOte, von einer Legaldefinition dee 
Schecks Abstand genommen und sich damit begniigt, die wesentlicben Erfordemisse des 
Schecks xum Ausdnick lu bringen. Ich glaube daher auch dem Kongrei! ala ewten Leitsata 
vorechlsgen lu dOrfen: 



n. Passive Scheckfflhigkelt 

Zu den bestrittendsten Fragen des Scheckrechts gehfirt die Frage, ob der Kreia der be- 
Behbaren Petsonen beschifinkt werden soil. Man unterscheidet Geaetze, welche nur einen 
Bankier ala paaeiv scheckffthig betrachten, diejenigen Gesetse, welche ein Bankinstitut, ein 
Ereditinstdtut und Kaufleute fUr paadv scheckf&hig halt^i, und solche, welche eine voile 
passive Scheckf&hi^eit bestimmen. BchlieSlich diejenigen Gesetee, welche eine SoU-Vor- 
scbiift fOr die Beziehung dee Bankiers und denen gleichgestellte Anstalten vorachreiben, 
nnd Schecks, die diesen Erfordemiasen nicht entspiechen, ala Wechael verstempeln. 



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192 INTERNATIONAL CONOBE8S OF 

Eb fragt Bich nun, welchen Staodpunkt soil das einheitliche Weltsciwekrecht e 
QewiB ist ea ricbtig, daS der wirtschaftUche NuUen des Schecks nur donn eintxeten kaim, 
wenn er auf FeiBOnen oder Firmen lautet, die berufem&Cig fOr fremde Reehnung Gdd aa- 
nehmen und Zahlungen leisten. Nut auf diese Weiae vrird eine Ausammluiig dee K^Mtale an 
diejenigen Stellen eimS^cht, welohe ea den BedOrfoisseu der aUgemeinen VollEswirtaehaft 
EugfingUcb machen kOnnen. Und ea ist auch iuEug^>eii, daQ je gitliet der Kieis der Boo- 
genen ist, um so schwieriger ist die AbrechDung, durch welehe im Wege der Buchong imd 
tnit Hilfe des GiroTerkehrs eine wirkliche Erspamis an baren Umlaufanuttaln enielt wcrdcn 
fconn. Trotzdem kOnnte aich meinea Eracbl«iis das Weltscheckrecht nicht auf den Staod- 
punkt stellen, den das engliMhe R«cht aogenoounen hat, wonacb lediglich der BankieT ab 
Besogener figurieren k&nn. Denn selbst wenn der Begriff des Bankiers in Wirkliehkeit so 
klar nSjre, wie er es nicbt iat, d&Q der Nehmer sofort in der Lage ist, festcusteDen, ob er oinoi 
gUltigen Scheck vor sicb hat oder nicht, darf man doch nicht ohne Not in die Wirtachafta- 
entffieklung anderer groQer Staattu wie Frankieich eingieifen, wo Notare in ihrer Eagea- 
achoft als VermOgeDsrerwalter vielfach Bargutbaben in Verwabrung haben, Qber die die 
Hinterl^er im W^^ dee Scheckvericehrs verfilgen. Bs tiegt auch kein Gnmd vor, grofien 
Export- und Importfinnen mit Qberseeischen Geech&ftebetrieb, die an ihrem auslAadiodim 
Niederiaaaungsorte keioe Bankverfaindung beaitEen, eu veibieten, Sohecks auf sicb tidien so 
losaen. Deahalb kann das Weltscbeckrecht es iwar als wOnechenswert auaq>rechen, daB 
Schecks nur auf Baiikiera und gleicbgeatellte Anstalten geiogeQ werdeo aoUen, koneswep 
aber dOrfen die anders lautenden Schecks als nichtig erid&rt werden. Deahalb schlage kb 
Itmen vor, fOr das interaationale Scheckgeaetz den Sati lu akzeptieren: 

„Ee ist zu bestimmen, daU Schecks nur auf einen Bankier ge«^^ werden soUen ; docb darf 
ein auf einen Nichtbankier gesogener Scheck nicht rechtsunwirkaam sein." 



HL Wesentliche Bestandtule des Schecks 

Wenn der Scheck einen Zahlungsauftrag daratellt, an den sich rechtlicbe Folgen knOp- 
fen, BO liegt es im Intereeee der Verkehrssicherheit, daB dieser Auftrag in einer achrif tlichen 
Urkunde dai^eatellt nird, die fOr alJe Rechtafragen des Scfaeckverkehra die Gnmdiage bildet. 
Daraus ergtbt aich von selbst, daQ die Scbriftlichkeit als erste Formerfordemia for den Scheck 
aufgestellt werden muQ. E3>enao aelbatverat&ndlicb muB die Angabe des Beaogenen ab we- 
senthches Erfordemis filr den Scheck anerksnnt werden, weil ohne dieee Angabe ein Scbect 
nicht einloebar aein wQrde. Ob der Scheck die in den Scheck aniunebmende Beieidmung 
als Scheck enthalten mOsse, dartlber herrscht in den einxelnen Lftndem keine Ubereinstim- 
mung. Wenn die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika und GroQbritannien Si^becks ohne die 
Scheckklausel besitien, so ti^ es daran, daG dort der Scheck ein besondeta gearteter Wedisel 
ist und ftla aolcber scblechtbin gilt, wenn er nicht an einen Bankier traaaiert worden ist. Indes 
muB gerade fOr ein Papier, daa ala Zablungsmittel dienen soil, die Aufnahme der Scheckklau- 
sel ala weaentliches Erfordemis befUrwortet werden, da sie Jeden Zweifel darCber nimmt, 
was die Parteien gewollt haben und weil durch die Scheckklausel dem Ausateller >um Be- 
wuBtseiu gebracht wird, d&B er duich dieees Papier Qber ein Guthaben bei dem BcKgensi 
verfOgt und aich eventuell atnifiecbtlicher Verfolgungen aussetat, wenn er eine solche Urkunde 
ohne Deckung ausstellt. Dem Veniehmen nach hat sicb auch die diplomatiacbe Kcmfeieai 
fOr die Scheckklausel ausgeaprochen. 

Das Requisit der Zahlungaklauael, d. h. die an eine Person oder Firma gerichtete Anwei- 
sui^ des Ausstellera, aua aeinem Guthaben eine beatimmte Geldsunune lU Hthlen, wild vca 
den aahlreicben geltenden Scheckgesetsen nicht llberall auadrQcklich gefoidert, doch auch 
dort, wo seine Notwendigkeit nicht besondera betont wird, wird aie als unumgftnglich erachtet. 
Jedenfalla herracbt darQber Dbereinstimmung, daQ die Weisung an den Beiogenen unbedingt 
gegeben werden muB und von keiner Gegenleiatung abh&ngi^ sein darf. In dieeem Sinae hat 
aich dem Vemebmeii nach auch die diplomatiache Konfereni ausgeaprochen. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 193 

Die Angabe einer Geldsunuoe wird fOr den Scheck Qberell als notwendiges Erfoiderais 
aufgest«Ut. Man ist d&rtiber wohl auch auf der intematiDnaien Konfereni einig geweeen, 
daB HUT GeMschecks dan O^eostand einea einheitlichen Geaetsee bilden dOrfen. Der t}ber- 
weiBunswcheck eignet sicb nicht isur Behandlung im eintaeittichen Seheckgesets, vielmehr 
muQ es dea Banken Uberlaseen bleiben, dea Gebr&uch dieaer Urinmde durch beeondere Ge- 
Bcbfiftsbedingungcn eu ordnen. 

Ob die BeieichnuDg des ZahlungsortcH ale wesentlicber Beatondteil dea Schecks angeseben 
wenlen soil, kann streitig sein. Gleichwohl dOrfte ea mch f^ ein einbeitlichea Scheckgeseti 
empfehlen, die Ai^abe dea Zahlungsortee als wesentliehen Bestandteil dea Schecks aniu- 
Behen. Nacb dem deutachen Recbt gilt, weim kein Zahlui^aort beiw. keiii Ort bei der 
Fimu de« Bera^enen ang^ebeo ist, als Zahlungaort der Auastellui^sort; nach Oetetreichi- 
aehem Recbt dagegen der Ort, an dem der Besogene eeine Hauptniederiaanmg bat. Die 
leitera Regelui^ iat nicht zu befOrworten, denn auf diese Weiee iat in den lahlreichen FUlen, 
in denen der besogene Bankier mehrvre Hauptnied^iassungen hat, eine eindeutige Beatim- 
mong dea Zablungaortes Qberbaupt nicht mCglicb. 

Die Bezeichnung des Auaetellungsortea iat deabalb von groBer Wichtigkeit, weil aus dem 
Ortodstunt ee sich erpbt, ob es sicb um einen Inlands- oder Aualandaecheck handelt und aich 
danseh die Frasentationsfrist ngelt. 

Auch der Tag der AuaeteUung ist fOr jede Uikunde von groQer Bedeutung, weil der Be- 
pnn der Prfiaentationsfriat nur vom Zeitpunkte der Auaatellung an gerechnet werden kann. 

Da der Zweck dea Schecka der iat, eofort eingeUet zu werden und seine Auaartung eu 
einem Kreditpapier verhQtet werden muQ, bo iat die Sichtstellung dee Schecka auoh fOr das 
einheitliche Scbeckgeeetz cu adoptieren. 

Zu den unwesentlichen Bestandteilen dea Schecks. d. h. lu denjenigen, die fehkn kfinnen, 
otaie dafi dadurch die Goltigkeit des Schecka beeintr&cbtigt vrird, gehAr^ die Outhabenklau- 
ael und die Beieichnung des Zahlunpempf&ngere. Waa die Guthabenklauael betrifft, ao 
enthftlt das englisohe Oeeeti dieaelbe nicht, trotwlem h&lt der strenge Handelsbrauoh den 
BcheekreriEehr in reelkn Gtenzen. Auch fOr daa Weltacheckgeaets erscheint die Guthaben- 
klauael QberflOssig, da die charakteriatische Eigenschaft der Uricunde bereite durch die 
Seheokklausel beieichnet wird. Wer einen Scheck ausstellt, weiQ eben, doB er dadurch flber 
ein Guthaben verft^. 

Die Aufnahme der Guthabenklausel ala wesentlicher Bestandteil dea Schecks ist auch 
deahalb nicht lu empfehlen, weil Qber den Begriff Guthaben die einielnen Geaetae vonein- 
ander abweichen. Hiemach empfielt ea aich also nicht, im Weltacbeckrecht die Guthaben- 
klauael als weaentlichee Erfordemia aufiunehmen. 

Ebenaowenig wesentlich erscheint die Beieichnung dea Zahlungsempfangers. Ein Scheck 
ohne Angabe dea ZaUungsempfftngeiB wird eben ids Inhaberacheck behandelt. 
Ala weoeotliche Bestandleile dee Schecka aind aniuericennoi: 

a) Untenchrift des AuaeteUen, 

b) Beceichnung dea Beiogenen, 

c) Scheckklaueel, 

d) Zahlungaklausel, 

fj Angabe des Ortes und dea Tages der Ausatellung. 
Dag^en sind als unwesentliche Bestaudteile anEusehen: 
Guthabenklauael, 

BeKiehnung des Zahlungsempfangera, 
Beaeiclmung des Zahlungsortes. 



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194 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

17. Der Sclieck fan legelmftBigan VtAthi 
FOr den Scbeck im r^elm&Sigen Vericehr kommen folgende VeriiKltnisse in Betncht: 

a) das Verhfiltius dee Beiogenen lum Ausateller, 

b) das VerMItnia dee Betogeoea sum Inhaber, 

c) das Verh&ltnis dee AussteUere imd der Indoesanten mm Inhaber. 

Was das Verh&ltniB des BeEogenen sum Aiissteller anbelan^, so stQtst sich dasoelbe anf 
die iwischen dieaen beiden getrofienen Vereinbaruogen, den sc^enaanten Scheckrertrag, anf 
Gnmd deasen der Eontoinhabet berecbtigt iat, fiber sein Guthoben beim Besogenen mitlds 
Schecka eu verfOgen. Diesen Scheckvertrsg etwa geaetzlich festzule^^, empfiehlt aich fOr 
ein einheitliches Scheckgesetz oicht; deim es handelt sich hier um Verh&ltiuaee, die der Scbeck- 
liehiing Eugrunde liegen, im Scheck selbst aber nicht sum Ausdruck gelapgen. 

Die Frage, ob dem Scbeckinhaber ein direktes Klagerecbt gegea den Beiogenen in deii>- 
selben Umfange einger&umt werde, in welcbem der leUtere dem Ausateller nach dem swiacben 
ilmeii obwaltenden RechtsverhSituis zur Einl6sung des Schecks verpflichtet ist, wird v<n den 
verschiedenen Geaetzen versehieden beautwortet. Das direkte Elagerecht dea Scheckinha- 
bera gegen den Becogenen wird nur in denjenigen LOndem anerkannt, welche umehmen, d^B 
mit der Begebung des Schecks auch der Anapnich auf die Deckung fibergeht, wie in Fr«iik- 
reicb, Belgien, Italien. FOr daa Weltscheckrecht empfiehlt ea sich nicht, einen direktoi 
BcheckrechtUchen Anapnich gegen den Bezogenen lUEulassen, denn steta bildet ein deal 
Schecknehmei fremdes Verii&Itnia das Klagefimdament, und der Scheokinbaber wiid, weil cr 
alien hier maJlgebenden Vereinbanmgen und Abmochungen feniateht, in der Regel auf die 
MitwiAung des Auaatellera angewieaen eein. Dem Scbeckinhaber wUrde alao, wenn der Au»- 
eteller ihm nicht beiateht, das direkte Klagerecbt aehr wenig nQtien. Darmn empfiehlt es tub 
auch fUr das einheitUche Scheckgesetz nicht, einen scheckrechtlichen Anspruch des InhabeiB 



Wahrend der Auasteller sum Beiogenen nie erat durch die Schecknebung, aonderti be- 
reits durch den sogenannten Scheckvertrag in ein beatinimtes R«cbtsvetli&Itnia tritt, wicd 
ein Bolches RechtflrerhsJtnis zwischen dem Ausateller imd dem Schecknehmer immer imr 
durch den Verlauf dea Scheckgeach&fts, durch den Akt der B^ebung hervotgebracht. DnS 
in der Begebung ein stillaohweigender Vertrag eu sehen ist, ist ullgBrnfin aoerkannt. Wie 
aber dieser Vertrag juristiach eu beurteilen ist, ist von jeher streitig geweeen. Infolge dieso' 
Teracbiedenartigen juristiachen Beurteilung, die auf die verschiedene livilrechtlicbe Auffas- 
Bung der Sachlage in den einzelnen Lftndem curUckzufUhren ist, empfiehlt es aich nicht, im 
Weltscheckrecht eine Beatimmung zu treffen, vielmehr muQ die Fraf<e, wieweit der Nehmtr 
dea Schecka auf die Deckung berecbtigt sein aoU, den Landeageeetioi Eur Regelung vtnbe- 
balten bleiben. 

V. Indoaaament 

Der durch Indoesament Qbertragbare Orderscheck ist in sSmtlichen Staaten eingefOhrU 
Veiwhieden dagegen wird die Frage beantwortet, ob der Scheck der OrdeiUauBel bedarf, um 
indoeaierbar eu aein, oder ob er grundaitslich indoaaierbar ist, so daJ3 ea einer beaonderen Klsn- 
ael bedOrfe, um die Indoaaibilitat ausEuschlieasen. Fttr daa Weltscheckrecht dflrfte ea aidi 
empfehlen, aich dem letEteren Standpunkt anEuschlieflen. Die Rechtswiikung dee Indoask- 
menta iat die, daJi der Scheck auf den Indosaatar ttbertragen wird. Der Indoeaatar kann den 
Scheck welter indoaaieren, entweder durch Voll- oder Blankoindoeaament. Der Scheckadiukl- 
ner hat eine Pflicht lur L^timationaprQfung; lahlt er obne PrOfung, ao wird er von Miner 
Verbiodlichkeit nicht befreit. Der Scbeckschuldner muB femer die Identit&t des Scheokin- 
habers mit der Person, auf welche die formale Legitimation lautet, prOfen. Zur IMlfung der 
Indoesamente kann er nicht verpflichtet werden. 

Ein Indoesament dea Beiogenen ist unwirkaam; dasaelbe kOnnte bei einem Inhaber- 
Bcheck auch ohne vorangegangenea Indoaaament an ihn oder bei Schecka mit einem Blanko- 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 196 

indoaBMoaent TC^commen und wQide eine abvtrakto Sohuldverpflichbmg gegmOber jedem 
epttenn Inhaber ohne Rdckaicht auf doa Vorhandauein einee GuthabeDs begrOnden, also 
dieadbe Bedeutung baben, wie ein AiuwbitMvermeric. Es ist daber ebenw wie letiterer im- 



Die Scbeckscbuld ist eime Holschuld, d. b. der Schuldner ist nicht verpflichtet, die gescbul- 
dete Surome dem Scbeckinbaber bei F&Uigkeit voa selbat niEUstellen. Die RQcksicht auf 
eineo otdnungBm&Bigen Verkebr gebietet, daC die Umlatifieit des Schecks begrenzt und die 
Voriegungafriat nicht Iftuger auagedebnt niid, ala 2u einer zweckentepiecbenden Verwertung 
des Schecks erforderlicb iet. Die Pr&eeQtationfifristen sind in den einEetaiea Lfiudem sehr 
verschieden, und es v&ie sehr wilnachenswert, daH das einheitlicbe Scbeckgeseti feete Fristen 
vorschieibt sowohl fUr daa Inland wie filr das Auslaitd. 



Vn. EinlBsung 

Was die EinlSeung des Schecks anbelangt, so liegt es im Inteiease des gesamten Zah- 
lungsverkehrs, die Banablung tunlichat eu vermeiden. Die nicht baie Einl6sung geschieht 
durch Verrecbnung. Der Inhaber kann die Annahme einer Teilsablung verweigem. L6st 
der Beiogene einen ihm ordnungsgem&C voigelegten Scbeck trotE VorbandeoBeim einea aua- 
reichenden Guthabena nicht ein, ao ist er dem Auseteller nach den allgemeinen bttrgeriich-recbt- 
licben Bestimmungen zum Eraati dea durch die Michteinlteung entatandeuen Schadens 
verpfiichtet. Auch der Tod oder die Geachaftaunf&higkeit des AuBatellera oder die GescbSfto- 
unf&hi^eit des Beiogenen sind auf desen EinlCeungarecht ohne Kinfluli. Auch nach Ablauf 
der Vorl^ungefrist ist der Beiogene lur EinlSsung berechtigt. Der Beiogene, der den 
Scheckbetrag besahlt, kann nach deutschein Recht die Auah&ndigung des quittierten Scheoka 
veiUngen. 

Nach dem en^iacben Recht bat der Inhaber den beiahlten Scbeck ausiuh&ndigen, doch 
iat ea streitig, ob er lur Quittungaleiatung verpflichtet ist. Daa franzSaiache und englische 
Recht enthalten Ober die Art der EinlOsung keine Vorachrif ten, doch iat nach dem franid- 
BJBchen und belgischen Recht die Quittungsleiatung auf dem Scheck vorgeschrieben. Nach 
italienischem, portugieaiachem, rum&nischem, bulgarischem und schweiserischem Recht iat 
die Schecluahlung nicht besonders ger^elt, vielmehr werden die enteprechenden wechael- 
rechtlicben Normen auch auf den Scheckveritehr angewandt. Nach einigen R«chten ist der 
Inhaber cur Annahme von Teikahlungen verpflichtet, in anderen Rechten ist nun Ausdruck 
gebnicht, daQ er lur Annahme von Teilzahlungen nicht verpflichtet ist. 

FQi daa einheitliche Scheckgeaets kommt folgendea in Betracht: „Der Bezogecke kann 
Quittungsleiatung verlangeu. Der Inhabet ist nicht verpflichtet, Teiltahhmgen entgegenm- 
nehmen." 

Vm, mderruf 

In Benig auf den Wideiruf des Schecks stehen aidi xwei Auffaseungen gegenUber. In 
Ekigland kann der Auasteller den Scheck frei widemifen und der Scheck gilt nicht nur im 
Falle des KonkurBes des Ausstelleia, aondem auch dann ala widerrufen, wenn der Beiogene 
TOO dem Tode dea AuastellerB Kenntnia erhfilt. Die Under der franideiachen Gnippe er- 
bticken dagegen in der Ubertragung eines Wechsels und Schecks gleichieitig die Zeasion des 
Anspruohs auf die in des HKnden des Beiogenen befindliche Deckung. Daraua folgt ftlr dieee 
Under der Qrundaati der UnwideirufUcbkeit des Schecks, eowie die weitere Bestimmung, 
dafi der Scbeckinbaber im Falle des Eonkurses des AussteUera abgeaonderte Befiiedigung aua 
dem Gntbaben verlangen kann. FOr ein einheitlicbeB Scheckgeseta empfiehlt es sich, awi- 
■ehen dieeen Auffaaaungen die Mitte >u wfthlen tmd lu beetinunen, da£ ein Widerruf dee 



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196 INTERNATIONAL CONGEESS OF 

Schecks erat nach Ablauf der VorlegungBfrist wiricsam sein aoll. DaC der Scheck auch nielit 
imgOltig werde durch den Tod oder Eiotritt der GeschfiftsuDf&hi^eit dee AuaeteUaa, wohl 
aber dadurch, daJ! dem Beaogenen die ErOSnuug des Eonkuises fiber das Vennagen des Aus- 
otelleiB bekannt wird. 

IX. TeRcchntuigBBciieck nnd gekreuzt«r Scheck 

Das im ReicbiA>aiikverkehr und im Abrechnui^Bverkehr eingefOhrte Veibot der bann 
Auezahlung eines Schecka durch den quer flber den Text gesetiten Vennerii „Nur mr V«- 
rechnimg" tat in Deutechland so Qblich geworden, 6a£ bei den Reichsbankanatalten ein »Ai 
gtoDer Teil der Torgelegten Schecka diesen Venueik trigt. Durch die VeirechnungBBchecka 
wird die Gefahr, dall der Scheck von einem Unbekannten eingeiogen werden kaim, eifaeUich 
verringert. Die Veirechnung gQt ak Zahlungsleistung und demiufolge die Voriegung nir 
Vetreclmung als Voric^^ung lur Zahlung. Andere L&nder, insbeeondere F.ngland, keimen 
daa Institut des „Cro6aLng." Die Eretuung ist entweder eine aUgemeine, wo die Zahhmg am 
^e beliebige Bank oder an einen beliebigen BanUer geachehen kann, oder eie ist eine beson- 
deie, wenn die Tiigung an den namhaft gemachten Bankier bewirkt wird. Das „Croatdjig" 
wirkt inaofeni ersiehlich, als es den einielnen mehr und mehr datan gewOhnen wird, die Eao- 
aenftUmmg durch einen Bankier bewerkstelligen und sich bei diesem ein Eonto anl^eu n 
lasKn. Die Kreuiung wird durch den Veirechnungescheck ntcht eraetit, denn die Verrecfa- 
mmgaklausel scblieOt priiuipiell jede Banuthlung aus, was beim „Croesmg" nicht der Fall iM. 
Auch versagt der VerrecbnungHHcheck vielf ach im intematioDalen Vei^ebr. Erstdergekreoste 
Scheck und der Vcirenhni ingwcheck nebeneinander eimOglichen die Ausstellung vcm '^dem 
Bedarf enteprechenden Schecks mit fast unbedingtem Schuti gegen Diebetahl und Ffibchung. 
Ea irt daber [fir das einheitliche Scheckrecht zu empfehlen, dafi nebra dem Veirechnungv- 
•check auch gekreurte Schecks Eugelaseen werden. 



X. R«gie8 

Was die AusUbung des Regresses im Falle der Dishonoriening des Schecks betrifft, so 
geHen hierffir in den meisten Staaten dieselben Gnindsfttie, wie sie fOr die AusQbung dee 
Wechwh«greBsee bestehen. In Deutechland beetehen indes einige Veiscbiedenbeiten. Bo ist 
fttr den Scheck an| Stelle dea Protestes die Prfideklarstitm lugelaaaen. Die Eb'faebung dm 
Proteetes ist bei dem Wechsel am Zahlungatage lulfiaaig, sie muC spSteetens am cw^tm 
Weiktage nach dem Zahlun^tage erfolgen. Dagegen kennt das deutsche Scheckrecht keine 
FrotestfriBt; vielmehr muB hier der Protest vor Ablauf der VorlegungBfrist erboben warden. 
FOr ein einheitliches Scheckgesetz empfiehit ee sich daher, fdr die AusQbung dee Scbecki»- 
greases dieselben Normen wie tOr die AusQbung des WeohsehBgressea lur Anwendung n 



So komme ich dasu^ Umpn z\i empfehlen, sich Hfttiin ausxusprechen, '^*ft eine Vereinhei^ 
liohung der Scheekrechte im Interesse von Handel und Industrie nicht nur wfinschenswert, son- 
dem auch durchfohrbar ist, und daC die vom Deutscben Handelstage beechloesenen Leitsttae 
eine gute Grundlage fOr die Vereinheitlichung der Scheekrechte bilden. Im 7-' " W" nwp h angr 
damit mdchte ich Sie bitten, eine Idee lu beffirworten, welehe seit«na der deutachen Delega- 
tion am Schhisse der diplomatischen Weltwechaelrechts-Eonfereni voigetragen worden ist. 
Eb ist darauf hingewiesen worden, daJ!, wenn das Wechselrecht von den Staaten angencoumea 
wird, es ndtig sein wOrde, fOr dieses Univetsalrecht auch einen Universal-Gerichtshof einau- 
aetsen, welcher in letit«r Instani Qber die Streitfragen des Wettwecbsebechts su entscbeidoi 
haben wUrde, und es ist beschloasea worden, doS die Konfereni an die R^erungen dw etn- 
■elnen Staaten die Bitte richte, die Fnige eu ptDfen, ob es mj^jlich sein wQide, einen dnvrtign 
gemeinaamen Gerichtahof fOr das Weltwechaelrecht ni schaSen. Ich glaube, daB dieae Idee 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMEBCE 197 

eine aehr glackliche ist, weQ erst eine eisheitliche Rechteprachung eine Gew&hr AaHii bietet, 
da£ das Weltwechselrecbt such eiolieitlich >ur AusfUhnmg gelangt. 

Dieselben GrOnde, welche fUr die Etablierung einee Gerichtshofee fUr das Weltwechsel- 
recbt eprechen, fObren auch mir Etablierung einea G«ricbtshofe8 fOr das Weltscheckrecht, und 
ich bitt« Sie, da£ Sie Ibre Sympathie fUr dieeen Gedanken etwa in der Form aussprecheD, daB 
der Internationale Handelakammer-KongreB die Idee, einen Gericbtahof fOr die Auslegung 
des Weltwecbsel- tmd Weltacbeckrecbts au echaffen, mit groCer Sympatbie b^rllfit und die 
Hegierungen auffoidert, dieaer Idee lur Verwirklicbung zu Terbelfen. 

{CorUmtting m Frmeh) 

MeaaieuiB, j'esptre que mu explications voua ont penuadja que I'lmification des lois du 
ch^ue est utile et n^ceesaire pour le conunerce et Tinduatrie, et qu'il est possible d'atteindre 
cette uniformity. 

Mais runiformit^ des lois sur la lettre de change et le cheque ne pourra 6tre conservte & 
moins d'etre soutenue et garantie par une juridiction commune. 

Pout cela la deuxi^e conference diplomatique a adress^ aux gouvemements des Stats 
qui y etaient repi^aentds la pri^ d'examiner la question s'il aerait possible d'^tablir une juri- 
diction commune pour le droit commun en mati^ de lettres de change. Et nous pouvons 
ajouter, en mati^ du (didque. 

Je voua prie d'exprimer Totra sympathie pour cette id4e. 

(ContimMug in Qtrman) 
Hiemach beantrage icb: 
Dor Handelskammer-Kongrefi wolle beschlieCen: 

1. ,,Die Verainbeitlicbung der Scheokiecbte ist nioht nur wQnscbenswert, sondem auch 
tlarchfOhibar. Der KongreS ricbtet an die einielnen Regieiungen die Bitte, dirae Verein- 
hettlicbung auf einer baldmaglicbst lusammenauberufenden Staat«nkonferenE vonubereiten. 

2. Eine notwendige Ergftnzung sur Schafiung eines Weltwecbsel- und Weltecheckrechts 
bildet die Euuicbtung eines Gericbtshofee im Haa^, weicher die Streitfragen im WeltnmJKsel- 
und Weltscheckrecht in letster Tnat^n* m entaobeiden bat." (fieiJaQ.) 

(Tnntiaium) 
Gentlemen: 

The Fourth International Congrees of Chambeis of Commerce, held in London, 
June, 1910 passed the following resolution as i^aids international legislation on checks: 

"Tb.% Congress accepts with interest the documents submitted to it and postpones for 
the order of the day of its next meeting tlie quwtion on band for the purpose of render- 
ing more complete the study thereof, expressing at the same time its entire sympathy 
eonceming tlie suggestion of the unification of international l^islation on checks." 

The more tiiorougb study of the question which tlie Congress looks forward to is 
^ected as far as Germany ia ooncemed by tlie publication on tlie part of Dr. Trumpler, 
under the instructions of tlie Chamber of Commerce at Frankfort, of a systematic com- 
parative treatise on the laws on checks as promulgated by all oiviliied nations, and also 
by the fact that Privy Councillor Dr. Felix Meyer, upon being requested to do so by 
"Die Xltesten der Kaufmannscbaft von Berlin," as he also has dtme in the case of the 
laws existing aa bills of exchange, has made a thorough study concerning the unifica- 
tion of the laws <Hi checks, a woik of which the first parts have already been published. 
Moreover, the Executive Committee of "Der Deutsche Handelatag," at its meeting held 
on the 24tb of June at Cologne, baa taken up the same question and has arrived at tlie 
conviction that tbe unification of the laws on checks is not only desirable in behalf of 
commerce and industry, but ia also, by all means, a thing ciq>able of being carried into 
^ect. Tbe Committee baa agreed on a series of fundamental principles which appear 



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IS INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

to me an excellent basis for the creation of a universal law on checks and, tberefore, witlt- 
out going too much into details, I ahall confine myself to further eubstantiating the 
said fundamental principles. 

But before entering upon the subject I feel it my duty to lay atresa on the excellent 
reeulte realised by the second diplcanatic conference on laws on billa of exchange held 
on the ISth of June, 1912, inaemuch as the same has brou^t about & convention of 
the States excepting the United Statee and England. The Inteniati(«ial Congrece of 
Ghan^TB of Commerce, which from its beginning has done eveiything to bring about 
a universal law on bills of exchange, can truly be proud of this result. The course 
of the negotiations bearing on univeraal legislation on bills of exchange is such there- 
fore, as to promise a great deal m behalf of univeisal l^islation concerning checks. 

L D«finitioii 

The first question which presents itself is whether or not the law should contain 
any definition of a check or should confine itself to determining the eesmtial oonditiona to 
be met by an instrument to be considered as a check. This much, I believe, has beoi 
established by the historic development of the entire check question, — that the view 
repreeented by the English group, according to which a check is merely a variety rf a 
bill of exchange, can no longer be considered correct. But the attempta likewise of the 
French group which tried to establish a legal definition of the check give rise to dooht 
and confirm the old adage: omnit dtfiniHo ttt peneultMa. 

Beaidea that, definition appears unneceesaiy provided that, as is done in the 
German check law, one confines oneself to enumerating the essentia] requidtea of the 
check. I understand, too, tiiat the conference upon universal legislation on bills of 
exchange, which also took up cursorily the question of legislation on checks, has deasted 
from establishing any legal definition of a check and has merely confined itself to ex- 
pressing what it considered to be the essential requisites of a check. I believe, therefore, 
that as a first fundamental principle I may submit to the consideratitni of the Congress 
the following: 



n. PassiTe Capacity 

One of the moat discussed questions is whether or not the number of persons on 
whom checks may be drawn should be restricted. There are laws which only admit 
the passive capacity of a banker, laws which consider a banking institute a credit institute 
and merchants as being passively capable and which provide for unlimited passive 
capacity. Finally, there are laws which prescribe a scHcaUed dcl)it regulation for the 
relations between bankers and institutions of equal standing and which require the use (^ 
revKiue stamps on all checks which do not meet these requirnnents. 

The question thus arisee, which is the point of view to be taken by univeraal legis- 
lation on checks. There is no doubt but that the industrial vahie <rf a check can only be 
realised by its being drawn on persons or firms whose occupation it is to accept the funds 
ci thiid parties on deposit and to make payments for their account. Only in this way is 
it poesible to obtain sufficient accumulations of capital at such places to be accessible and 
Kvail^le for the general requironents of busiitess. And it must also be oonceded that 
the larger the number of drawees the greater the difficulties in the clearing through which, 
by means of booking and transfers by certificate, a considerable saving in specie in circu- 
lation can be brought about. Nevertheleas, according to my opinion, universal legislation 
on checks could not take the point of view of F.n glui}! jurisprudence according to whidi 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 199 

a banker can be the drawee, because even if the definition of the word banker were in 
reality sufficiendy clear (which it is not) to enable the person in whose favor the check 
is drawn to aBcertain whether he has received a check which is valid or not, one ehould 
not, without absolute necesEdty, interfere with the ecooomic development of other great 
States, such as France, where notaries in their quality as trustees frequently have cox 
hand cash deposits of which the deposited dispose by means of checks. Nor is there 
any reaeon why large export and import houses with transatlantic or transpacific branches 
in places where there are no banks should be prevented fiom having checks drawn on 
themselves. For this reason, universal legislation on checks may declare desirable that 
checks should only be drawn on bankers and equivalent institutions, while on the other 
hand checks drawn on other parties must not be declared void or non-valid. I therefore 
propose to you to adopt for the international law on checks the following; 

" It should be determined that checks should be only drawn on a banker, but checks 
drawn otherwise, that is, on a party not a banker, shall not be void in law." 



m. Essential Elements of the Check 

Assuming that a check is an order to pay, producing l^al obligations, it is in the 
interests of business security that this order ebnild be represented by a written instrument 
tipon whiidi all legal questions regarding check transactions are based. Thence results 
the first requisite for the form of the check. That is to say, it should be in writing. It 
is likewise self-evident that the maker's signature must appear on the check as an 
essential element, because without it the check could not be paid. The provisions in the 
various countries difier as to whether the character of the check must be indicated on 
the same. The fact that the United States and England have checks without the so- 
called check clause is due to the circumstances tliat there the check is a bill of exchange 
of a special kind and in fact is considered equal to a draft unless it is drawn on a banker. 
Yet for a document which is to be used as an equivalent of currraicy, the insertion of the 
check clause as an essential element is to be recommended inasmuch as it removes all 
doubt as to the intention of the parties and also because the check clause recalls to tho 
makerthefactlhatby this document he disposes of a deposit held by the drawee and tliat 
he exposes bi™>lf ta criminal proceedings in case he issues the check wiUiout the same 
being provided for. I understand also that the dipk^natic conference has decided in 
favor of the check clause. 

The requirements of tiie payment clause, that is to say, the instructions ^en a 
person or firm by the maker to pay frtun his deposit a certain amount of money, is not 
insiated upon in all States, but even in cases where its necessity is not expressed specially 
it is at any rate considered indispensable. All agree that the instructions to the drawee 
must be given unconditionally and must not be made dependent upon any counter- 
consideration. This spears also to have been the point of view taken by the diplomatic 



The indication of the amount of money is everywhere considered as an indis- 
pensable requirement for all checks. The International Conference has without doubt 
considered it understood that only checks calling for money eould form the object of a 
uniform law. The transfer check is not suited to being put within the scope of a uniform 
ebeck. law and it must be left to the banks to r^ulate the use of such a document by 
means of special conditions. 

It is an open question whether the designation of the place of payment is to be con- 
sidered as an essential element of a check. Yet, for a universal check law it might be 
well to recommend the indication of the place of pigment as an essential element. 
According to the German law if no place of payment is given, the place at which 
the check has been made is consideredtheplace for payment; according to the Austrian 



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[RJ INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Iaw, however, the place where tiie drawee has his principal place of buaiiieas. Hm 
latt«r provisioii is decidedly unfair because in numerous cases where a banker, as 
drawee, has a number of principal officee a clear definition of the place of payment is 
simply out of the question. 

The designation of the place where the check has been made is of particular im- 
portance because from tiie date appearing there it is shown whether it ia a domestic or 
a foreign check, — a matter which is of importance when determining the term for 
presentation. 

Also the day on which the check is made is for each such document of great impor- 
tance because the beginning of the term for presentation can only be calculated from the 
date of the making thereof. 

Inasmuch as the object of the check is to be converted immediately int« read; 
money and inasmuch as its degeneration into a mere credit pspet or credit documoit 
must be prevented, the condition payable at sight should also be accepted for the uni- 
Tersal check law. 

Amongst the inessential elements of a check, — that is, such elements as could 
be dispensed with without interfering with the validity of a check, — are the provision 
clause and the indication of the payee. As r^aids the provision clause, the T^glinti law 
does not contain any, altiiough their strict oranmercial custom keeps the use of checks 
within well-defined limitations. Further the provision clause appears superficial for a 
universal check law because the characteristic quality of the "docimient" is already 
defined and indicated by tlie check clause. He who issues a check knows that by so doing 
he disposes of a "provision" or deposit in his favor. 

The insertion of Uie provision clause as an essential element of the check is not to 
be recommended, either, for the reason that the word "provision" (deposit in favor of 
some one) is interpreted differently by the different laws; and this is the resson why it 
cannot be recommended, that in the universal check law the provision clause should be 
inserted as an essential requirement. 

Nor does the defdgnation of the payee appear to be essential. A check on which the 
payee is not sfwcified is simply treated as check payable to bearer. 

As essential elements of a check, should be declared: 
(a) Signature of the maker. 
(5) Designation of the drawee. 

(c) Check clause. 

(d) Pigment clause. 

(e) Indication of amount. 

CO Indication of place and date of mubing. 
On the other hand, the following may be considered as non-eesential elements: 
Provision clause. 
Designation of payee. 
Designation of the place of payment. 



IV. The Check in Regular Transactions 
For a check passing through the regular channels of business the following relations 
are to be taken into consideration ; 

(a) The relation of the drawee to the drawer or maker. 
(ft) The relation of the drawee to the bearer. 
(c) The relation of the drawer and the endorsers to ths bearer. 
As regards the relation of the drawee to the maker, it is understood that this is 
based on the agreements made between the two, that is, the so-called check agreement 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 201 

based on which the depositor ia entitled to dispose of his deposit with the drawee by 
means of cheeks. It is not to be recommended that this check agreement should be 
fixed and defined by law in case of uniform check legislation, because this is a matter 
which involves conditions which are of basic importance for the making of checks but 
which are not expressed in the check itself. 

The question as to whether the holder of a check ehould be given the same right of 
action against the drawee which obtains against the drawee on the part of the maker of 
the check pursuant to the l^al relations existing between tbem as far as the payment 
of the check is concerned, is decided differently by the various laws existing thereon. 
The direct right of action of the holder of the check against the drawee is only recc^- 
nised in those countries which assume that the delivery of tiie check to a third party 
involves also the transfer of tlie claim for payment, as is done in France, Belgium and 
Italy. In a universal check law it would not be recfonmended to admit a direct claim 
resulting from a check, against the drawee, because the foundation for the action would 
at all times be a relation with which the bearer of the check is not familiar, and inasmuch 
as the bearer of the check is not acquiunted with all the agreements and contracts which 
are decisive here he would as a rule be forced to resort to the co-operation of the maker. 
In odier words, unless the maker aseiste the holder of the check, the direct right of action 
would be of very little avail. It would, therefore, not seem convenient that a universal 
check law should embody a legal claim of the checkholder against the drawee. 

While the relation of the maker to the drawee is not established at any time by the 
making of a check only, but above all by the so-called check agreement, such a relation 
as betwem the maker and the first holder of the check is only broi^t about in the courae 
of the check transaction, but is the delivery. It is generally recognised that the delivery 
involves a silent agreement, but at all times it has been an undecided question in law 
as to how titis contract shotdd be interpreted l^^y. Owing to this different conception 
from the l^al i>oint of view which must lead to varying interpretation of the matter 
according to the various civil codes, it scarcely would be recommended to insert a provi- 
sion in the imivereal check law covering this point and it would rather seem neoessaiy 
that the question as to bow far the first holder of the check is to be entitled to re- 
covery should be left to the decisions of the respective countries. 



The check to order, transferable by endotaement, is recognised in all States, but tlie 
provisions » to whether a check requires the order clause to become capable of endotae- 
ment, or whether it is endoreable at all events, so that it would requite a special clause 
to exclude the possibility of endore«neut, vary in different countries. For the universal 
check law it might be recommended to adopt the latter point of view. The legal effect 
of the eodorsement is the transfer of the check to the peraon in whose favor it is en- 
dorsed; the latter can further endorse a check either by an endorsement in full or by 
an endcHsement in blank. It is the duty ot the payer to verify the authenticity of the 
signatures; if he pays without such verification he ia nevertheless not released from hia 
obligation. The payer must further verify the identity of the check-holder with the 
perooQ to whom the check appears payable originally. He cannot be obliged to verify 
the previous endoraements. 

An endorsement on the part of the drawee is not effective. The same might occur 
on a check to bearer without previous endorsement to liim or on checks with a blank 
oidorsanent and would prove an abstract obligation as against any later holder without 
any consideration concerning the existence of the requisite provision. It would, there- 
fore, have the same signification aa an "acceptance." Bath are therefore ineffective. 



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VL PresenUtian 



The obligation represented by a check is a debt to be eoUect«d. That is to aay: 
the creditor is not obliged to tranemit to the holder of the check the amount due. For tlie 

eake of a buGine^elike transaction the t«nn for presentation of the check must be Unii- 
ted and not be extended beyond the time necessary for a suitable utiliiation o! the cheek. 
The terms within which a check must be presented differ very much and it would be 
highly desirable that a uniform check law should prescribe fixed tenns both for domeetic 
checks and checks payable abroad. 

Vn. Payment 

As regards the payment of the check, it is in the interest of general exchange to 
avoid payment in specie as far as possible. Settlements other than in cash are made oo 
accounts. The holder can refuse to accept a partial payment. If the drawee fails to 
pay a check presented to hiin in due form in spite of the provision of a sufficient balance, 
be becomes liable under the general civil code to the amount of any damage suffered 
through the non-payment. The death or business inc^iacity of the maker or the businen 
incapacity of the drawee are without influence on the right to payment. Even afl«r the 
eipiration of the torm of presentation the drawee is permitted to pay the check. The 
drawee under the German law is entitled to obtain poesesfflon of the receipted check 
after payment. 

According to Rn g liwh law the bearer is obliged to deliver the paid check altitou^ it 
is a question whether he is obliged to give a receipt. The French and Ti^^'g>' laws 
contain no provisions in regard to the method of payment, but according to Pimdi 
and Be^ian laws receipt on the check is required. Italian, Bulgarian, Portuguese, Rou- 
manian and Swiss laws do not specially deal with the payment of checks, but the oon^ 
sponding portirais of the laws relating to bills ot exchange ate usually applied to check 
transactions. In some l^islatioD tlie bolder of the check is obliged to acoept partial 
payment while other laws stipulate that he is not obliged to accept partial paymat. 

For the uniform check law the following is suggested: "The drawee may r«quMt 
receipt. The payee is not obliged to accept partial payment." 



Vin. Revocation 

In regard to the revocation of checks there are two contradictoiy ideas. In T-JnglaTiH 
the maker can cancel a check at will, and the check is not only void in the case of the 
bankruptcy of the maker but also when the drawee is notified ot the death of the maker. 
The countries of the French group, however, view the n^otiation of checks and drafts 
as an assignment of the right to the funds in the possession of the drawee. This leads 
these countries to the principle of the irrevocability of the check as well as the further 
provision that the holder of the check in case of the bankruptcy of the maker may 
demand a separate settlement from the credit balance. For a uniform check taw it is 
desirable to adopt a medium between these two conceptions and to provide that a 
cancellation of the check shall only be effective aft«r the expiration of the term fw 
presentation. That the check should not become void through the death or busineaa 
incapacity of the maker; but the check should be void on notice to tiie drawee of the 
insolvency of the maker. 



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IX. Transfer Cbeck and Crossed Check 



The practice in businesa with the Imperial Bank and in clearing transactions of for- 
bidding payment of a check in cash by the inacription "for transfer only" written 
aoroaa the face of the check has become so common in Germany that a large proportion 
of the checks presented at the branches of the Imperial Bank bear this notation. By 
means of the transfer check the risk of its cdlecticm by an unautliorized person is 
materioUy reduced. Hie entry counts as p^ment and cooaequently the presentation 
for depodt as presmtatJon for payment. Other countries, particularly Enghmd, have 
a eyetem kitown as "crossing." The "crossing" is either general, in which case pay- 
ment can be made through any bank or banker, or ia a apeciol crossing, in which caae 
payment can only be made tlirough the authoriied banker. The croemng ia desirable 
in one respect as it accustoma individuala more and more to handle their funds 
through a banker and therefore to open bank accounts. The crossing is not exactly re- 
placed by the tranafer check, since the transfer clause absolutely excludes payment in 
cash, which is not the case with crossing. The transfer check has also some weak- 
Qeasee aa r^orda international transactions. Only the crossed check and the transfer 
check both would provide checks for every use with practically complete protection 
against theft and forgeiy. It is therefore deeirable for the uniform check law to permit 
both the tranafer check and the crossed check. 



X. XeconrBe 

As regards recourse in case a check is dishonored, in moat countries the same princi- 
ples are applied as for bills of exchange. In Germany, however, there are some varia- 
tions. For instance, in tiie case of a check a personal declaration may be subatituted for 
protest. The protesting of a draft is permitted for the draft at maturity and must be 
done not later than the second working day after the dat« of maturity. On the other 
hand, the German check law names no period for protest although the protest should 
take place before the expiration of the term of presentation. It is therefore desirable 
that the unifoim check law should provide the some remedies in case of checks aa for 
drafts. 

I therefore wish to recommend to you, to express the idea, that a unification of 
l^islation relative to checks is not only desirable in the interests of commerce and in- 
dustry but is likewise possible of realization, and that the principles decided by "Der 
Deutsche Hondelatag" form a good foundation for the unification of check laws. In 
connection therewith I would ask you to favor an idea presented by the German dele- 
gation at the close of the diplomatic conference in regard to the international laws on bills 
of exchange. Reference was made to the fact that ahould the nations adopt the law on 
bills of exchange it woidd be necessary to have for this international law also on inter- 
national court which would decide in the last instance on disputes in regard to the in- 
ternational law on bills of exchange and it has been decided that the conference should 
addres the request to the govemmmts of the various States to consider the question 
whether it would not be possible to create such a universal court of law relative to bills 
of exchange. I believe that this idea is a veiy good one inasmuch as only a uniform 
judiciary can guarantee that the international law on bills of exchange shall be uniformly 
enforced. 

The same reasons which speak for the establishment of a court of law for an intema- 
ticotal law on bills of exchange would also lead to the creation of a court for the inter- 
national check law, and I beg of you to express your sentiment in favor of this idea, 
possibly in the form that the International Congress of Chambers of Commerce ac- 



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204 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

cepta with ai^roval, the idea of creating a court of law for the interpretation at the 
i]it«n>ational laws relative to checks and bUla of exchange, and invitM the gorenuDorti 
ta co-operate in its realization. 

Gentlemen, I hope that my explanations will have convinced you that the unifica- 
tion of legislation relative io checks is useful and necessary for commerce and industiy 
and tliat it is possible to attain such uuifonnity. 

But uniformity of r^ts in matten of bills of exchange and checks cannot be maiih 
tuned unless auatained and guaranteed by some common jurisdiction. 

For this reason the second diplomatic conference hae addreeeed to the natioiul 
goremmenta which were there represented the request to consider tlie queoticM) wheAs 
it would be possible to establish a common jursidiction for the universal law relative to 
bills of exchange. And we might add also relative to checks. 

And I would ask you, therefore, to express your concurrence in this idea. 

I therefore move: 

That the Congress <A Chambers of Commerce shall resolve, 

1. " The unification of l^islatJon relative to checks is not only desirable but pooa- 
ble of attainment. The Confess directs to the various governments the pW to take 
steps towards such unification through an international conference to be convoked u 
soon aa posmble. 

2. An essential supplement to the cieation of an international law relative to t^Sk 
of exchange and checlu wiU be the establishment of a court in The Hague which shall 
decide dilutes relative to international law on bills of exchange and chedcs in the last 
instance." (Jpplouse.) 

(Conliiuiing in EnglUh) 

Gentlemen, I have explained that the differences b the laws of the check ore not so great 
that it would be impossible to realiie unification. And I hope that even if you are not all in 
perfect agreement with me, you will at least be in sympathy with the unification of the law 
of the check. But it is not sufficient that the law of the check and exchange are unified; it 
is still more necessary tliat a high court may be established for the int«rpretatioD of the ques- 
tions concerning the unified law of the check and exchange. 

H. le Prfindent: M. Apt nous a done comments les dfaisiona les plus rfieentes. Vow 
saves, messieurs, que cette question du cheque a £te traitfe t, La Haye. On nous demande 
done maintenant d'^ettre un vceu en faveur de I'unification du ch^ue et d'une Ifgislatian 
qui permettrait que tous lee pays puissent 6tre traits de la mbne fa^on. 

Je donne la parole it I'orateur suivant, M. AuiEinA, du Brisil. 
(Tran^aiion) 

Mr. Apt has commented on the most recent decisionB. You know that tltie ques- 
tion of the check has been treated at The Hague. We are now asked to espren a widi 
in favor of the unification of the check and of legislation which would allow all countries 
to be treated alike. 

I give the floor to the next speaker, Mr. AuoiinA, of Brasil. 

Dr. Candido de Hendes de Almeida, Official DdegaU of Ae Oovemmenl of BraxH; Director (^ 

lAe Commercial Afuwum, Bio de Janeiro 
Messieurs: 

Je vous demande la permission de parler en fran^ais, parce que ma langue natiooale 
n'est pas reconnue comme langue officielle, et je ne puts pas, aprfs trente jours d'£tude 
de I'anglais, m'exprimer dans cette langue de fagon i, fitre compris. 

Comme repr^sentant du gouvemement Br^ilien, comme repr^sentant aussi de la Vt&k- 
ration des AsBOciations Commerciales du Br^ — lee associations conunerciales, ce sont des 
chambres de commerce — nous avons organist la F^fration des Associationa Commerciales 



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CHAMBEBS OF COMMERCE 205 

k BicMle-Jaiieiro, U eapHale — H aumi comme repr^eeotant du Conseil dee courtierB en mar- 
ch&itdises de n&TiieB — o'eet aussi ime orgamaatioQ dee courtiers &veo intervention du 
gouTemement. Ces institutione-li ont un int^rtt iaorma dans le chlque, parce qu'ellee 
reprisentent tout le commerce, o'eet-i-dire taae ceux qui ont dcs intMts dans les relations 
commerciates. Si j'ai eu le courage de prendre la parole dans cette asaemblfe si distingu^e et 
si compitente, c'est simplement parce que j'ai voulu, devant ce grand Congrte, oil sont rSunis 
les repr^eentants les plus distingu^s du monde entier, offirmer I'exiatence du Brdail. 

Je voua demande pardon, messieurs, de parler aiiui, mais j'ai lu tous lea rapporta, et j'ai 
constats que Ton y fait dea r^^rences k des pays, qui sont, certainement, dignea d'etre mea- 
tionn^, mais des pays qui n'ont pas plus que mon pays, le BtM, le droit d'etre dtudife. 

Le Br^sil, mesaieurs, est im pays trte malheureux. II fait des efforts ^oormes pour £tre 
connu, il fait des efforts &iormea poiu- d^tmtrer sa CEq>acit^, il fait des efforts tooirnes pour 
d6inontrer son intelligence, il fait des efforts 6normes pour dfoaontrer qu'il accompagne, 
pas i, pas, tous les mouvements de la science, tous lea mouTements de I'iiidustrie, tous les 
monvements du comiuerce; eh bieni messieurs, on ne trouve pas le nom du Brisil quand on 
parle des droits dea peuplee. 

Meesieura, le Br^dl, c'est le plus grand pays de I'Am^que du Sud. C'est un pays qui 
a trento-neuf millions de kilomdtrea carrfs, et toutes ses teires sont continues, aont fertiles, 
sont utiles, sont productives. C'eat le pays du caf^, c'est le pt^ du caoutchouc; et a'il enste 
dans le monde une industrie du caoutchouc, ce sont les grandes foists de I'Amaione qui cot 
donn^ naiasanee k oett« grande induetiie, laquelle est k I'heure pi^sente trts bien expoe^e k 
"I'lntemation^ Exposition of Rubber," k New-Yoric. C'est du BrMl que aont sorties lea 
aemences qui ont produit lea grandea cultures de I'lnde, de Ceylan et des autna parties de 

Ce grand pays, qui a Ting1>^eux millions d'habitants, la grande majority de ses habitants 
est compoa£e d'honuoes biases, avec une trte petite proportion d'indig^nes. Partout, on de- 
mande ai, au BrSail, nous sommes des nSgrea. Eh bienl je voua I'affirme, sous la responsa- 
bilit^ que j'ai comme repr^sentant de mon gouvemement, soua la responaabilit^ que j'ai 
comme repr^eentant de la FMiratioo des Associations Commerciales du Br^sil, je vous I'afiEirme, 
nous sommes dea descendants des Portugais, des Italiens, des Allemands, des Fran^ais et des 
autres peui^ d'Europe. 

Je TOUS I'affirme aussi, nous faisons tous les efforts possibles pour 6tre d'accord avec to 
mouvonent ^Tolutiooniste du monde civilian. Nous sommes les plus grands producteun de 
eaf£ au monde, nous eonunes lea plus grands producteura de caoutchouc, pour ne paa parler 
d'autiea choses. 

Four ne pas retenir trop loi^temps votre attention, je vous dirai moplement, que j'ai 
pris hier, sur cette table, un journal am£ricain, oil j'ai eu le plaisir de lire . . . 

(TVonsIolion) 
Gentlemen: 

I beg leave to speak in French, because my national tongue is not recognised as an 
official one, and I cannot after thirty days of study of the English language express my- 
self M as to be understood. 

Aa a representative of the Braailian Govermnent and of the Federation of C<Hn- 
mercial Aasociationa of Brazil, the latter being chamben of commerce — we have or- 
ganised the Federation of Commercial Associations at Rio de Janeiro, the capital — as 
representative also of the Brokers' Council in Ship-merchandise, this being also a 
brokers' organiiation under govenunent control — I wish to say a few words. These 
institutions are greatly interested in the check, for they represent the whole commerce, 
aU those who have interest in commercial relations, in BrasU. If I have the courts 
to speak in so diatinguiahed and bo competent an assembly, it is simp^ because I have 
wished, in the presence of this great Congress in which the moat diatinguished repre- 
sentatives of the whole world are united, t« assert the existence of Braiil. 



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206 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

1 beg your indulgence, gentlemen, if I apeak Uiua, but I have read all the reports 
and have found references made to countries which are certainly worthy to be 
mentioned, but which nevertheless have no more right than Bratil to be studied. 

BraEil is a very unfortunate country. Her efforts to become known, to deraoostnte 
her capacity, to show her intelligence, to prove that she followB step by et«p all the 
movements of science, of industry and of commerce, are very great; and Brasil'a name 
ie not even mentioned in connection with Uie rights of the people. 

Bnwil, gentJemen, is the greatest country of Soutii America. It has thirty^iine 
million square kilometers of extent, and all it« lands are fertile, utilisable and pity 
ductive. It is the land of coSee, rubber, and if the world po nooooen a rubber ioduEtiy 
it is due t« the great forests of the Amaion, as at present very well shown at the In- 
ternational Rubber Exposition in New York. Out of Brasil came the seeds that have 
produced the great crops of India, Ceylon and other Asiatic countries. 

This great land contains twenty-two million inhabitants, the great m&jority white, 
with a very small proportion of natives. It is asked everywhere if we are all cxiloced 
in Brazil. But I assert upon my responsibility as a Govenunent representative, upon 
my teeponaibility as a representative of the Federati<ai of Commercial AssooiaUans of 
Brazil, that we are descendants of Portuguese, Italians, Germans, Frenchmen and other 
European peoples. 

I assure you olao that we make all possible efforts to attune ouiBelvm with the 
evolutionist movement of the civilized world. We are the greatest produo^a of 
coSee in £he world, the greatest producers of rubber, not to speak of anything else. 

I do not wish to monopolize your attention much longer but will tell you simply 
that yesterday I took from this table an American newspaper, in which I read with 
pleasure . . ■ 

One Voix: Cheque — cheque, 
(rrontlotitnt) 

A Voicb: Check — Check. 

H. le President: Pariet du cheque. 
(Trantlatum) 

Speak about the check. 

U. Almeida: Je vous demande pardon. Si j'ai fait c«tt« exorde, c'est pour vous ii- 
montret pourquoi nous avons le droit d'dtre entendus sur la question du cheque. Je lis dans 
ce journal: "Le Br^sil a exports aux Ctato-Unis pour 128,000,000 de dollars . . ." 

(TrarutaHtm) 

I beg your pardon. If I made this divendon, it was tA show why we are entitled 
to be heard on the question of the check. I read in that newBp^>er: "Brazil has 
exported mto the United States merchandise to the value of 9128,000,000." 

noaieiirs Voix : Cheque — Cheque. 
(Trantlaiion) 

Sevkbal Voicib: Check — Check. 

H. le Prtddent: Farions du cheque. 

{Tmutaiimii 

Let us speak of the check. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 207 

U. Almeida; Eh bieni meesieurB, but la questioo du clidque, j'ai le plaisir de Toua din 
que le BrSsil a promulgu6, le eept ao(tt de cett« ann^e, une loi reDfeim&nt toutea tea aspira- 
tkma sur le cheque; j'ai le plaieir de voua dire que toutes lee aspiratione exprimiea dans le 
r^iport de M. Apt aoat d£j& incluee dana la loi qui est prjaentement en foroe au Brtsil. Vingt- 
deux millions d'hommea ont dijk mis cee choaea en pratique. 

Sur la question de I'unification du chktue, la loi a d6clar€ que toua ceui qui auraient dee 
fends disponibles dans lea banques ou entree les mains dea commergants — et c'eet 1& le point 
inUrewant — j'ai lu dans les rapports qu'il y a une grande discussion pour savoir si le obSque 
doit dtre tir6 seulement contie lee banquee et les associations similaiies. — Au Bi^ail, on a eu 
rid6e de faciliter la circulation du ch^e et en m6me temps de le garantir d'une taigoti com- 
pile. 

Vous saves, meesieuis, que cea pays nouveauz n'ont paa autant de facilitte pour la cir- 
culation du num&aire; alora, ils ont besoin de faciliter la circulation du ptquei qui reprteente 
I'argent; mais en mfime temps, ils ont I'obligation de garantir cette circulatioD, de fa^ion que 
le cmnmerce n'ait pas de surprises ni de deceptions. 

Eh bienl nous avons itabli, & I'aiticle premier de la loi, que le cheque pourrait £tre tir6 
oontre les banques et centre les commergants. Mais, naturellement, cette eqnession, "com- 
merganta," eat Ufe i, noa traneactaona commarcialea; c'eet4-dire que le commeiyant, dans le 
sens de la loi, eat oelui qui ^est enregjetrd coavenablement aelon lea loia reepectivee. 

La loi ^tablit ausai la aipiiflcation du mot "fonds." Qu'eat«e que Ton entend par fondsT 
n y a d'abord les sconmea eziatantee en comptea courants "banqujres." Relativement k ces 
lond&-l&, il n'y a pas d'autre exigence. lAoii ily a un cconpte courant "banqu^re," on peut 
titer le cb^ue aans aucune autre consideration. Dans le cas d'un cunpte oourant contrac- 
tuel, DU de I'ouverture d'un credit, pour tirer par chdque sur ces deux espdces de sommes 
dues, 3 faut le oonaentement du tir£. 

Ia loi sur la capaoiU active eat ctaiforme aux regies genfiralea dn droit civil. Cehii qui 
jonit de tous see droits civils a la capacity active pour tirer. 

Relativement k la c^acite passive, ]e vous ai d£jA expliqu^ la diSdrenoe que fut la loi 
entre les banquee et les commergants. 

Quant & la forme du cheque, notre toi eat conforme aux aq>irationa exprimfes dans le 
rapport de M. Apt. Notre loi, qui n'est pas une aspiration, mais une loi 6crite et en force, 
exige le mot "cb^que," 6crit en portugaia, — c'est notre langue — ou I'^quivalent en toute 
autre langue. Elle exige ensuite le nom de la raison sociale ou de la personne qui doit payer. 
Elle exige encore — et c'eet une question qui a ete trie discut^e — I'indication du lieu du 
paiement. II ne suffit pas d'indiquer le nom de la banque, il faut indiquer la branche de 
cette banque sur laquelle on tire — parce qu'une banque peut avoir pluBieurs branches, k 
differente endroita. Four que le cheque aoit exigible, selon notre loi, il faut que t'on indique 
trfa pr^eia^ent I'endroit oil doit dtre pay^ le ch^ue. Cette exigence de notre loi, Tindication 
precise de I'endroit du paiement, eat la realisation de I'une de vos aspirations. 

Notre loi etablit aueai — et en cela, elle innove sur toutes lee autres lois que j'ai vuea — 
que le cheque, pour fitre cheque, doit etre k vue. Elle dit que le tire, qui regoit un cheque 
mutiie, un cheque dechire, un cbdque portant de grosses taches d'encre, avec des dates sua- 
pectes, avec des corrections, peut exiger des explications, et m&ne des garanties. Cela, c'est 
une nouveaut^- J'en fais la mention, ce sera peut-4tre utile. 

(TraTuiation) 

Well, Gentlemen, aa regarda the check, I am pleased to say that Bratil has pro- 
mulgated, August 7tb of thia year, a law containing aD ber ideas concerning the check, 
and I am pleased to aay that all tbeae aspirations expressed in Mr. Apt'a report are 
already included in the law which is now «iforced in Braiil. Twenty-two millioa men 
have already put tliese things into practice. 

Aa regards the unificatioD of the check, the law appUee to all pereona who have 
depoaita which th^ can make use of, in banks or in the hands of tradera — and that ia 



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208 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

the inteteating point. I read in the reports that a great discustdoD k going on to find 
out if a check should be drawn only on the banks and equivalent associatiooa. In 
Brasil we had the good idea of facilitating the circulation of the check and gu&ranteesng 
it at the some dme in a thorough manner. 

You know, gentlnnen, th&t these new countries have not as nuny facilitiea f«r 
the circulation of cash; they need therefore to facilitate the circulation of paper refne- 
senting money. But at the same time they have the obligation of guaranteeing thia cir- 
culation in such a way as not to cause fraud or deceptions, commercialty. 

We have established, article fiiat of the law, that the check can be drawn cm the 
banks and on the merchants. But naturally this expression, "merchant," ia connected 
with our commercial transactions; that is to say, the merch&nt, in the eyee of the lam, 
is a person properly registered. 

Thus the law defines also the meaning of the word "funds." What are fundsT 
We have in Hm first place such sums as exist in running acoounts "banquftres." Re- 
garding these funds, nothing else is exacted. Where a running account "hanquiiti" 
exists, a check may be drawn without any further consideration. In case of a running 
account covering a contract or the opening of a credit, in order to draw a check against 
two such sorts of obligations, the consent of the drawee is required. 

The law on active capacity is in accord with the general clauses of the dvil law. 
Whoever enjoys all his civil rights is capable of drawing. 

Concerning tiie passive capacity, I have already explained to you the differeooe Uw 
law makes between banks and merchants. 

Regarding the form of check, our law agrees with the tenets e^iressed in Mr. 
Apt's report. Our law which is not merely an aspiratim but is written and in force, 
demands the word "check," written in Portuguese, our tongue, or the equivalmt in 
some other language. It demands besides the name of the firm or of the person that 
will have to pay. It also demands, and this question has been very much diaeusaed, the 
indication of the place where the payment ia to be effected. It is not enough to indicate 
the name of the bank, the branch of that bank on which one draws muat be indicated 
by name, because a bank may have several branches at difFerent places. A check to be 
demandable accordii^ to our Uw must bear very precisely the name of the place in 
which the check b to be paid. Thia demand of our law, namely, the precise indicatkn 
of the place of the payment, is the tealisation of one of your aspirations. 

Our law also establiahea, and this is an innovation on all other laws I have eeett, that 
the check must be at sight. It says that the drawee who receives a mutilated chec^ 
or a torn one, or one bearing big ink-spots, or suspicious dates or corrections, may 
demand explanations and even guaranties, This ia an innovation, and I mentim it, 
because it may be found useful. 

H. le PrAddent: Comme documentation. 
(Trantlation) 

As a document. 

H. Almeida: Qui. Je suppose qu'il n'est pas n^ceasaire d'enlrer dans plus d'explica- 
tkms et de details. J'ai fait traduire toute notre loi en franfaia et en anglais, et elle sera in- 
ttoduite dans lee travauz du Congrte. 
ITrantlaiion) 

Yes. I suppose that it ia not necessary to enter into more explanationa or details. 
I have had a translation mode of our law into French and Elnglish, and it will be intro- 
duced in the work of the Congress. 

H. le PrSsldent: Nous verserons done la loi BrSsilienne au dossier comme documenla- 
titai. Cette loi, Haal la realisation des aspirations du Congrte, est trte int^ressante. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 209 

ITraruUUicn) 

We ahaQ depodt then the Brasilian Law among the official papera as a document. 
The law, being a realisation of the aspirations of the Congress, is very interesting. 

H. le President: MeseieuTB, je profite de I'occaaion pour vous faire quelques petit«s com- 
munications. 

Vous savei tous que I'on se propose de prendre la photogrsphie dee membrea du Congrte 
k la sortie de la stance de ce matin, vraisemblablement vera midi et demi. L'annonce en a 
6t£ faite au concert d'hier soir, je tous la r^pite. 

Je Buis pri£ de vous faire savoir que, par invitation sp&iale de M. A. Lawrence Lowell, lea 
d^Ugu^ qui d^sirent visiter I'UniverEit^ de Harvard peuvent se joindre k une soci^t^ qui quit- 
tera I'hAtel cet apr^midi, de suite aprte la prise de la photc^raphie. 

La demi^re communication que j'ai & faire est celle-ci: Par Buit« de retards dans la re- 
ception dee notices officiellee et d'erreuie de correepondaocee, qui ont 6V6 en dehors du con- 
trdle de la Chambre de commerce de Boston, le Congrte n'a pas €U inform^ en temps de la 
d^aignation d'un certain nombre de d^l^u^s comme repr^eentant des gouvemements. Panni 
ceux dont lee noms n'ont pas iti inclus dans la liste imprimte comme reprdsentant leur gou- 
vemement, se trouvent: 

M. Anobixi Salmoiraohj, de Milan, qui est membre du comity permanent, et qui est ausd 
repr^sentant officiel du gouTemement de Sa Majesty le roi d'ltalie. 

M. G. Di RoBA, consul italien k Boston, qui repr^eente ausai le gouvemement Italien. 

Le Dr. Leonhakd Hocbdorf, reprdsentant le gouvemement Autrichien. 

Le Dr. Enifuim EnNoei, reprdsentant le gouvemement Hongrois. 

M. Abxl Pabdo, consul g^n^ral de I'Argentine k New-Yoric, repr^sentant la R^publique 
Argentine. 

M. S. Tamusa, vice-pi^aident de la Chambre de commerce de Kobe, repr^sentant le 

M. Olof Hjobth, repr^aentant la SuMe. 

Cividemment, la Chambre de commerce de Boston s'excuee de cea omiseiong, bien invo- 
tontaires, et elle me chatge de vous ezprimer ses regrets. 

S'il J a d'autres d£l^u£s repr^sentant leurs gouvememeittg, la Chambre de commerce 
de Boaton leur serait tr^ recorniaisaante de vouloir bien ee faire connaltre au secretaire de 
la Chambre. 

M. AU.ABD a la parole. 

(Tronalotton) 

I take advantage et this opportunity to make to you a few annoimoementa. 

The delegates are reminded tliat immediately after this morning's session, ae near 
the hour of half past twelve as possible, the only official photograph of the delegates will 
be taken. This announcement has been made at the concert yeaterday evening and I 
repeat it to you. 

By spedal invitation of Free. A. Lawrence Lowell delegates deairing to viat Har- 
vard University may join a party which will leave the hotel this noon immediately after 
the taking of the official photograph. 

On account of delays in the receipt of the official notices and other errors in corre- 
spondence which have been outside of the control of the Boston Chamber of Cconmerce, 
the Congress has unfortunately not been informed of the appointment of a number of 
delegates representing government. 

Among those whose names have not been included in the printed list as representing 
tJieir government are: 

Mr. Anoelo SALUoniAaHi, of Milan, a member of the Permanent Committee and 
official representative of the Government of His Majesty the King of Italy. 

Mr. G. DI ROBA, Italian Consul in Boaton, who also represents the Italian 
Govetwnent. 



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210 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Dr. Leonhabd Hochdobf, representing the Austrian Government. 
Dr. Edmund Kunosi, repreaenting the Himgaiian Government. 
Mr. Abel Pardo, Consul General of Ai^entina at New Yoric, representing the 
Argentine RepubUc. 

Mr. S. Taiidra, Vice-President of the Kobe Chamber of Ccnumerce, tcpreaenting 

Mr. OLor Hjorth, representing Sweden. 

The Boston Chamber of Commerce, of couiBe, wishes me to expreee its regrets for 
these omiaeionB, entirely involuntal? on its part. 

If there are other delegates who represent their govenunents we shall be obliged if 
they will show their credentials to the Secretary of the Boston Chamber of Commerce 
in order that their names may be included in the final list. 

Mr. Allabd has the floor. 

H. Bngine Alhtid, Pretidmt of Um Belgian Chamber of Commem of Paria 

Mesraeurs: 

Dans un rapport prfsent^ au nom de la Chambre de conunerce Beige de Paris, men 
&ninBnt coUigue, M. H. A. Rau, a indiquS les moyens pratiques pour ^tendre I'usage du 
cheque et restreindre les inconv&uents et les risques de I'emploi exag&£ du numeraire et dee 
billeta de banque. S'il ne nous i4>partient pas de formuler un projet de loi oonoemant le 
ohique, il eat Evident que nous devona k I'heure actuelle &nettre notre avis but la l^islation 
la meilleure. Nous sommea pricis&nent dans une situation qui nous pennet de pr^ciaer, 
d'une mani^re approfondie, ce que nous voulons, ce que le commerce mondial enge par I'^ta- 
blissement du chdque. 

La conference de La Haye s'est occupSe, vous v^ei de I'^piendre, de la legislation 
imiforme du chdque pour tous les pays. Je crois qu'elle s'est occup£e fgalemMit de la legis- 
lation BUT le cheque pour toua les pays, les desiderata du commense mondial; mats je ite sais 
si la conf^nce de La Haye a pris pour le chique lea mfimea decisions qu'elle a prime pour la 
lettre de change. 

Nous sommes done dana I'ignorance la plus complete k ce sujet. Si mes lenseignements 
Bont exacts, il paraltrait que la (»nf6rence de La H^« a renvoyfi k une stance prochaine 
I'examen de la legislation sur le cheque; mais il est un fait certain, c'est qu'en proposant un 
I^ojet de legislation sur la lettre de change, la conference de La Haye a bien indique ce qu'etait 
une lettre de change. Elle a done defini la lettre de change. D'ailleuis, toutea lea juriafHa- 
dences, toutes noe loia donneat bien une definition de la lettre de change. Eh bieni je m'^tends: 
dans le r^>port trds remarquable preseute par M. Otto Trundler, il fait abaolument abandon 
de cette necessity, pour nous primordiale, d'une definition du cheque, et nous ne pouvons 
entierement partager cet avis, et puisque lee rt^porteuis recommandent mSme de faire men- 
tion, dans la I^islation & venir, dea conditions principales du cheque, il nous paralt evidmt 
que I'une de ees conditions est prtcdsement, au point de vue international et interieur, que k 
cheque ne puisse etre conTondu avec un autre inatnunent de crtdit soumis k des stipulations 
legales diSeientes de cellea du cheque. Sinon, il est probable que dans la pratique il pourra 
ee presenter et il se presentera certainement des inconvenients et dee conflite entre la legislv 
tion regisBant le cheque et celle concemant les autree instnunentA de credit. 

En effet, ai le cheque doit — et c'est 1& I'esprit qui a preside au denr general d'une l^is- 
lation intemationale sur la matidre, — constituer un substitut au numeraire et auz billets de 
banque, il faut qu'il joukse autont que possible des conditions qui donnmt k oeux-ci la tadlite 
de circulation et de liberation pour lea poiements auxquels on veut que le cheque puive ser- 
vir lui-meme. 

Dans la revue que font les r^iportenrs dea d^nitions du cheque que donne U legislation 
de divers pays, ils ne nq>pellent que d'une fo^n generate la definition des pays de langue 
ftancaise. Cependant, parm ceus-ci, 11 est intereesant de relever la definition betge, qui cet 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 211 

prfcise, et que les nfipoittiaa <m% d'ailleun signaKe. Cette d^finitioii, d'(^)rte nous, eet ab- 
Botument Timage de oe qu'est le cheque. La loi beige de 1875 dit: "Le eh^ue eet une d£16- 
gfttion de paieroent au oomptant et i. vue mir des fonde dtaponiblee." Voub voyei comine le 
dOtfot ae dMHaimt de la lettre de ohange. Eh bienl dans ces conditiouB-U, je croia que, dans 
le voea que nous devons Anettre, noua der^Kifl demander, nous devona d^finir ezaoteme&t ce 
que noufl Tonlona, et cette definition, nous ta donnons par la loi beige. 

&, dans lea diff^rente pays id r c p riocn tfa, il 7 a une definition meilleure, measieuis, noua 
■""j™™ tous prtts & noua y lallier. Mais, ne rien dire du tout, laiaaer cette definition dans 
I'ombre, eh bienl mesmeuiB, ce n'eet pas dire ce que nous voulona. 

Maintenant, messkeura, aur lee autrea points de vue, du report de M. Apt: un de mee 
ccanpatriotee, M. Chhstopbe, et moi, nous aunmee abeohiment d'acooid, et je ne voudrais 
pas retcnir phis kmgtempe le tou indiquant tea diff6rentea nuanoee que nous pounions eto- 
blir. Je oe veux pas abuser de roe inatanta, je tnuve qu'avaot tout, noua devona dire oe que 
noua Touk«a, et pour le aurptna, lea detaila aont indiqute d'une taQon complete, d'une fagon 
magiatrale dans lea diSeienta rq>poTta dont noua arons eu connaiaaanoe. Cee rapports, je ne 
lee ana^se pas, mais je tous demande eurtout que, dans le Toeu que voua ollea emettre, que 
Tous allei envoyer k la oonffrraice de La Haye, voue diaiei bien ce que tous voulei, et c'eet 
la deciskm que je Tous demande d'adopter. 

(TVoRtlatwn) 
Oenttemen: 

In a report presmted in the name of the Belgian Chamber of Commerce of Faria 
my eminent colleague, Mr. H. A. Rau, has pointed out the practical means for extending 
the emplcTment (rf dwcka and for reducing the incraiTeniencea and risks resulting from 
the extended use of cash and bank notes. Even thou^ it may not be our part to draft 
a law relating to checks, it is clear that we should at this time express our opinion aa 
te the best legislation. We are in exactly the position to pennit us to state in a thorough 
manner what we deeire and what ta required by the world's ccmmerce through the 
establishment of the check. 

The Hague Conference, aa you have just learned, has occupied itaelf with the sub* 
ject of uniform l^ielatitHi relative to drafts for all countries. I believe it has also taken 
up the question of international legislation relative ta checks, one of the greatest desiree 
ct the world's oommeice; but I do not know whether the conference at The Hague has 
adopted few checks the same rules which it has made for bills of exchange. 

We are therefore in entire ignorance on this subject. If I am correctly informed, it 
appMiB that The Hague Conference has postponed ta a future session the inveettgation 
of le^slaticn regarding checks but one point ia certain, — that in drawing u|^ a law 
for bills of exchange The Hague Confwence has defined what a bill of exchange is. More- 
over, all our jurisprudence, all our laws give a definition of a bill of exchange. In the 
very valuable report presented by Mr. Otto Tnmdler he absolutely abandons this re.- 
quirement which seems to us fundamental for a definition of the check. We oannot 
entirely share his opinion and eren the Reporters themselves recommend that future 
legislation should mention the principal conditions for the check. It appears to ua 
clear that one of theoe conditions, both in regard to international and domestic relations, 
is that the check should not be confounded with some other instrument of credit, sub- 
jeot to different l^al stipulations than those for the check. Otherwise it is probable 
that in practice there might be, and certainly would be, inconvenienceB and conflicts be- 
tween the l^ialation relating to the check and that regulating other instruments of credit. 
In fact, if the check — and this is the idea which has inspired the general desire 
f<H- international legislation on tbe subject — is to constitute a substitute for cash and 
bank notes, it must as far as possible answer to the conditions which give these latter 
their facility for circulation for tbe purpose of payments for which it is desired to employ 
the check. 



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2 INTERNATIONAL C0NGEBS8 OF 

In the summing up made by the Reportera of the definitknu of the check gim 
by legislation in different oouDtries they only mention in a general way the driiniticn 
in the French-epe^ing coimtrieB. Among these, however, it is intereeting to take iqi 
the Belgian definition, which ia, moreover, exactly what the Reportera have described. 
This definition, it seenu to lu, is an accurate deecription of a check and of the powen 
to be given to it. The Belgian law of 1873 says: "The check is an order to pey in 
cash and at sight on funds disposable." You see, tlierefore, how the check distin- 
guishes itself from the bill of exchange. Well, under tlieee conditions I beliere that in 
the resolve which we may adopt, we should ask, we should define exactly what we wish, 
and this definition we find in the Belgian law. 

If, gentlemen, there is among the different countries here represented a better 
definition, we are prepared to support it. But to say nothing at all, to leave this defi- 
nition in the dark, does not seem to be saying what we want. 

Now, gentlemen, on the other points of the report made by Mr. Apt: one of my 
compatriots, Mr. Christophe, does not entirely agree with us and I do not wish to delay 
the vote further by pointing out the different modifications which we mig^t make. I 
do not wish to abuse your time. I think, Uiou^, that above all we should say what 
we want, and for the rest, the details are expressed in a very complete and masteriy 
fashion in the different reports which we have heard. I will not analyse these reports 
but will ask again that in the resolve which you are about to adopt, which you will aend 
to the conference at The Hague, you state clearly what you want, and this is the decisiao 
which I ask you to reach. 

H. 1« Prfeldaot: La parole est & M. Chables Chhisiophi. 



M. Charies Christophe, Secretam 0/ tht " Cerde Commercial et Indiitlritl " of Ghent; S«o- 
retary of the Iniemalionat Federation qf FtaxSpirmert' Attodaiiont 

Messieurs: 

Le Cercle Commercial et Industriel de Gand a fait coimaltre toutes ses vuea au soj^ de 
la question du cheque en distribuant aux membres du Congrte un projet complet d'uoe kn 
uniforme sur le cbdque, 61abor^, au nom de sa section juridique, par M. Rolin, profeaseor k 
I'Univenit^ de Gand et secretaire de I'lnstitut de droit international. H eq>lre que cette 
contribution au travail de documentation entrepris sur I'initiative de notre comit£ perma- 
nent, m£ritera I'attentitm de la conference de La Haye chargfe d'Atablir le projet d^fimtif 
d'une loi uniforme sur lee cheques. 

Au nom du groupe que je repr^sente ici, }e crois toutefoia devoir declarer e:q>tea8toe9it 
que je ne puis partager I'avis de MM. lee rapporteurs Apt et Trumpler et du "Deutscheo 
Handelstag," affirmant I'inutiUt^ d'une definition du cheque. A present qu'une loi uniforme 
sur ta lettre de change va 6tre mise en vigueur dans la plupart dee pays, il convient de mai^ 
quer nett«ment et succinctement, dans la loi uniforme projetfc, en quoi le cheque diffire de 
la lettre de change. II importe avant tout d'6viter que les ch^ues ne Be transforment oi 
lettres de change marquees et ne peident leur caractdre easentiel, qui sera toujoun d'etre on 
mode de paiement. 

Je me rallie done aux observations pr^aent^ par M. Rau comme compliment de son 
ruoarquable rapport, au sujet de la n6cessite d'tme definition du ch^ue. Au surplus, le 
"Deutsche Handelstag" lui-m&ne, aprte avoir affirm^ I'inutiliti d'une definition (declan- 
tion No. I) s'attache ensuite & delimiter d'une fsQon tr^ precise lea conditions eseentielles da 
dbSque. Sur ces conditions, d'ailleurs, I'accord pourra se faire tr^s facilement. 

Que doit 6tre, maintenant, cette definition du ch^ueT C'eat la conference de La Hayt, 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 213 

qui a mission de I'dtablir. Je temunerai par une seule renurque k ce sujet. La definition 
que propose M. Rau, c'est-Jkndire celle de la loi beige du 20 juin 1873, pi^aente en effet dea 
avantagee- 

"Le cheque, dit le l^ialateur beige, est une delegation de paiement au comptant et k vue 
SOT des fondfl diaponibles." NotoQfl biea que dans sea explications but oe qu'il faut entendre 
par foods disponibles lora de remission du cheque, le rapporteur de la loi ft la chambre beige 
a £t£ extremement large: il y a, & son sens, des fonds disponiblee cliei le tiie dee que cehti-ci, 
eans etie d&iteur du tiieur, t'a autorise & disposer de certains fonds chea lui. Cela devrait 
^videmment suffire, mab il est bon de le dire clairement. 

II semble, dee lore, possible de concilier facilement la notion beige du cheque aveo la 
notion anglaise, r^sultat qu'il faut ohercher & atteindre, puisque cette demiere notion est, au 
point de viie mondial, la plus rSpandue. 

Pour ne paa parier cfinune I'a fait tout iL I'heure le dei^ue du Bresil, je tiens & diie que 
la Belgique, tout en etant un petit pays, tient beaucoup & (aire entendre ea voiz dans toutee 
lea questions, aussi bien econraniques que l^islatives. 

(Tratuiation) 
Gentlemen: 

The "Cerde Commercial et Industriel" of Ghent hae expressed all ite views on the 
question of eheclcs by tiTiHing to each member of the Congreea a complete scheme of a 
uniform law of checks, framed on behalf of its juridical section, by Mr. Rolin, professor 
in the University of Ghent and secretary of the International Law Institute. It hopes 
that this contribution to the woric of documentation undertaken on the initiative of our 
PennaneDt Committee will be worthy of receiving attention from The Hague Conference, 
trusted with the elaboration of a definitive scheme of a uniform law of checks. 

In the name of the group of which I am here the representative, I, however, believe 
it my duty to declare expressly that I cannot be of the same opinitm as the Committee 
Reportera, Messrs. Apt and Trumpler, and as "Der Deutsche Handektag," who assert 
the useleesnesB of a definition of the check. Now that a imiform law relating to the bill 
of exchange is to be enforced in the majority of countries, it is convenient to determine 
clearly aod concisely, ia the uniform law which is to be planned, in what re^wct the check 
differs from the bill of exchange. It is first of all neceesaiy to avoid having checks trans- 
formed into disguised bills of exchange, and so losing their essential character, that of 
being a mode of payment. 

llierefore, I join with the observations presented by Mr. Rau as a complement 
to his remarkable report, about the necessity of a definition of the check. Beeidee, 
"Der Deutsche Handelstag" itself, after having stated the useleesnees of a defini- 
tion (Declaration No. I) proceeds to undertake to limit the essential conditions of the 
check. Moreover, on these conditions, the agreement may be concluded very easily. 

What must, then, be this definition of the check? It is the Conference of The 
Hague which has been entrusted to fix it. I am going to conclude with one single re- 
mark on this subject. The definition which Mr. Rau propoeee, that is to say, the 
definition given by the Belgian law of June 20, 1873, has indeed some advantages. 

"The check," says the Belgian legislator, "is a delegation of payment, incaahandat 
mght, on available funds." We must not fail to note that, in his explanation of what 
we must understand by available funds at the time the check is issued, the reporter of 
the law in the Belgian Parliament has been very liberal; according to him, there are 
available funds at the drawee's as soon as the latter, without being a debtor of the 
drawer, has allowed him to draw upon him for certain funds. This, evidently, ought to 
be sufficient, but it is convenient to point it out clearly. 

It seems, thm, possible to make agree the Belgian notitm of die check with the Eng- 
lish one, a result that we must strive to attain, as the '•^el'''h notion is most widely put in 
practioe. 



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214 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Althoo^, I do not vish to speak aa the delegate from Branl has jtut done, I inriet 
that Belgium, although a small country, thinks a great deal of participating in all quea- 
tions, both economic and legislative. 

H. Ifl ftosident: Monsieur Christophe, vos observations ont port^ surtout but la d& 
nition. C'eet un dea details. !E:videmment, si nous entrons dans la discussion des details, 
quand none aurons parl€ de la definition du ch^ue, nous parlerons du tireur. Tout de mtete 
je partage vos observations, mais je pense que vous ne devec pas entrer dans cette voie. it 
demands au Congrto de prendre une decision que nous sommee ici simplement pour vot«r sur 
le point de savoir s'il est desirable d'avoir I'unification du cheque. II est Evident qn'on tiendn 
bon oompte de vos observations dans lee procde-veitiaux, mais je pense que je ne puis pas 
demander au Congrfs de voter sur une question de details. Nous serions ^isolument d^ 
boidis et perdus. 

La parole est & M. F. FAiTHrcu. Bsaa. 
(TTonilaliort) 

Mr. Christophe, your remadcs have all referred to the definitions. ITub is one 
of the details. Cleariy, if we enter into the discussion of details, after we have talked 
over the definition of the check, we should also discuss the drawer. At the same time I 
appreciate your remarks, but I Uiink that it would be better not to enter on this tncfc. 
I will ask the Congress to adopt the decision that we are here solely to vot« on tliia 
point: Is it desirable to have the unification of the check? It is of course understood 
that due record will be made of your remarics in the proceedings, but I do not think that 
I can aek the Congress to vote on a question of details. We should be absolutely over- 
whelmed and lost. 

Mr. F. FAiTHyuLL Beog has the floor. 



Mr. F. Faithful! B%g, Chairman of the Council of the London Chamber of Commerce 

Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

I agree very largely with the speaker who has just addressed you. The point of his re- 
marks, if I got it, was this, that when you come to the question of dealing with checks 30a 
must not import into the character of the check any of the complicated matters which pa- 
tain to a bill of e:(change, but that you must keep in view the fact that your check must be 
the simplest, the most n^otiable, the most ea^y handled and dealt-with document that 
you can possibly devise. ("Hear, hear!" and aypUmte.) You must simplify, and you must 
not complicate. 

In England — and in London particularly, where I come from — we have aocae expoi- 
ence in the use of checks. (Laughter.) If I were to give you the figures — which I cannot, 
because I do not remember them — of the number and amount of checks which pass throu^ 
the London clearing house in one day, some of you, at all events, would be astoniahed. I go 
so far as to say that if you attempt to introduce into the question of checks the ounplica- 
tions which are suggested or laid down in this paper, you will nullify your efforts and you 
will make no pn^ress. ("Hear, heart" and apjAaute.) I say to you deliberately that if our 
system of checks in London were to be subjected to the conditions that are laid down in this 
Bumm&iy, the business of London would stop {"right"), and we could not make any prog- 
ress with our work. 

Therefore, I am son; to say that there are points, several points, to which my Chamber, 
the London Chamber, cannot under any circumstances agree. We must be understood u 
dissenting, and, if you will allow me, I will in the briefest manner refer to these points. 

The fiifit point on which I would say a word is point No. II in the document which has 
been circulated this morning. It says that the check should only be drawn on a banker. 
Now I will put a conundrum to you. What is a banker? We have endeavored to defne 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 215 

" banker" in England, and we have failed. We have suggested legislation on the subject, 
and it has been impossible, because we cannot define "banker," and if you cannot define 
"banker" in England, let me ask you how you are going to define "banker" on the Conti- 
nent, or how you are going to define "banker" in the United States, where so many gentle- 
men of honorable disposition cany on the business of so-called banking, — and it is banking 
of s sort, but it is not banking in any strict sense that could be laid down in an act of parlia- 
ment regulating this matter. 

The second point to which I wish to refer is in No. Ill, referring to optional particulars 
which mi^t be put in a check. I am afraid that that might mean that these particulars 
would be insisted upon, and the first statement I notice here is "Statranent of the funds 
stftnding to the credit of drawer." {Laughter.) Now, gentlemen, from my point of view that 
is absolutely impossible. ("Hear, hear!" and a voice, "We viovld like to know U!" followed by 
laughter.) I may not even know it myself, as I am going to explain to you in a moment. 
{hau^hler.) It was suggested by the last speaker that if he had an authority upon his banker 
to draw that might be a sufficient provision to fulfil the condition. 

Let me tell you in a sentence what my own practice is. I am a member of the London 
stock exchange. We have fortnightly settlonents — what you call on the Continent "Uqui- 
dations." On the day of the session we have all the transactions of the fortnight to carry 
throi^. What do we doT My cashier sends the documents that have been presented, have 
been examined and are in order, takes the certification of tiie clerk, and draws a check. He 
brings the checks all day, and, Mr. President, the last thing I think of is, how much money 
I have got in the bank. {Laughter.) I do not begin to think of that until three or half past 
three o'clock. Then they bring me a statement showing how much is wanted. If we are 
short, we go to the bank and borrow the money ; if we are over — which frequently happens, 
you know (loujAter), — we go home to dinner h^>py. {Laughier.) 

That is the universal practice in London, and not only is it the practice but it is a law 
of the stock exchange in London that a broker must issue a check, even if he does not think 
he is able to pay it, or may not be able to pay it. He must give a check, because the man 
presenting must have his document. If at the end of the day he fails, that cannot be helped, 
but it is hie duty to issue the check in order that the transaction may be cairied through. 

Therefore, I say, any statement of the funds standing to the credit of the drawer b im- 
possible. I couldn't tell how much I had, and wouldn't wish to know how much I had, to my 
credit at any particular moment. 

In regard to point No. VII, as to the time allowed for presentation, I will stale the 
situation on that matter with us, as a matter of practice. The time has been reduced in 
practice to three months, but I think it would be a wrong thing to lay down any fixed or 
hard and fast rule in regard to that. 

Point No. VIII; It is suggested there that the drawee require a receipt. "As to pay- 
ment, it will be necessary to stipulate that the drawee can require a receipt." That means a 
duplicating or doubling, if insisted on, of the number of documents to be handled, because 
each check has to be accompanied by a receipt. I do not quite see how it is to be woriced 
out. It comes under my heading of complications. You are going to double the number of 
documents and going to introduce congestion, when you ought to have simpUcity. 

Point No. IX: "The countermanding of a check should not be permitted until after the 
time allowed for presentation has elapsed." I see that by the German law that Is a matter 
of ten days. That again, gentlemen, is impracticable. The drawer of a check may find within 
five minutes after having issued it that he has been swindled. {"Hear, hear!") In practice 
with us I am at liberty to send over to my banker and stop payment on the instant I discover 
that I have been taken in. {"Hear, hear!") Here again you must not introduce complexity; 
you must introduce simplicity into your practice. 

I have a practical suggestion to conclude with, and the practical suggestion, sir, is this: 
tliat a small committee representing this Congress should be appointed to come over to Lon- 
don and spend a few weeks examining our clearing-house system and our manner of handling 



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216 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

checks. We will be ver^r polite with th&t conunittee; we win undertake to look after than 
while in London and gire them all the inf otmation in our power, and I am sure they will 
agree with me after they have had that infonnation th^t these complications are impoanble, 
and that if jou attempt to introduce the comphcationa to which I have rdenvd 700 will 
ettdtify your proceedinga and negative your action. (JppIouM.) 

M. le President: H est intSressant d'avoir lea ^changes de vuee. H est dvidcmt qoe 
M. Apt a une opinion; M. Chrietophe nous en a donn^ une autre; M. Begg vient de nous oi 
donoer une autre encore. Maintenant, measieiirB, pas de details. Je penee que tout le moode 
e«t d'acoord pour dire qu'il est desirable d'avoir I'tmification du cheque de tous lee pays; ^eei 
en Bomme la seule chose qu'on demande au Congr^ 

La parole eat & M. Max Richter. 
(Trandation) 

It ia interesting to have eichangea of views. It is evident that Mr. Apt has wr 

opinion; Mr. GhriBt<^he has given ua another; Mr. Begg has just given us still another. 

Now, geittlemen, no details. I think that everybody is agreed that it is desirable to 

have a unification of the check in all countriea; that is, after all, the only Hung that 

is asked of the Congresa. 

Mr. Max Ricbteb has the floor. 

Herr Hax Richter, Member of "Die AUetlen dtr Kavfmamtteha/t am Berlin" 

Nach den Eikl&rungen dea Herm PrfisideDten kfinnte ich eigentUch auf das Wort ver- 
liehten. Wir haben geaehen, dafi bei der Beratung der Elinzelheiten durchweg verachiedoke 
Meinudgen auftreten. Das haben wir achon geaehen bei der Nr. I, worin geaagt tst, dall 
davon abgesehen werden soil, eine Definition dea Schecks su geben. Dieaer Vorachlag stdit 
mm Beispiel dem deutachen Scheckrechte direkt entg^en, welchee mit dem belgischen Scheck- 
rechte Qbereinstimmt, und das belgiache Scheckrecht hat sweifelloa eine voraQgUche Erklfirung 
darflber, was ein Scheck darsteUen aoll. In gleicher Weise ist das deutache Recht bisher aus- 
gefOhrt gewesen. 

Meine Heiren, in England und bei den engliach-flprechenden Nationen, wie in Amerika, 
existiert keine Erkl&nmg darliber, was ein Scheck darsteUen soil. Dieses betreffoid, hat 
man naturgem&B, namentlich mit RUckaicht darauf, daQ man in England, London, einige 
Erfabrungen im Scheckvericehr hat — wie Berr B^g soeben sagU — darauf versichtot, eine 
Deklaration des Schecks «a geben. 

So geht die Sache welter, und wenn wir joden einielnen der Punkfe durchberat«n mOssen, 
■0 mdssen wir unseren KongreB verlangem, Deshalb trete ich der Anaieht unseres Hon 
PrAaidenten bei und meine, daQ wir una darauf beachranken, hier einfach zu erid&ren als ein- 
atimmige Meinung aller hier vertretenen Nationen, daQ veraucht wenlen soli, ein einheitlichea 
Scheckrecht tiir den Welthandel la achaffen. 
(Tranilation) 

After the explanations of the Preeident it may be scarcely necessary for me to take 
the floor. We have seen during the consideratk>n of details that many different opiniotis 
are represented. This was already noted in the diacuasion of item I which states that 
no attempt should be made to give a definition of the check. This propoaal is fcv in- 
stance directly opposed to the German check law, which agrees with the Belgian ched 
law, so that tlie Belgian check law doubtless ctmtams an express deolaiation as to what 
shall ctMistitute a check. The German law has been hitherto enforced in tlua manner. 

In England and among the English-q>eaking oationa, as the United States, that i» 
no r^ulatitm as to the form of the check. In regard to this, it waa natural enough, — 
in view of the experience in Ein^and, London, aa Mr. Begg haa just said, — that thej 
T^rained from giving a definition of the check. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 217 

And BO it goes, and if we must debate each individual point we should be obliged to 
prolong our Congresa. For this reason I agree with the view of our President and am 
of the opinion that we should limit ourselves to simply stating as the unanimous opinion 
of all nations represeutod here that an attempt should be made to create a. uniform check 
law for international b 



Dr. Soetbeer {Berlin): Ich mAchte nur ein MiGverstindnis aufklSren gegenQbet dem 
verehrten Herm aus London, das sich auf Numraer III bezieht, wo es heiSt: "The check 
might also contain optional particulars such as: Statement of the funds standing to the credit 
of drawer." Der Herr hat es so verstanden, dall dort die Summe des Guthabens stehen soUte. 
Das ist nicht die Meinung. Wenn das die Meinimg w&re, wOrde ich es ebenso komisch und 
Ificheilioh finden, wie die Herren aus England. Die Meinung des deutechen Vorschlags ist 
lediglich die, daQ es nicht nOtig, aber augelaaeen sei, in dem Scheok zu sagen: Zahlen Sie auf 
mein Quthaben. Das ist die ganse Bedeutung dieser Bache, nicht der Betrag des Guthabens. 
(XrantlaHon) 

1 wish to clear away a misunderstanding on the part of the gentleman from London 
in r^ard to item III, which reads: "The check might also contain optional particulars 
such as: Statement of the fund standing to the credit of drawer." The gentleman has 
understood that this was intended to mean the indication of the amount of the funds. 
This is not the meaning. Were this the intention I should myself consider it as comical 
and absurd as do the gentlemen from England. The intention of the Germsji proposal 
is simply that it is not essential, but is permissible to state on the check: Pay from my 
funds. This is the whole intention of this clause, and it does not refer to the amount of 
the balance. 

(Dr. Soefbeer continued in English as foUoica:) 

I ahall endeavor to say in English for the gentlemen who do not understand German, 
that the sense of No. Ill, which was questioned by the honorable gentleman from London, #as 
not that the "statement of funds standing to the credit of the drawer" should give the amount 
of the funds, but only that fiuds or money are to the credit of the man who draws the check. 

Hr. Begg: Am 1 entitled to explain, sir? What I mean is this — that there should be 
no stipulation that there should be funds; ^lat I should be entitled to draw at my own risk, 
whether 1 have funds or not. 

Dr. Soetbeer: Yes, sir, I should say it should be an optional particular. 

The President; Optional. 

Dr. Soetbeer: If a man is of youj opinion he may get oau^t. 

Hr. Begg: All ri^t. 

M. le Prfeldait: Ces questions sont done des questions de detail. Nous restons devant 

le piincipe de I'unifica'tion du cheque. 

Toutes lea c^Mervations qui ont Hi pr£sent^es sont int^ressantes les unee et les autree, et 

nous en airivona done & cette conclusion que nous devons nous prononcer sur le fait de savoir 

a'il est desirable de voir 6tablir I'unification de la loi sur le cheque. 
M. Aft a demand^ la parole pour quelques demiers mots. 

(XranOaHm) 

These questions are, after all, questions of detail. The question which we have before 

OS is the principle of the unification of the check. All the observations which have been 

presented are interesting, and we come now to the oonchision that we ou^t to pass 

upon the question whether it b desirable to establish the unification of the law of cheeks. 

Mr. Apt has asked the floor for a few elosiDg words. 



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218 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Dr. Mu Apt (Berlin) 

Ich mfichte noch einmat sum Ausdruck bringen, waa bereita in dem Bericht gescbehen ist, 
6a& die Leits&tze des Handetatitge Dmen nicbt vorgelegt norden sind, damit Sie me hier in 
den Eimelbeiten annehmen, sondem lediglicb als ein Ausdiuck derjenigen Ansicbten, die man 
in DeutachUnd Qber diese Frage bat. E^ ist ganz Belbstverstindlicb und war aucb Toraosge- 
Mhen worden, daQ man in anderen Landem eine verachiedene Auffaaaimg hat, und es wai 
aufierordeDtlich wertvoll, diese verachiedenen Auffaaeimgen bier lu hdren, imd icb bin ilbtf- 
MUgt, daC wenn die diplomatiBche Sta&ten-Konfereni demn&cbst oder im nficbsten Jabie 
nuammengerufen witd, um dieee Scheckfrage zu Ende zu fubren, daS dann die Bedenkes, 
die bier in Bezug auf die Einzelbeiten gefiuQert worden sind, ihre Beritcksicbtigung Gnden wei> 
den. Auch ist ea, wie dae bei dem Weltwecbsebecht geacheben iat, bei alien dieeen Fragra ao, 
daQ, um die Einbeitlicbkeit eines derartigen Geeetzea durcbiufflbren, bei den einielnen Punkloi 
Voibehalte fOr die einzehiea R^ienmgen gemacht werden, damit die E^inielre^erungen in 
der Lage aind, trotz der Vereinbeitlicbung dee ganzen Geeetzes ibie Recbtsauffaasung durdi- 
sufikbren. Infolgedessen bitte icb Sie, Qber dieaer Erdrterung der Einzelheiten den H&uptge- 
dchtspunkt nicht aus dem Auge zu laaaen, der dahin geht, daU dieae VereinbeitUohung der 
Sdiecktecbte nicbt nut wQnscbenawert, aondem bei gutem Willen durchfObrbar iat. Infolge- 
deaaen werde icb micb beachr&nken, ledigUcb unter Nr. I den S&ti lur Abetimmung biisgoi 
ni laseen, dafl die Vereinbeitlichung der Scbeckrechte nicht nur wUnacbenswert, sondeni audi 
durcbf<lbibar ist. Dagegen mOcbte ich Sie bitten, auBerdem nocb der Idee Ihre Sjmpatbie 
sum Auadruck zu bringen, daG ein Weltgerichtsbof geschaffen werden kann for die Ausle- 
gung der Fragen dee Weltscbeckrechts und Weltwechselrecbts in letzter Inatans. 

(Trarulatiojt) 

I wish to empbaaiBe once more tiiat which baa aheady been laid stfeee upon in Ibe 
report, — that ia to say, that tite fundamental propoaitiona of the "Haikdeliitag" have not 
. been submitted to you in order that you should accept them here in all their details, 
but merely as an expression of tboee views which are entertained in Germany conoem- 
ing this question. It is quite self-evident and baa been foreeeen, that in other eoua- 
tries a conviction of a different character would exist, and it was extremely valuable to 
hear those various oouvictiona; and I feel convinced that when the diplomatic confee 
ence of the States will be called together soon, perbapa in the coming year, in order to 
bring to a successful end the question of checks, that then the doubt which has been 
expressed here as regards these various details will be takui into proper consideratioo. 
Moreover, all tins has also been done in the case of the international law on bills of 
exchange. It is to be expected that, in canying to a suoceesful end a unifoim law, the 
various governments may make certain reservations as r^;ards single points in order that 
the individual governments may be in a position to carry out their idea as to interpreta- 
tion or judicial principle in spite of the unification of the entire law. In consequence 
thereof I would request you that when diacuaaing the details you do not lose s^t of 
the principal point, and that point ia that this unification of the check law ia not wily 
highly desirable but can be carried out provided there is a desire to do so. In conse- 
quence thereof I shall confine myself under No. I, solely to the resolution that the uni- 
fication of the check law is not only desirable but is also a thing that can be actually 
carried into effect. On the other hand, I would request that besides that you also 
express your sympathy with the idea that there can be created an international court 
for the interpt^^Ation of questions of the univeraal check law and the universal law of 
bills of exchange as the court of last resort. 

M. le Prfisideat: II y a done deux points sur leequels je dteire consulter I'aesemblte. 
Le premier point eat celui-ci, sur lequel tout le monde semble d'accord: I'unification de la kii 
sur le ch^ue est d&iirable. Je vous ccosulte. Ceux qui aont d'avia d'adopter eette motioo 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 219 

telle que prSsenUe, level la nuun. {Levie de mairt* ginirale.) L'£pieuve C(mtr&iie. (,Penonrte 

ne Use la main.) II n'y a paa d'opposition. 

(Translation) 

There are two pointo upon which I desire to consult the meeting. The first point is 
this, upon which every one seems to be agreed, that the unification of legislation relative 
to cheeks is dedrsble. I put the motion. Those in favor of adopting the motion as 
made, win please raise their hands. (Oeneral raiting of hatuU.) Contrat; minded? (No 
handa raited.) There is no opposition. 






Un Dilignfi: Seulement, je ne suis pss sOr que tout le monde ait compris 

(TrarulaHcn) 

A Dblxoatb: I am not quite sure that every one undeistood what you said. 

Hr. Otto Mflncterborg (Dangig, Germany): I am not quite sure, goitl^mai, if you 
hftve all understood what Mr. President said. ("No.") That is what I thought. The Presi- 
dent said that we shall be unanimous, very likely, upon the first motion which has been laid 
before you — that we are all unanimous on the resolution that it is desirable to have a unity 
of the law of checks for the whole world. I believe we are absolutely unanimous. That ia 
■U I wished to ezphun. 

Hr. R. H. Ciinj (Nataau, Bohamat): Mr. PKsident, do I understand that the remai^ 
made by the gentleman representing the London Chamber of Commerce go for nothing? 
How will he have the li^t to make an amendmrat after we agree to thist 

Hr. Begg; We do not agree. 

M. 1» PrCddeot: Nous n'avona pas i. entrer dans les details; c'est la question g^n&sle. 
Les Allemands ont une fa^on de comprendre les choses, les An^iau en out une autre, mais 
aiMlesEus de tout cela, je puis vous demander: £tes-vouB d'avis qu'il est desirable d'avoir 
t'unification d'une loi sur les chAquesT C'est la question de princlpe, n'est-ce pas? 
(TraniUAion) 

We have not got to enter into details; it is the general question. The Germajui 

have one way tA understanding things, the Englishmen have another, but above all that 

I could ask you, are you of the opinion that a law on the unification of checks is desir* 

able7 Hiat is the question of principle, is it not? 

Pln^enrs Volz; Oui, oui, oui. 

(Tran^oiion) 

Several Voices: Yes, yes, yea. 

U. B^g: Le principe gSn^ral, mais pas de details. 
(Tranaation) 

The general principle, but no details. 

H. le President: Sommes-nous d'accord? H n'y a pas de malentendu? 
(Trantiation) 

Are we agreed? Is there no misunderstanding? 



(TVansloMon) 

SavKRAL Voices : Yes, yes. 



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220 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

M. le Prtaldant: L'^preuve contnire. {Persorme ne line la main.) Adopts k I'unaiumiU. 
Maintenant, il y a im second point propose par M. Apt. 

(Tranelation) 

Those opposedT {No handi are raised.) Adopted unanimouBly. 
Now, there ia a second point offered by Mr. Apt. 

(Reading in Bnglitik) 

"A necessary complement to the creation of a univeisal law on bills of exchange and 
checks is the creation of a hi g>i court at The Hague which will decide as a court of last nmttl 
eontroveteiee regarding questions involving the universal law of bills of exchange and ctMcks." 

This is another proposition. 

Hr. HfinBterberg; Well, Gentlemen, the second propodtton has been read in Bn^iali, 
French and German. To prevent misunderstanding, I will read in English what has bea 
proposed in the report of Mr. Apt: 

"I have explained that the differences in the laws of the check are not so great that it 
will be impossible to realize the unification. And I hope that even if jrou are not oil in perfect 
acreement with me, at least I hope you will be in svmpathv with the unification of the law of the 
tmeck. But it is not sufficient that the lawa of tlie check and exchange are unified, it is still 
more necessary that a high court may be established for Ute interpretation of the queetkma 
concerning Ute unified laws of the check and exchange." 

That has reference to the present court, the tribunal at The Hague, and the Reporter, 
Mr. Apt, wishes that the Congress expieaa its consult that the same tdbimal, the court of 
arbitration, should be as well for checks as for letters of exchange, dnfta, liquidationB. That 
is what is proposed now. 

H. le Pr6sidMit: La proposition de M. Apt en second lieu, je vais la mettre en franfais: 
"II y aurait un tribunal qui seroit en quelque sorte une cour d'appel pour les procds relatifa 
& la fois aui lettres de change et aux cheques." Voilft I'idSe de M. Apt. Tout le monde a 
done bien compris. Que ceux qui sont d'avis d'adopter ce vceu — c'est un vceu — veuleot bies 
lever la main. {Leoie de maint det diUguit.) L'^preuve contraire. (Levte de mam* d» cer- 
tain* diliffui*.) 

{Tranalaiion) 

1 will put into French Mr. Apt's second proposition: "That there should be a trifati- 
nal which would be in a way a court of fq>peala for suits concerning at the same time 
bills of exchange and checks." That is Mr. Apt's idea. It is well understood by aU. 
Those who favor the wish, for it is a wish, please raise their hand, (Raising tf Kaitd* 
<^ Ihi deUgate*.) Those opposed please raise the hand. (Raiting iff hand* of tome dtb- 
gate*.) 

Ht. Hfinsterberg: Gentlemen, I believe there is again a misunderatandiDg. I do not 
tiiink we ought to vote for such a question simply by a majority. I see that our Kngliah taeoAa, 
for instance, unanimously are against this point, and to my mind it would be useless to adc^ 
such a resolution here if such a powerful body of men of business as those of England, tite whole 
British Empire, were against it. So I think it would better not to take a vote at all on tlte 
second point. ("Hear, hear!" and applaute.) We have expressed ourselvee, and we have 
talked about the matter, and now I think we ought to leave it alone and say we aie satisfied to 
have the first point arranged — that is, unanimously adopted, — and leave the second point 
for the future, and hope that what we have said ounelvee here between each other will totd 
to the general adoption of such a tribunal, the Court of Arbitration at The Hague, or what- 
ever it may be. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 221 

Dr. So«tbe«r (Berlin): Ich mOchte noch eimnal daa Wort ergreifen, um ni erid&ren, 
deJi aucb unter den deutschen Delegierten die Meinuugen Ober diesen Punkt auseinuulergehen, 
den Punkt, der bei une nicht studiert worden iat und darauf hinauslfiuft, daS wir einen Teil 
der Bechtsfrage, eine AbEweigung einee Teik der Rechtaeprechui^ an einen intemationalen 
Gerichtshof Btattfiaden IttBBen. Ich wtlrde es aueh fOr wUnschenswert balt«n, wenn dieser 
AntrsK lurQckgezogen wOrde, und man sich auf die Abatimmung bescbrankte, die wir 80- 
eben vorgenommen haben. 

(Tramlaium) 

I would like to make a further statement, which ia, that opinions differ also among 
the Gennan delegates on this point, which has not been studied by us, and the effect of 
which is to transfer to an international court a part of the l^al proceedings, or, as it 
were, a branch of the judicature. I would also consider it desirable that this motion 
should be withdrawn and that the Congress should confine itself to the vote which has 
just been taken. 

Hr. Thomas (Parig): I wish to submit that the vote had already been taken before the 
last speaker addressed the meeting. I also want to say that the American del^ates — at 
least the American delegates from Paris — identify themselves unreservedly with what 
Mr. Faithful! Begg has said, and with the voice of the British delegates. 

Dr. Apt iBerlin): FOr die deutschen Delegiert«n m6chte ich nur eins sagen: die Idee, 
daS, wenn ein Weltwechselrecht gemacht wird, dann auch ein Gerichtshof eingerichtet wird, 
der in letster Instans da ist, um Streitfragen Ober dieses Weltwechsel- und Weltscheckrecbt 
m entscheiden, dieser Gedanke iat von der deutschen Delegation aus der Uaager Weltwech- 
Belrecht--Konferem! angeregt worden, und die Haager Weltwecbselrecht-Konfereni hat ein- 
etimmig beschlossen, daQ dieae Frage von den einzelnen Repermigen geprUft werden soil. 
Was ich will, ist nichts welter als daB dieser KongreQ allgemein seine Sympathie fUr die Ein- 
tichtung eines derartigen Gerichtshofes ausspreche, fOr den Fall, daQ eine Vereinheitlichung 
dea Weltwechsel- und Scheckrechts gemacht wird, und ich glaube, der Handelsatand hat ja 
gar keinen Grund, gegen einen derartigen Gerichtshof einiutreten, der nur die Garantie bieten 
aoll fOr die richtige DurchfUhrung des Weltwechsel- und Scheckrechts. 

(Trantlation) 

On behalf of the Gennan delegates I would only say one thing on the point: that 
if a universal law on bills of exchange and a universal check law arc enacted, in tlua case 
also a court should be established which would be a court of last appeal to decide con- 
troveniee. In connection with this univQtsal law on bills of exchange and universal 
l&w on checks is a suggestion which has been made by the German del^^tion at the 
international conference on a universal law on hills of exchange, held at The Hague, and 
The Hague Conference has unanimously voted that this is a question which should be 
examined by the individual governments. What I wish ia notlting more Utan that this 
Congress should in general express its sentiment in favor of the institution of such a 
court o( appeal in case a uniform international law on checks and bills of exchange 
is instituted, and I believe that the merchants at large have no reason whatsoever to 
oppose such a court, which would merely furnish a guaranty for the proper carrying 
into effect of such a universal law covering bills of exchange and checks. 

H. le PrCddent: Je pense que dans oes conditiona-l&, nous pounons laisser la seconde 
partie de la question de cflt*, la consid^rer comma document et ne pas provoquor de i£solu< 
tion du Congrte & ce aujet. Done, nous nous bomons au premier point. Nous notons les 
explications de M. Apt, mais nous ne paeeons pas de resolution. H faut done cimaid^rer cette 
queeticKi comme terming. 



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222 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

(Tmnslofton) 

1 believe that imder such conditioDS we can I&7 amde the seoond put of the iaeue, 
coDsideriiig it as a document and not aeeking to call forth a leeolution from the Con- 
gress. Therefoi«, ve confine ounelves to the fint point, and take note of Mr. API's 
explanations, but we pass no resolutions. We consider this question cloeed. 

Mr. William R. Tucker (.PkOaddpkia): Mr. President, may I say one wordT 

Th« President; Ttie question is cloeed. 

Mr. Tncker: I would like to say one word, not to the question, if you will permit me. 

The President; One word. 

Mr. Tncker; We all acknowledge here that French is the diplomatic language. We 
also acknowledge, and must acknowledge, that German and English have become in a large 
eenee the language of commerce. Now, I want to suggest, if you will permit me to do so, 
that, in the statement of questions upMi which we are to vote, the question should be stated 
in the three languages, so that the people who do not understand all of them may be enabled 
to vote intelligently. (Applause.) Mr. Filene, if you will permit me to make the suggeetion 
— and I know you will not misunderBtand me — if you will state the question to ua in Englirit, 
and you, Mr. President, with your excellent French, of course, uid your magcificott German, 
there t^an be no misunderstanding. 

Mr. Alfred Aslett: May I say one wordT We had the same difBculty two years ago, 
when the International Railway Congress was held in Beme. There the translation was in 
two languages, French and German. The American representatives — and there wete a 
great many there — and the EngliA had a majority of the membere; and the Amerioana felt 
BO strongly on tlus question that they came into the hall and said; "Every one of us will 
leave, every oike of us, unless there is a translation in English. It is an abeolute scandaL 
Many of us do not undetstand French or Oennan. We do not know what we ate talking 
about. It is not businesa." And what was the resultT We had a translation in En^ish. It 
was abbreviated because of the time, but we had a translation in TTngliah We knew what 
we were talking about, we knew what we were doing, and we knew what we were voting 
upco). (."Hear, heart") 

M. le Prteident; Nous sommes absolument d'acoord et c'eet pr6cis£inent pour cela que 
die le d^ut du Congrte i'ai demands k M. Filene de se tenir k cAt6 de moi pour fairs lee tra- 
ductions; mais dans tous les cas, au sujet de la question qui vioit de se terminer, il n'y a pas 
de malentendu, nous awnmes d'accord but le [oemier point. 
(IVansIatMm) 

We are entirely agreed, and for this reason I have asked Mr. Filene at the opcsiing 

of the Congress to remain by my aide inordertodo the translating; but at any rate on 

the questitm which has just been cloeed, there is no misunderstanding; we are agreed 

on the first point. 

(The Praideni amtinved in Bnglith) 

We quite agreed upon the first point, and the second point has been withdrawn — 

Voices: Too late, too late. 

Dr. Albert C. Bonuchi Ufew York) : That has been voted upon. The Congress has 
refused to accept it. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 223 

Hr. Tbomag: I Bubmit that it waa too lat« to withdraw it after Toting. 

U. 1« Prfiddent: Oui, c'eat eiit«iidu. Nous eommes done d'accord. 
ITrarutatiim) 

Y«s, it ia understood. Bo we are agreed. 

An English Delegate: Mr. President, it waa not accepted by the Congresa, and it 
ehould go on the record aa not accepted. 

U. A. Barton Eent (LoTtdra) : Je demande ei c'eat 1& votre d^iaicm finale. Le vote n'eet 
pas entcgiatr6 but le procte-verfoal, la proposition est eeulement retirie. 
(rrenda/ion) 

I ask if that ia your final decisionf The vote ia not r^patered iu the minutes, 

but the proposition ia simply withdrawn. 

H. le Prtsldent: None avona vot£ but le premier point, eur lequel tout le monde a 6t6 
d'accoid. 
(Xran^aiicn) 

W« have voted on the first point, and everybody ia agreed. 

H. Kent; Et nous avona vot^ eur le second point. 
{Trantlation) 

And we have voted on the second point. 

U. I» Prfisident: Pardon, noua n'avons paa votS. 



Flveiean Vdz: Oui, oui. 
(XrantUUion) 

Sevzbal Voicks: Yes, yes. 

Hr. Mflnrte rb e i g: We are the second time trying to avoid a misunderstanding. The 
honorable gentlonan who has just spoken ia quite right. We tried to vote on the second 
point, and when we did so . . . 

Voices: We did vote. 

Hr. Uflnsterberg: Excuse me; when we did so we noticed that there had been a 



Vfdces: No, no. 

Hr. HftiBterbefg: I agree perfectly with you that perhaps the proceeding has not 
been abeolutely correct. Now I believe we might overlook such mere formalities if the spirit 
of the matter has been agreed upon, and I believe that after all these explanations we have 
fotmd the way out — how the Confess can give a vote, one vot« upon which we are unani- 
moua. The second vote was carried and we saw there had been rnxae misunderstanding, and 
the President, after the vote had been taken, withdrew the whole thing, so that we are not 
divided upon this question. So perhaps, since the gentlemen, on informal points, are justi- 



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224 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

fied in making a certain complaint, I think we had better let the whole matt«r drop. We 
have now the dog and the tail, I believe, and I believe we can be perfectljr utiafied that we 
have done so much as we have been able to do. 

Hr. A. Buton E«nt: Mr. President, I am veiy much obliged for that explanation, 
but I would like to disassociate myself from any miBunderstaiiding on the point. I pofectlj 
understood the question as it was put, and it waa my impreasKm tiiat most of the delegates 
also understood it. Unfortunately, it did not meet with Ute approval of the Reporter and it 
was voted against. But if you as President of this Congreae rule that that vote advene ta 
the Reporter shall not be taken, bui that ttie proposition ahall be nittidrawn, I am sure all oor 
colleagues here will bow to your ruling. 

H. le Preddent: Je d^ireroie que nous soyona bien d'accord. Le premier point est 
acquis. Four le eecond point, on a commence le vote, il est exact, maia le vote n'a pas M 
■ acquis. Quand nous avons vu qu'il y avait de I'oppoeition, j'ai moi-^aSme demands que I'oa 
retire la secosde partie, afin que nous soyona toua d'accord et que nous n'ayona paa k votet 
les uns contre lea autres. 
(Tran«Ia<Mrn) 

I would desire that we should property agree. The first point is decided. As for 

the second, a vote was started, it is true, but the vote was not comj^ted. When we 

saw there was opposition, I peiaonally asked the withdrawal of the second part in oider 

to all agree and not vote againat caie another. 

Un D61ignfi: Nous eommea ici des d£l^u£s de diven pays pour prooUer il un Miasge 
de Tues; il y aura certainement des questions sur lesquelles nous ne serons paa d'accord; eela 
e'est produit, et cela ae produira encore. Dana ces conditions, je demande de ne pas pn>- 
c^er k un vote et admettre que le Congria n'eat pas d'accord sur un point. Nous aommea 
d'accord sur la question de principe. 
(TVondotion) 

A Dni^EaATE: We are here as delegates of various countries to proceed to an ex- 
change of views. There will certainly be issues on which we will not agree; this has taken 
place, and will again take place. Under aucb conditions I ask that we do not proceed 
to a vote which may make it seem that Congress is not agreed on a point. We are 
together on the queation of principle. 

U. le Prisldent: C'est la question. II faut done consid^rer que ce point est vidd. 

That ia the queation. We must oonsider this point withdrawn. 
PlnsletirB Voix: Non, nos, non. 
(Tran^aiion) 

Setesal Voicbs: No, no, no. 

H. le PrtiMdent: Pardonl 



A Hember: I want to know whether the negative vote which was taken on the aeeond 
point goes on record. 

Th« PrMideot: The vote was not taken on the second point. We did not vote any- 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 225 

A Uamber: The vote was token, peimit me to uy, in the n^ative. 

Tlie Preaident: The result of the vot« vaa not announced. 

Ht. Filene: Gentlemen, eveiy one knows that until the result of the vote is announced 
by the Chair that vote does not count. Now, gentlemen, the President and all of your officers 
want only what you want. If you will make clear what you want, what this body wants, 
we are here to do your bidding. The President, you must understand, does not always catch 
every word. He speaks all languages, but Bometimee in the heat of a debate like this he too 
misunderstands, as some of the i^est of ub do, but if you will make clear what you desire as a 
body, his only wish is to do as you want liim to do. 

Mr. Frank D. La Lanne (.PkHaddphia): Mr. President, Mr. fUene has sud that our 
desires will be listoned to by the Chair, and I know the desire of the Chair is always to be fair, 
— but in this audience there are many men who do not understand French, and I am one d 
them, and I can't follow the decision of the Chair; and therefore, so that we cao understand 
the decision ot the Chair — which ie always fair — I would move that it be also put in Eng- 
lish and in German, in those throe languages, so that every one of us here may understand 
the rulings of the Chair. Now if that question is put I believe it will be carried, Mr. Presi- 
dent, and I therefore make that motion. 

Mr. Alfred Aslett: I take pleasure in seconding that motion. 

U. le PiSsident; Je consid^re la question comme excessivement simple. On a vot^ 
sur le premier point, j'ai annonc^ le vote; sur le second point, il a'y a pas eu de vote acquis. 
On a retir6 la question sur le second point. Enfin, k I'heure sctuelle, le Congrte s'eet simple- 
ment prononc^ sur ceci: U est desirable d'avoir I'unification de la loi sur lea ch^uee, et c'est 
tout. Rien autre cboee. Fas d'autre vote, pas d'autre r^Jution. Sommes-nous d'accotd? 
(Tratt^alim) 

I think the question exceedii^y simple. The first point has been voted upon, and 
I have announced it; on the second point, no vote has been taken. The question on 
the second point has been withdrawn. Up to the present the Congress has expressed 
its mind on the following: That it is desirable to have unification on the law of checks, 
and that is all. Nothing else. No other vote, no other resolution. Are we agreed? 

Vs. Kent: I think we must bow to the ruling of our President. He has explained that 
the vote was taken on the first point, but when we thoi^t that the vote was taken on the 
second point and kist that was not so, because be bad not announced the result. He has 
therefore permitted (be second point to be withdrawn without voting. 

The President; Quite so. 

Hr. Kent: That, I understand, is the ruling of the Chair, and to that ruling we must all 
bow. 

Ur. Pruei (London); I suggest, with the approval of Dr. Apt, that you should ap- 
point a committee to consider this point further, a committee which should meet in London 
and be charged with drawing up a report to be presented to the next meeting of this Con- 
gress. That will be a step forward and will be dealing with a point of business in a busincsa- 
like way. No one wants the point shelved. We want to go forward. If you will appoint a 
ccmiruttee my friend Dr. Apt will serve and you will ^tpoint your own representatives also 
to serve, and at your itest Congress you will r^pster your decision. I have the very great 
pleasure to move the appointment of such a committee and ask my friend Dr. Apt to secfmd 
the resolution. 



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226 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

Tb« PreBidont: What are you wiUiog to do7 I aak of the convention wh&t it ia wiDiDg 
to do. 

Dr. Apt (Berlin) : Meine Herrenl Eb wild beautragt, die Frage m5ge in einein Komitee 
geprOft werden, das in London zusanunentreten soil, und daB der Gegeastand fOr heute vm 
der Tagesordnung al^esetit wird. Damit bin ich einverstanden. 
{TTOnalatUm) 

Gentlemen, it has been proposed that the question should be considered by a com- 
mittee which ehould meet in London and that the subject for the present time should 
be withdrawn from the order of the d^. This is i^peeable to me. 

Mr. Hfinsterbeig: I am just going to explain what Mr. Apt haa said. He ia peifectJ; 
willing to second the suKeetioD that the Congress today ^point a committee which shall 
consider the question of checks in London and shall report to the next Congress. 

Mr. Fraseo' (Lotvlon) : And then peritaps you will kindly send in to Mr. Jottrand, eadi 
section of you, the name of the gentleman you will nominate. I propose that each country 
should nominate one lepresentative — or say two — tentatively, so that if one can't attend 
the other will be present, though only one will vote for each country. That will etmstitale a 
good workii^ committee and will enable you to report to your next Congrea. When that is 
finished you will kindly send your names in to Monsieur Jottrand. 

H. A. Barton Kent [Londrtt): Nous avona dea difficult^ dans un congrte comme celui-ci, 
oft tout le monde ne comprend pas toutes lea Ungues. 11 a itk propose par quelques orat«ura 
qu'& I'avenir, il serait plus simple d'avoir les propositions r€p£t£es au Congrte dans lee tiois 
Ungues: angtaise, fran^aise et aUemande; et si vous le permettei, j'aimerais i. faire cette pro- 
position, et que ce soit \o\A de suite, comme recommandation au prochain congrte. 
(Traruio/ion) 

We have difficulties in a Congress made up as is the present where every one does 
not understand all the languages. It has been suggested by some speakers that in future 
it would be more simple to have the propositions repeated to the Congrew in the three 
languages, Et^lish, French and German; and if you will permit I should like to propose 
to have it voted on here, as a recommendation to the next Congceee. 

H. 1« resident: Je suia absolument d'accord, et je comptais faire moi^n&ne la motion. 
(7>an«Iatum) 

I agree entirely and I bad intended to make the motion myself. 

H. Kent; Je vous demande pardon, monsieur le Prteident. Je me retire. 
(TransioMon) 

I beg your pardon, Mr. President, and I will withdraw. 

H. le Prfisident: Je comptais faire moi-mSme la motion que touto propositioa soit 
faite en frangais, en anglais et en allemand. 
{Trantialioa) 

I had intended myself to put the motion that all propositions shall be made in 

FrKich, in English and in German. 

{Cortiinuina in EngliA). 

The ruling of the Chair b that the motions will be made in French, German and Fngi"*- 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 227 

Hi. Alfred 0«orB (OeMva) : We have del^ates here from tventy countries, who speak 
Spanish. 



Tlie Premdent: It ia mif^eeted (Jutt motions be m&de in other languages than French, 
Geiman and E^nglish? 

Sir. Alfred Oeoif : Mr. Preddent, it has been suggested that Spanish be added, also. 
There are here repreaentativee of twenty South American countries, who speak Spanish. 

(COTifinuinf *" French) 

Monsieur le President et messieuis, la convention ou la commission dont ont pax\6 les pr£- 
oMents orateUTB aurait beaucoup i. appre&dre en se rendant t Londres pour voir ce qui se 
passe li-bas en mati^ de ch^ue; tnais, messieurs, j'ai quelque scrupule k accepter la pro- 
position qui a 6t6 fait« de designer une d6l£gation sp^iale k cet effet. Nous risquons de 
m&rcher ainsi sur les bris^es du congrte spfeialistc qui est charge de e'occuper de cette ques- 
tion. Je crains en outre que la plupart des pays ici repr^sent^ auront queJque peine k nom- 
mer des d&igaia spdciaux pour aller ^tudier sur place, k Londrea, le fonctionnement du ch^ue. 
Je crois que nous devons abandonner cette question it I'examen de la conference sp^ciale 
qui doit Be r&mir k La Bays, et s'il est utile d'envoyer une d^l^ation k Londres pour y ^tu- 
dier le fonctiounement du cheque, elle le fera; mais je crois que ce n'est pas k nous qu'il op- 
partient aujourd'hui de prendre cette position. 
iTramlation) 

Mr. President and Gentlemen, the convention or committee which the preceding 
speakers have mentioned would have a great deal to learn by going to London to see 
what is being done on the subject of the check. But, gentlemen, I see some objections to 
accepting the proposal which has been made to appoint a special delegation for this pur- 
pose. We should run a risk of thus following in the footsteps of the Congress of special- 
ists which is to occupy itself with this question. I fear also that most of the countries 
here represented would find some difficulty in selecting special delegates to study on the 
ground, in London, the operation of the check. 

I believe that we should leave this question to the investigations of the special con- 
ference which is to meet in The Hague, and if it is desirable to send a delegation to Lon- 
don t« study there the operation of the check it will do so, but I do not think that the 
present time is the time for us to take this position. 

H. le Prfiddent: Le point a ^t^ vid^. Cette question de comity, U faudrait I'expliquer 
en allemimd et en anglais. 
{Tranilotion) 

The matter has been decided. This question of the committee should be explained 

in German and in English. 

Hr. Georg: The Congress believes that it has now been decided that we are going to 
nominate the commisHion. I think it ia not in our program for the Congress to nominate the 
commission at this time, but I think the special conference that is going to deal with this 
matt«r will nominate a special commission to see what is going on in London about checking, 
for instance, and looking into other matters that we do not have before this commission. I 
do not think the different countries here represented would agree to the proposition that 
has been made, and 1 propose to our President that he consider the proposition made as not 
accepted. 



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228 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

H«n Mfinsterbetg: Ich mdchte similohBt fOr meine deutschen Fieunde einmAl aagen, 
was HeiT Dr. Georg gemeint hat, damit keiii MiCverst&ndniB unterl&uf t. 

£r Mlt es nicht fta richtig, daC in diesem Augenblick der KongreQ ein Kami(«e einaetst, 
welches die Frage studkren 6oU, weil — wenn ich ihn richtig veratanden habe — derEongrefi 
im Haag sich bereits damit beech&ftigte durch eine Reihe von Special-Sachveretindigrai. Et 
meint daher, es erObrige sich, jetit darQber bier lu beschlieBen. 

Ich peraonlich bin der Ansicht, daQ wir durch die Diakuauoa nicht weiteritommoi, und 
dad der KongreC jetit darOber beschlieOen muG, ob er ein Eomitee einsetsen will oder uidit. 
Mag dann nachher daraiu werden, was da wHl. 
iTrantUUion) 

Mr. Pieudent, I should like to say for the benefit of my Gennan friends what Dr. 

G«o^ intended in order that there may be no tniaundentandiDg. 

He does not consider it right tiiat the Congress should create a committee at this 

time to study the question, since — if I have understood him correctly — the Congreee at 

The Hague has already investigated the subject by means of a body of experte. He 

believes, therefore, that it would be supeifluous to make any decision at this time. 
I am personally of the opinion that we cannot make any prepress by means td 

debate and that the Congress should now decide whether it wilt appoint a committee ix 

not. This without regard to any possible results. 

(ConJtnutRf in Englieh) 

Mr. President, I beg leave to say one word for myself. Mr. Georg has pven it as his 
opinion that the Congress would do better not to appoint a committee, because the con- 
ference at The Hague is made up of special delegates of all countries to study this ques- 
tion, Mr. Geoig thinks the subject wiU be handled periiapa far better in that way than 
it could be handled or studied by us here, now. Ezpresmng my personal opinion, I feel, 
just as some of the American del^ates have said, that it is not of very much use for us 
now to speak about such questions here, yes or no. The Congress is, of course, sovereign. 
Tlie Congress may appoint a commission, and if the Congress votes to have a commission 
the Permanent Committee must tiy to find the people who can constitute it — unless the 
CongresB itself will nominate certain gentlemen to constitute this committee. Of course, the 
President can take the vote of the Congress on the matter. 

Ur. R. S. Fraser (London): Mr. President, may I suggest that there should be some 
finality about our resolutions. You put the motion, the body voted on it, and it is finished. 
iApplame.) I certainly do not underatand public proceedings if, after a resolution is passed, 
some good, well^neaning man can rise to express himself and ask that it be set aside. I move, 
Mr. President, that we proceed to the next business. (Apptauae.) 

Hr. Gaorg: Mr. President, in order that I may be imderstood, I will say that I am quite 
sure that the special commission would learn very much in London about the check matter, 
but I would say here that we cannot nominate at this time the right peraons to make the 
study, and I think the special commissiDn ought to be elected by the conference at The Hague. 
(PoieM, "Next butineatl") 

H. le PrSsIdent: Mesdeurs, je dois rappeler quels sont les r^ements du Comity. 
(TranslaHon) 

Gentlemoi, I ought to remind you of the rules of the Committee. 

Hr. Frasra: We voted to appoint tiiat special oommittee and, that special committee 
having been appointed, the matter cannot be very well settled until the next Congress. In 
the meantime, that committee will assemble in London. The thing is closed. Of couise. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 229 

each countiy might nomuuite ila repreoentative or two repreeentatives on the committee at 
London, to meet in London. Tbey will meet in Loi»lon and report to the next Congress. 

Let ue now proceed to the next buBineae. 

H. 1« PriBident: Je consulte doac I'assembl^ pour savoir quels sont ceux qui sont 
d'avis de voir nommer le comit^; qu'ile veuillent bien lever la main. {Levie de maint dea 
dtUffui*.) Que ceux qui sont d'avis contraire Invent la main. 
(.TranOaHtm) 

I consult the assembly to find out those who are of opinion that a cconmittee should 

be named. Let them raise their hands. {Baiting o} hand* by the d^tgatei.) Those 

who are oppoaed please raise their hands. 

U. le PiiBident; Le vote pour le comit^ est adopts. Je vais doao vous demander 
de voter ausai aur ce point dont j'ai pari* tout 4 I'heure en prenant la motion faite par un 
honorable membre. 
(TTanBlatim) 

The vote for the committee is adopted. I will Uierefore ask you to vote also on tlte 
point I mentioned a little while ago on the disposition of a motion made by an honor- 
able member. 

Hr. Manuel Walls y Merino (.Spotn): Mr. President, if the French, German and 
English are to be used, I believe the Spanish also should be used. There is a strong feeling 
here that tiiat should be done. The demand comes from twenty-one countries, it being the 
second language spdcen in the world, after the English. So I think that should be takva into 
consideration, as well as the German. 

Mr. Albert C. Bonaschl: Mr. President, I would like to see only the three languages — 
English, French and German — used in this connection. If there is any other to be added, I 
would move that the Italian be added. It is spoken by neaiiy forty millions in Italy, as*well 
as by a large number in other parts of the world. 

H. le ftfisident: fites-vous satisfaits, alora, si I'tm propose la motion que les motions 
soient faites en frangais, en allemand, en an^ais, en e^agnol et en italien? 

Ceux qui sont d'avis de faire les motions dans les cinq languee que je viens d'indiquer, 
qu'ils Invent la main. 
(Tran«Iah'on} 

Are you satisfied then, if the motion is proposed that all motions should be made in 
French, in German, in Rngliah ^ in Spanish and in Italian? 

Those who favor making motions in the five languages just mentioned, please raise 
the hand. 

(Continuing in Englith) 

Those in favor of having every vote and resolution announced in 1'^gli''t', French, 
German, Spanish and Italian, will raise their hands. (A mtmber raited their hands.) 
Those who are opposed will raise their hands. (A lai^er number raited Iheir hand*.) 
The motion was declared lost. 

H. le President: La question est incertaine; je ne pourraia pas me d^ider. Je pense 
qu'il faut savoir nous bomer. II est Evident que la plupart d'entre nous ici comprenons au 
moins I'une des trois Ungues que je viens de citer: le frangais, I'anglais et I'allemand. Ce sont 
lea trois langues dans leequelles les motions seront faites. Ceux qui sont de cet avis, qu'ils 
veuillent bien lever la main. (.Leoie de main* dee diUfuia.) L'6preuve contraire. (Levie de 
moww de guelquet dUtguia.) La motion eat adoptee. (Applaudieiemenle.) 



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230 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

{Trantlaium) 

The matter is left in doubt; I caimot decide myself. I think we ought to keep 
ouiselves within bounds. It is evident that most of ua here understand at least one <rf 
the iime languages which I have just mentioned: French, "t'^El'''>' and Gennan. Tbeee 
are the three languages in which tike motions will be made. Those who are <d this 
opinion will kindly raise the hand. (A number of d^egatet railed their hands.) Contniy 
mindedT (A tmaUer number of delegatea raised their hands.) The motion Ja adopted. 
(AppUnue.) 

A recess was taken at 12.6fi rji. to 2.30 p JL 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 



:f ourttt Sftsltiim 

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS, AMD THE IMMEDIATE mSTITIT- 
TION OF AN INTERNATIONAL OFHCE 

The mBmben of the Congieaa reassembled at 3 p.u. 
FTeddent Canon-LoKrand 

Meaaieura, la stance eat reprise. 

Le qu&tti^e objet k I'ordre du jour ayant £M, k la demande dea int^reas^, remis k la 
stance de demain, nous abotderons le ciuqui&ne objet: "Statistique commerciale et insti- 
tution inun^iate d'un office international." 

Le rapporteur, M. EnafcMB All^bd, a la parole, et je prierais lea rapporteurs, comme 
toUB lee orateurs, d'dtre ansai brefs que poeeible. 
(rroiulofum) 

Gentlemen, the sitting is resumed. 

The fourth matter in the order of the day having been, at the request of ptutlea 

interested, poatponed until to-morrow's session, we will take up the fifth matter; 

"CommerciBl Statistica, and the Immediate Institution of an International OfiSce." 
The Reporter, Mr. Euafeira Ajjlabd, has the floor, and I ask the Reporten, as all 

the other speoken, to be aa brief as possible. 

H. AOard: Meesieurs, je vais i^pondre k la demande de notre cher prudent en £taiit 
le plus bref possible. Du reste, je ne Toudrais pas troubler votre digestion en vous infligeaut 
la lecture de toute la paperaeeerie, ^>rto tous les rapports que voua aves eus. 

{Tratidation) 

Gentlemen, I shall respond to the request of our dear President by being as brief 
as poeaible. Moreover, I would not trouble your digestion by inflicting upon you tha 
reading of this pile of papets after all the reports you have hod. 

H. le ftfisident: On ne lit pas les rapports, on les resume. 
{TrmOaHtM) 

The reports are not read, they should be aummariied. 

U. Bngtae Allard, President of the Belgian Chamber of Commerce of Paria 

Le rteum^ en sera trie simple. La question qui est k I'ordre du jour, la statistique 
cODUoerciale, a cette bonne fortune, qu'elle est la seule depuia I'inatitution de noa congrte 
intemationaux, qui obtient une solution pratique par le fait d'une entente gouvemementale 
pour I'Stablisaemeiit d'une atatiatique douani^re intemationole. Vous n'ignores pas que 
la conference r£unie k Bruxelles a'eat miae d'accotd sur un groupe suppl^mentaire statis- 
tique de chaque pays, dans lequel seront relev^s un nombre determine de produite. Ce groupe- 
ment forme aujourd'hui deux cent huit catteries. Vous voyes le beau riaultat que nous 
avons obtenu. Lors de notre congris de Milan, nous avions deux cent aoixante et quinze 
categories, et k Bruxelles, nous avona obtenu deux cent huit. En consequence, il y a ce fait. 



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232 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

c'eet que la ocmf^retice a accept^ uite clsaaification unifonne. Ce qui est r^retUble c'wt 
que cette m^ine conference, aprte avoir d^lar£ qu'il fallait ^tablir ce groupement dana la 
fltatistique prochaine, qui £tait la Btatistique de 1910, n'a absolumeol rien fait. Tout eat leeti 
en 6tat, parce qu'i la conference il o'eet produit une proposition nouvelle, qui ^tait I'organi- 
aation d'un bureau permanent pour r^tablissement de Btatistiquee douani^ieB. H paralt que 
la conference va se r^unir, une nouvelle B^ance va avoir lieu sous peu, et que r<»i en arriven 
h une solution pratique. Je croU que nous devrions fonnuler un veeu demandant au gouveroe- 
ment qui a pria I'initiative de la reunion de cette conference de Utter ses travsui, afin que k 
commerce international pui^se enfin avoir la Batisfaction qu'il reclame; et ce vteu, je la for- 
mule dana mon rapport, en des tennee qui pouiraient parattre plus ou moina comminat^uies, 
et que je voua proposerais de changer dans le sens suivant: 

"Le Congrte, reconnaissant de I'initiative prise par le gouvemement Beige d'avcxr i4uni 
t Bruxelles le 19 septembre 1910, les deiegu^s dc vingtKleux Etats pour chercher les nwyeoi 
d'introduire plus d^iarmonie et plus d'unite dana les tableaux dee echanges du commerce 
mondial, se ralliant it la decision prise it cette conference de faire etablir par chacun de cea 
Ctats en dehors de sa statistique commerciale, une nomenclature commune oA doivent se 
grouper des marchandisee importeee et exportece, sous la double indication du poids et de It 
valeur, expiime le vceu que cette nomenclature figure dans le plus bref ddlai poeeible dans lea 
tableaux statistimieadesgouvemements representee & la conference; approuve la proposition i 
la conference de Bnixellee de voir crier un bureau international de la statistique commerciale, 
charge de centraliser toutes lee indications utilee, pour donner au oonimerce mondial un apei^ 
annuel, et autant que poeaible semestriel, et par la suite mensuel, du mouvement commercial da 
different^ pays du globe, redigfi oonformement au groupement des marchandisea adopte par 
la conference susdite;emetleTCEU que le gouvemementbelgemvitAsana retard tous lea Etats 
k conclure une convention assurant la mise en ceuvre des travaux projetee." 

Voili, messieurs, les vceux que je vous propose de vouloir bien adopter. 

(7Van«Ia(wm) 

The summary will be very simple. The question which is on the order of the Aaj, 
Commercial Statistics, has this good fortune, Uiat it is the only one, since the organi- 
sation of our International Congresses, which obtains a practical solution throu^ a 
governmental agreement for the eatabliahment of international customs statistici. 
You are aware that the Bruasela Conference has agreed on a supplementaiy etatisticsl 
group of each country, wherein a fixed number of products will be noted. This group- 
ing to-day contains 208 categories. You see the beautiful result we have obtained. 
During our Milan Congress we had 275 categories, and in Brussels, 208. As a result, 
the fact appears that the conference has accepted or adopted a uniform classification. 
What is regrettable is, that this same conference, after having declared that a group- 
ing should be established in the next statistics, those of 1910, has done absolutely noth- 
ing. All has remained in the same state because at the conference a new propomtion 
was produced, that of oi^anizing a permanent bureau for the establishment of custooi- 
house statistics. It seems that the conference will meet, that a new session will soon 
take place, and a practical solution will be reached. I believe that we should fonnn- 
late our wish in a request to the government which has taken the initiative of a 
conference meeting, to hasten its wortc, so that international commerce may have 
the desired satisfaction; and this wish appears in my report in terms iridch mi^t tft- 
pear more or less tbrealening, and which I would propose to change as follows : 

"The Congress, recognizing the initiative taken by the Belgian GoTemmentin bring- 
ing together at BrusBels on September 19, 1910 delegates of twenty-two States to se^ 
for the means of introducing more harmony and unity in the tables of exchanges of the 
commerce of the whole world, approving the decision taken at that conference to have 
established for each one of these States, in addition to its own commercial statistics, a 
common nomenclature, under which may be grouped all merchandise imported or ex- 
ported under the heading of both weight and value, expresses the wish that this common 
nomenclature may appear with the bnefest possible delay in the statistical tables of the 
governments represented at the conference, and hopes that the Belgian GovktudcdI 
may be willing to continue its co-operation for the realisation of this program, Uptons 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 233 

the pTopoeition tnade at the BniBseU Conferenoe for the creation oC an intematioiial 
bureau of commercial atatistics for the purpose of centralising information under all uB^ul 
headings to give to the commerce of the whole world an annual Bummaiy, and ae soon as 
possible a semi-annual summary and eventually a monthly atmunary oi the commercial 
movementa of the different countries of the ^lobe, arranged in conformity with the 
nouping of merchandise adopted by the aforesaid conference, adopts the resolution that 
Ute Belaan Government invite without delay all the States to conclude a convention as- 
suring the execution of the projected work. 

These are the suggestions I wish you to adopt. 

H. te President: Ces motions, sur lesquelles nous aurons k voter, soat traduitea en 

an^&is et en allemand; je voua en domierai done lecture tout & I'heure dans lea trois langues. 

Pour ne pas perdre de temps, je donne la parole h M. W. M. Hatb, aBaiatant>Becr6taire de 

ragricutture & Washington. 

(TrantlaHon) 

These motions on which ne shall have to vote are translated into English and Ger- 
man and I will read them to you later in the three languages. Not to lose time I give 
the floor to Mr. W. M. Hatb, AaaiBtaiit Secretary of AgricultuK at Washington. 



Mr. W. H. Hays, Auutatd Seerelary of Agriculture, TFotUn^ton, D. C. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

I am at some disadvantage in discuaaii^ this question at the present point, but I do 
wish to discuss for a few momenta a broader aide of this subject of international atatistics, 
somewhat from the standpoint of all our markets. I sincerely hope that you will cany this 
motion in some such form. I don't know the exact form of your motions. This matter of 
international statiatica, world-area statistics, not only of agricultural products but of manu- 
factured products and all products in store, needs to be followed out in its complete form, as- 
is demonstrated not only by the woii: done by the statistical bureau of this country and by 
the bureaus of other countries, but by the bureau of statistics of the International Institute 
of Agriculture at Rome, which deals with those international statistics that have gradually, 
as our good friend from Belgium suggests, come under a common nomenclature for the entire 

Those statistics are becoming useful slid we need such statistics in our madcets. They 
should not be prepared ao much by bureaus of the markets themselves or by private firms in 
connection with those maAets, but by public bureaus. They will be useful not only in the 
locality where products are originally dealt witii, but in the places where they are to be dis- 
tributed. These statistics will greatly help the producers, the farmers, particularly those 
producing perisfa^le products, as well as being of assistance to the market agencies. They 
wiU help in the carrying of the right amoimt of products to the maricets all the time, as well 
as keeping more steady suppUes of products. This will have an important bearing on the 
handling of the product, will steady and balance things up and will be much better for peo- 
ple all along the line. 

The trade statistics are driftii^ gradually from private agencies to public agmcies. 
Some one might say at once that the statistics of perishable products are so difficult to deal 
with they cannot be handled by a public agency; but let me call to your attention the inade- 
quate and bad handling of the statistics by private agencies. If the thing could be guaranteed 
in some public agencies so that accurate figures could be obtained in the way of original sta- 
tistics at the point where the products are produced and figures showing how the supply 
fluctuates from day to day, also obtaining statistics of the consuming market, where the con- 
suming power also fiuctuatea from day to day, if all these statistics, dealing with the pro- 
ducer, the merchant, the transporting agencies and the consumer, could be handled in one 
way, it would be a great advantage to the country. 



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234 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

So I say that we need to bring more and more of these etatiatica into public agendca, 
leaving to the mai^ets their proper function, which is that of melting that whieh ia gathered 
together daily in the daily price. In agriculture, and in many other linee, we want not only 
the statbtics of production but tlie statiaticfi of stocks in transit, of stocks in store, of manu- 
factuied products which ent«r into competition with the products produced in funushing a 
basis for the price; and we even need statistics, possibly public^ gathered, as to ibe ability 
of the boDSuming public that consumee a given product, so as to reduce the market agencita 
more nearly to their one function — melting these down into daily prices. 

The producers of cotton in this and other countries have Dome to give up their facts as 
to production. The manufacturers will see that it is fair that they give up the prices concem- 
ing their stocks in hand, and the consuming public certainly will be glad to have told the 
facta as to their purchasing power and to be told, if need be, under public bureaus. 

I believe most sincerely that if we can extend to these public agencies all along the lime 
— not in connection with the splendid plans with reference to tariffs and these large move- 
ments, but generally so as to handle facts regarding the movements of our products, the 
quantities at one end and the requirements of the consumer at the other end — it will hdp 
to smooth out the inequalities, the difficulties, wrongs, irritations of our whole trade situa- 
tion; and with this data in hand it may be that world commissions, some worid agencies, 
may be able to woHc out a bett«r scheme of marketing with a lessened amount of this irritat- 
ing speculation on margins that we now have. Whatever is done in this way must be dtrne 
in a careful and most constructive way, not in an arbitrary or weak way, but in a most nsn- 
prehensive way; and I do not know ef any agency able to handle the question with the breadth 
and intricacy needed, short of some sort of world commission. The Intematicmal Institate 
of Agriculture at Borne, possibly co-operating with some such ccHnmission as you contemplate, 
may give a great deal of help in this matter. Many things wrought out by Mr. Lubin and his 
associates will be of great use in elaborating the plans that you and I have in mind. 

So far as agricultural statistics for world areas are concerned, the agencies are well es- 
tablished in connection with this institution at Rome, and institutions in the various coun- 
tries, under the guidance and inspiration of the Bureau of Agriculture at Rome, mi^t be 
able to do very much. The various agencies in the different countries, as Lubin tells me, 
are gradually increasing and perfecting their industries and have woriied out these statistics 
of production in the various countries. Then, as you suggest, Mr. Allard, they divide them 
into two. They use the local statistics as they need them and give to the statistical agemdes 
the figures needed for world business and the hMiHling of world products. 

The most significant fact in this entire matter does not specifically concern ntaikets, 
nor tariffs, nor nomenclature, nor methods of gathering and distributing statistics, mw of 
marketing products, nor of removing the frenzied finance, the gambling, or the irritation to 
trade from our margin markets. The significant fact, as best illustrated by the Intematioaa] 
Institute of Agriculture, is that we have begun to think and act in the terms of a world gov- 
ernment. And may we not hope that as the machinery of world government is develtfied 
the exigencies of business may greatly contribute to the organisation of a world govemmait 
which will assure world peace among the nations ss our national governments now prevent 
war among their federated states. 

When worid business clearly senses the fact that a world police, with a local police for 
the internal affairs of each nation, is a business necessity, we shall have another large inffn- 
ence for the orgauisation of that worid republic which now seems esaier to organise and to 
«ndow with stability than did the creation of a great Republic when the Thirteen American 
Colonies were struggling to form a progressive government. 

A really efficient and powerful commission to study world trade mi^t do wonders in 
the interest of trade, and especially in the interest of the producer and the consumer, the 
common people who hereafter must pay the high costs of living. Such a commission cei- 
tunly would do a large service in the Interests of world peace, of oi^aniiing the world in the 
interests of the whole world. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 235 

H. le Prfitfdent: Je remercie I'orateur de ees remarques but la question dee statistiqueB 
relatives k ragriculture. Ce qu'il a dit n'a rien qui eoit oppoa£ aux conclusiouB de M. Allaid, 
dont je TOU8 doimerai lecture tout & I'heure. M. VmaxB a demands ta parole. 

lTrandati<m) 

I thank the speaker for his remaiks relative to agricultural Btatiatics. What he 
h«s said ie not opposed to the conclusion of Mr. Allard, which I will read to you in a 
moment. Mr. Fkaseb has requested the floor. 



Mr. R. S. FraB«r, Member ^ Council of London Chamber a} Commerce 

Mr. President, I woidd not have been a participator is Uue discussion had not a friend 
been imavoidably prevented from being present. I would much rather not discuss the paper, 
but draw attention to the fact that the writer does not make reference to the progress that 
has beoi made since the year 1008, when this matter came first before this association. A 
committee was tLen appointed to consider and investigate the matter and formulate pro- 
posals, and my friend Mr. Musgrave, secretaiy of the London Chamber of Commerce, read 
an exceedingly able paper at the London CongresB in the year 1910. With your permission 
I wiD read to you a stuirt resolution that was then approved. 

"This Congress is of opini<m that uniformity in the compilation of customs statistics, 
and particularly in regard to methods of valuation of imports and exports, is of the highest 
economic importance, and commends the subject to the attention of the diSerent govenmients 

and to the International Statistical Institute." 

Now, sir, the International Statistical Institute did hold a meeting last year at The Hague 
when two very remarkable and notable offers were made by the governments of Switierland 
and Holland in the way of taking partioular steps for establishing a pennanent bureau for 
handling this very subject. I will read you from the report of last year. Monsieur Milier, 
official dei^ate of Switserland, immediately arose and declared in the name of his govern- 
ment that they were ready to take the necessary steps for the foundation of an international 
statistical office by engagiDg at tmce in an arrangement between the governments of the dif- 
ferent countries. The representative of the Netherlands arose and announced on behalf of 
his government that they were prepared not only to take the necessary steps to promote the 
establishment of an intematkinal statistical office, but would also meet the expense of such an 
office up to a certain ■""*■'"■■'" for the first two years. Now, sir, my suggestion is that we 
take with sincerity the commission appointed by this assooiation in the year 190S and af- 
firmed in 1910 and also the commission appointed by the International Statistical Institute, 
and we should ask those two commissions to confer together with a view to availing ourselves 
of the offers of the two governments that I have mentioned. I support with all heartiness 
the proposition of my friend AUard, and ask you please merely to treat my criticisms as of a 
friendly character, intended to strengUien his hands and not in any way to derogate frran the 
force of the arguments which he has used. 

U. le President: L'orateur vient done de demander que Ton s'arrange pour que les 
deux conferences qui existent d6i& puiseent correspoudre entre ellee, de mani^re k renforoer 
leur action respective. 

J'ai encore comme orateur inscrit M. Sobtbbeb. 

(Trafulutton) 

The speaker would therefore ask that it should be arranged so that the two con- 
ferences which already exist might correspond with each other, in order to reinforce 
their respective action. 

I have another speaker on the order of the Axj, Dr. Soetdkeb. 



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236 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Dr. SoetbMff, Oeneral Seeretary o] "Der Deuttdte HanMttaif," Berlin 

Meine Heirenl Ea ist noch nioht hinreichend bekannt geworden, welche Stelliing die 
einzelnen Ii«gieTungeii einnehmeD zu den Vorechligen, die im BrOsael lur Vereinbeitlicbuiig 
der mtemationAlen Handeb-Stfttistik gemacht worden aimd. Ich gest&tte mir daber, htet 
mitiuteilen, daB das Kaiserlich-Statistische Amt dee Deutachen Re[chs durduuu auf dcm 
Boden der BrOsseler BeachlOsae steht, daQ gem&S den WOnschea, die dieser KongreB aehtoi 
frtther ge&uQert hat, es als ein groBer Fortschritt anzuaehen iat, wenn die verschiedenen Sta- 
tdatiken der verHchiedeneii I&nder in gleiche Gruppen gebrocht werden. Das Kaiserlkb- 
Statistieche Amt des Deutschen Reichs sieht keine un&berwindlichen Schwieii^eiten darin, 
die deutsche Statistik auf die 185 Onippen, die die BrOsseler BeschlQsse vorschlagen, einxit- 
lichten. 

Daa Deutsche KBiserlich-Statistische Amt ist femer damit einverstanden, daO in Brfload 
ein Internationales Statistisches Bureau sur weiteren Ffirderung dieser Bestrebungm einge- 
richtet wild. Man hat mir gesagt, daQ es nicht an der deutschen Regiening liegt, wmn dia 
Angelegenheit nicht schneller vorw&rts gebt, und daC es die deuteche R«^enuig begrilflai 
wilide, wenn dieser KongreQ dahiu wirkt, daB auch die anderen SUtaten aieh aehneller cnt- 
■ehlOmen, lu den BrOsaeler Vorechligen Stellung lu nehmen, domit das Ziel eireicht wild, 
das sioh der KongreQ duroh seine frQher«n BeschlQase geateckthat. 

(Translohon) 

Gentlemen, it is not yet entiiely known what position the various goTemments 
adopt towards the proposals which were drawn up at Brussels for the unifieatkai «f 
international commercial statistics. I take the hlxrty, therefore, of stating here that 
the Imperial Statistical Bureau of the German Empire is based entirety on the prindide 
of the Brussels resolves, according to the suggestion which had already been prevjously 
expressed by this Congress that it would be a great step forward if the various statis- 
tical tables of the various countries could be arranged in idmtical groupings. Tbt 
Imperial Statistical Bureau of the German Empire does not see any insurTnountt^le 
difficulties in the way of dividing the Geiman statistics into lite 185 groups prt^Mxed 
by the Brussels resolves. 

The German Imperial Statistical Bureau further agrees that an intematioQal sta- 
tistical bureau might be established in Brussels for the further advancement of these 
purposes. I have been told that it is not the fault of the Gennan Government that 
the matter does not make greater progress and that the German Govemntent woold 
be glad if this Congress should take steps to persuade other States to decide more 
quickly to act on the Brussels proposals, in order that the aim may be attuned whit^ 
has been set by the Congress in ite previous resolves. 

H. le President: M. Shominqeb a demands la parole. 

ITraitdaiUm) 

Mr. SHONiHaBB requests the floor. 



Hr. Barnard J. Shoniiig«r, PretiderU of the Atnmatn Chancer of Commerce m Pant 

I have (mfy a few words to say. We from the American Chamber of Commerce io Paris 
and I think the representatives of American commercial organiiations present, are heartily 
in favor of the project as submitted by my friend Mr. AUard. We have only one suggestiaa 
to make. Just before — in fact, the day before I left Paris — I had the hiour of speaking, 
in the absence of the Minister of Finance, to his chief secretary, who advised me that the 
French Government had decided to invite — and possibly the invitations had been alieady 
sent, for May, 1913, — all governments to participate in a second congress which they oA 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 237 

— and as I have the official prognun before me I will read from that — the Deuzidme Con- 
gria Doimnidre, — and the pn^rom which I will read to you afterwaide is exactly on the 
lines propoeed. I have no authority to eay so, but I think that if we would all agree to adopt 
in principle the propositions as proposed by Mr. Allard, and besides that use our influence 
BO that all the governments will be represented at this congress to be held in Paris in May, 
1913, which you see is only six months hence, a tittle over six months hence, that a great step 
forward will be made in the much to be desired unification of statistics. Besides the ques- 
tions put forward here there are one or two others. 1 have the program in French. I will 
read it in French and then give those that do not understand the French the translation. 

(Mr. S!umin{/er read* the French program of the Deitxiime Congrit Douaniire, to be A«td 
in Parit in May, lfll3.) 

You therefore see that the French Government has virtually adopted the fonnati<ni of 
an international bureau. 

Now 1 will try to state this for those that do not underatand the French. There are five 
eections put here inviting other governments to participate in this congress in May, 1913. 
The French Government virtually accepts in principle two of the most important questions 
that are now before you. The first and the last are those that are adopted. The others are 
ft little bit in«levant to this, but still come into the Congreea. The first is the interest that 
would attach to the creation of an international bureau of statistics, so as to group all the 
information botii for imports and exports from all the different countries and to establish a 
table that would indicate at a glance f heir movements. That, of course, the French Govern- 
ment has adopted because they ask you to join. 

Second, how to establish relations that would regulate two questions, — commercial 
travelers first, and their samples, second. This is irrelevant, but it interests everybody. 
Third, to study questions that would do away with the payment of duties on merchandise 
that would be imported on approval. Fotuih, would it not be deidrable to establish some 
kind of a board whereby all questions, or customs questions, under discussion in all coun- 
tries would be left to a certain board of experts? And then this question is subdivided again: 
Will it be best to submit that to a board of expeite composed of legal experte or only to those 
connected with cuslom-houses? 

Now I will come to the last question, but which also todches the question before us. 
Wouldn't it be well to pursue the study by which some international agreement would be 
arrived at, tending to adopt a definition, a uniform definition as to what constitutes net weight 
and gross weight, in order to apply that to all custom-house questions? 

So that you see the first and last questions on which the French Government has asked 
all governments to join is heartily accepted by them and they want your accord. We are 
heartily in accord witii all these questions. The only little difference of opinion is in regard 
to the questions raised by Mr. Allard. We would probably be asked to invite the Belg;ian 
Government to have another Congress on this same subject. Whether to have it before or 
after that of the French Government is for you to decide. I thought it was my duty, having 
been entrusted with thin matter, to bring it before you. Gentlemen, I thank you for your 
attention. 

M. 1* President: Tons les orateurs semblent done d'accord. Je m'en veus maintenant 
vous donner lecture dea conclusions de M. Allard dans les trois langues, pour qu'il n'y ut 
pas de confusion. La discussion est close. 

{Lectare dee amclusitmt done let troie languee.) 

Voili done dans les trois langues ta premi&re partie des conclusions de M. Allard. Je 
lea mets aux voix. Que ceux qui sont d'avis de I'adopter Invent la main. {Levie de nurint.) 
L'fipreuve contraire. (Pereonne ne live la main.) II n'y a pas d'objection. Cette premie 
partie est done adopts. 

Vient maint«iiant dans la proposition de M. Allard un eecond point: 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

..nnrouvar la n 
nations 

pour donmer un apei^ annuel, aetnesttiel, mensuel, r£dig6 conformiineat & un eroupement 
oes nmrchandiBes adopts par la conference Busdite." 

Que ceux qui Bont d'avia d'adopter lea lermes de oette propoaition l^ent la main. (Le- 
vie de mains.) L'^preuve contrsire. Adopts. 

Enfin, M. Allard tannine en ^ettant "le t(eu que le gouvemement belf^ invite bbdb 
retard tous les pays & conclure une convention but la mise en suvre dea travaux projet^" 
La communication de M. Shoninger taii connaltre que le gouvemement francais marche de 
8oncAt£. 

Enfin, c'eat un voeu que nous pouvons, je pense, £mettre dans toua les caa. U vaut mieiiz 
qu'il y ait deux gouvememente qui a'oocupent de U ohoee qu'un aeul. 

{Leetvre de Ea condition demitre en anglaii et en aUetnand.) 

Que ceux qui aont d'avia d'adopter cette demiire propoaition Invent la main. {Leoie dt 
maint.) L'^reuve contraire. Le Congrte adopte, et nous pouvoos conaid&«r cette question 
ctanme tetminto. 
(Translation) 

All the apeakera aeem then to agree. I will now read to you Mr. Allard'a COD- 

ehieions in the three languagea in order to avoid confusion. The diacuadon ia cloeed. 
(Readin{f finl three -paraurajtha of reaoluHons in French, German and Bnifiith.) 
Here is then in three languagea the first port of Mr. Allard's conclusions. I put 

them up for a vote. Those who approve the adoption thereof, please niae their bands. 

(Raisini) of hands.) Any one contraryT {No hartd is raised.) There ia no objection- 

This first part ia therefore adopted. 

Now in the proportion of Mr. AUard comes a second point; 

"The approval of the prepoeitiona made at the Bruaaela Conference looking U> the 

creation of an international bureau of commercial statistics, entrusted with the centroli- 

sation of all necessary indications, aiming at giving annual, semi-annual and monthly 

reports, worded in accordance with (be grouping of the merchandise as adopted by the 

aforementioned conference." 

Those who favor the adoption of thia proposition, pleaae raise their hands. (AoiaiNff 
tff handt.) Those who do not? Adopted. 

Laatly, Mr. Allard concludes with the wish that the Belgian Government invite 
without delay all the countries to conclude an agreement to put in operation tbe pro- 
jected work. Mr. Shoninger'a communication informs ua that the French Govemmait 
is proceeding in tbe same direction. 

It is then a resolution which we can, I believe, adopt in any case. It is better 
that two governments attend to the matter than one. 

(Reads last resoltiiion in English and German.) 

Those who are in favor of adopting this latter proposition will please raise tlieir 
handa. (Handt are raised.) Those oppoaedT The Congress adopta the resolution, and 
ne m^ consider this queation as closed. 

(The French and English text of the resohdions vnU be found in Mr. AUard's addreet on 
a prtvimu page; the German text is as follows:) 

Der Kongrefi apricht seine Anerkennung aus Qber die seitens der belgiachen Re^eiung 
ergriffene Initiative bei der Zuaammenberufung von sweiundiwansig Staalen in BrOssel, am 
19ten September 1910, zum Zweck der Feststellung von Mitteln und Wegen, um grOfiera 
IJbereinstimmung und Gleichm&Higkeit in der Aufstellung konunersieller Statiatikcn in der 
Welt beibeiiufUhren; erteilt seine Zustinunung zum BesohluQ der beaagten Koofeiens, demso- 
folge leder der in Betracht kommenden Staaten, auBer der regelm&£igen kommersieUen Sta- 
tistik, eine gemeinschaftliche Klassifiiierimg aufatellt, nach der Export- und Import-Gtttcr 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 239 

mit der doppelten Spezifikatioa von Gewicht und Wert gruppiert werden; drQckt den Wunsch 
aus, daS diese gemeinscluftliche Klasaifisierung in den etatiHchen Tabellen der Regjenmgen, 
die auf der Konfereiu vertreten waren, tunlichstbald eracheinen mOgen; und drilckt seine 
ZuTermoht aua, daU die belgische Reg^erung auch in der Zukunft der VeroirklichuDg dieses 
Planea eympathisch gegenUber eteben und denselben fStdem wild. 

Der KongreO drQckt femer seine Zustinunung zu dem auf der BrOseeler Konfereni ge- 
m&chten Vorschlag aus, denuufolge ein Internationales StatiBtisches Bureau eingerichtet 
werden soil, deseen Obli^enheit ee eein soil, alle fOr den Welthandel nUtilichen Data zuBam- 
menzuetellen und in einem jahrlichen Bericbt ru verdSentlichen, mit der weiteren Bemerkung, 
daU dieeer Bericht tunlichst bald alle sechs Monate, und schlieliUch alle Monat« etscheinen 
soil, wobei besagter Bericht die konuuerzielle Statietik der verscbiedenen L&nder dee Erdballa 
auf Grand der von oben beeagter Konferem adoptierten gemeinachaftlicben Klassifiiierung 
enthalten soil; und er drilckt femer den Wunach aua, die belgiscbe Regierung moge ohne 
Venug alle Staaten einladen, ein Abkommen lu treffen, das die Verwiridichung obigen Wer- 
kes mOglich macht. 



VALIDATION OF THROUGH-ORDER-NOTIFY BILLS OF LADING 

H. le Prfisident: Nous abordons I'objet suivant de I'ordre du jour qui est: "Confe- 
rence Internationale ear la validity dea ConnaisBements directs & ordre, et utility d'une legis- 
lation et d'auties moyens rendant leur systime plus efficace." 

Nous avons un trte bon rapport, pt^sente par M. Cbaiuxb S. Haioht, de Nev-Yorii, qui 
debute par un resume, afin de permettre k ceux qui ne veulent pas le lire en entier d'en avoir 
n^>idenjent connaissance^ 

La parole eat done & M. Haioht. 

(TrOMlaiion) 

We now begin the next subject on the order of the day which is: "The Desirability 
of an International Conference upon the Validation of Through^order-notify Bills of 
Lading and of Legislation and Other Means for making the System more Effective." 

We have a very good report presented by Mr. Charles S, Haight of New Yorit 
which begins with a eununary in order to penoit those who do not care to read it in its 
entirety to quickly obtain an acquaintance with the subject. 

Mr. Haioht has the floor. 



Hr. Chailu S. Haight, New York, N. Y. 

I did not understand when I was asked to speak before you that it was my privilege to 
recommend actiwk by the Congress. You will not find, tiierefore, in my paper any reference to 
action. But I have been told that I may make such recommendations, and I would therefore 
propose the following: 

First, a resolution that tbia Congress approves of the legislation proposed and now be- 
fore the United States Congress in the way of the Pomerene Bill, making carriers respon- 
sible on their bills of lading where issued by their authortied agents after they have passed 
into the hands of innocent third parties. 

Second, a resolution that this Congress approves of the Cotton Bills of Lading Central 
Bureau for the safeguarding of cotton bills of lading gainst forgery. 

Third, — a point which I have not yet touched upon, — that this Congress recommend 
to its Permanent Committee a consideration of the de^rability of an international congress 
for the promotion of uniform laws governing international carriers. 

It has been my privilege to represent a number of steamship companies. It has been 



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240 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

very lucrative (or lawyen, but extremely diBagreeable for them, to operate under the ccn- 
ditions exiating to-day, which are that in Germany a certiun exemption in a bill of lading may 
be perfectly legal, but in England that exemption may be illegal and void, and in a third ooon- 
tiy a bill of lading contoinii^ that exemption may, when issued, constitute a crime. Inter- 
national bills of lading are necessarily documents in which at least two countries are interested. 
It is quite as impossible for an individual to accomplish the feat of conspiracy or matrimony as 
it is for a single nation to regulate international shipments. You must have intematicaal 
action. And as I know the situation of the steamship companies, beUeve me they would be 
glad to co-operate in any movement which would enable them to know, once and for all, what 
exemptions they may legally incorpoMte in their billa of lading and what exemptions at« for- 
bidden. If an international conference can be held as the result of which each country delib- 
erately considering the question may sgree with all the rest of the ctMnmercial woiM as to 
the liabilities frinn which an ocean carrier or a rail carrier may exonpt himself and those 
from which he may not, you will save the largest part of the friction which ttxlay exiate in 
all the countries of the world. I would only ask that in such a conference Hie steamAip 
companies, which are ao valuable to intenmtional trade, should not necessarily be classed 
vitii those good old-fashioned bill of lading evils, the act of God, restraint of princes, rulers 
and pe<^le, perils of the sea, barratiy and the like. 
I thank you. (Applauae.) 

H. 1q Prtsident: Je lis lea conclusions dans les trob languee. 

{Trantlatum) 

I will read the conclusions in the three languages. 

(Beading, ai foUowa:) 

I. That the Congress approves the legislation now pending in the Congresa of the 
United States for establishing the liability of carriers on bills of lading issued by their 
agents on international ahipmenta. 

II. That the Congress views with satisfaction the Central Bureau Syst^n tor valida- 
tion of bills of lading on international transactions. 

III. That the Congress refere to the Permanent Committee the consideration of an in- 
tematioual conference to pnnnote uniformity in the laws governing the liability of intema- 
titmal carriers. 

I. Que 1e Congrte approuve la legislation maintcnant sur le tapis au Congrte dee 
£tat6-Unia ayant trait i, I'^tablissement de la responsabilit^ des francs-porteurs i propos 
de connaissementa £mis par leurs agents dana des exp&litions intemationolee. 

II. Que le Congrte voit avec aatiafaction le eyst^e d'un bureau central pour la vali- 
dation des connaiseements dans dea transactions intemationalee. 

III. Que le Congria a'en rapporte au comity permanent pour la consideration d'une oonfA- 
ence Internationale pour favoriser runifonoiti dans les lob qui concement la responsabilit6 
dee francs-porteurs intemationaux. 

I. Der KongreO drQckt hiennit seine tJbereinstimmupg aus mit dem g^enw&rtig dem 
Veretoigten Staaten-KongreB vorliegenden Gesettentwurf Aber die VerantwortUchkeit der 
Verfrachter beEtlghch der Eonn(»semente, die von ihren Agenten mit Bemg auf Internatio- 
nale Warensendungen ausgestellt worden sind. 

II. Der KongreG drUckt hiermit seine Zustimmung aua cum Zentral-Bureau-System fOr 
Validierung von auf intemationale Geschafte bezUgUchen Konnosaemeaten. 

III. Der EongreQ verweist hiermit an daa at&ndige Komitee die Erledigung der Frage 
einer intemationalen Konferens Hber die Befdrderung gleichm&Qiger Gesetigebung, die die 
VerantwortUchkeit intemationaler Verfrachter zum Gegenstand hat. 

The ftealdant: I have now registered as speaker Mr. Samtjel E. Fixa, of Costa Rica. 



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CHAMBEBS OF COMMERCE 241 

B. Piza, Delegate <tf the Government of Coela Biea 

Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

The question brought up by Mr. Haight is, in my opinion, of the greatest importance of 
any question brought before the Congress to this moment. It really deals with the most 
important part of international transactions. It tends to prevent forgery is general and mis- 
imderstaitdings between the merchants of one country and another. 

It is not my intention to treat Mr. Haight's subject as a whole, but I will only point out 
the importance of the first part of it — that is, the establishment of a thorough bill of lading. 
That means that if we should h^>pen to obtain a i^stem of having the bills of lading made out 
under a sound responsibility on the part of the canieis, we are perfectly safe to deal with the 
bills of ladii^ without having to obtain any other information. Perhaps I am not clear enough 
on that point. My object ia this. For instance, even when forgery is not the cause of the 
trouble in any international transaction, there may be other difficulties. Suppose the goods 
are loetT The fact that the bill of lading has been issued under a thorough responsibility on 
the part of the shipper and the carrier, gives the insurance company itself, through the f^nt 
where the goods land, a document upon which they can depend for the payment of any claim. 
Recently in my country I had the opportunity of seeing what happened in connection with the 
claim of a merchant in my country for some goods that were lost. -There was a great deal of 
difficulty because the insurance company wanted documents from Italy and documents from 
the government ctutoni'house in order to pay the railroad company the claim, which they were 
to pay the merchant. If we had established the plan of making out bills of lading under a 
thorough reqxinsibility of the shipper, all those difficulties would be avoided; the responsi- 
biliQ' on the part of the carriers, on the part of the railroads themselves, would be much leas 
in such cases. In fact, gentlemen, while I do not wish to discuss the subject any further, I 
wish to express my greatest desire that the Congress take up with the greatest interest the 
question that Mr. Haight has brought before us. {Afypiame.) 

M. le President: Personne ne demande plus la parole? Je vous demande done de voter 
Eur lee rteolutions dont je vous ai donn£ lecture. Je ne les reprends pas, je vous demande 
seulement de lea voter une k une. La premi^: 
(translation) 

Are there any other speakers? I will, then, ask you to vote on the resolutions which 

I have just had read to you. I will not repeat them but will ask you to vote for them one 

by one. First: 

"That the Congress approves of the legislation now pending in the Coni^reas of the Uni- 
ted States for establishing the liabilities of carriers on bills of lading by their agents on in- 
ternational shipments." 

Que ceux qui sont d'avis d'adoptor cette resolution veuillent bien lever la main. (.Levie de 
main*.) L'^reuve contraire. Pas d'opposition. Done, adoptee. 

Le seconde resolution: 
(Trandation) 

Those who are in favor of adopting this resolution will please raise their hands. 
{Banit are raieed.) Contrary minded? No opposition. It is a vote. 
The second resolution: 



Que ceux qui sont d'avis d'adopter cette resolution veuillent bien lever la n 
de maint.) Pas d'opposition. Adopts. 



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■2 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

raruEofMn) 

Those who are in fftvor of adopting this resolution wiU pleaae miee their baadB. 
(Hand* art raistd.) No opposition. Adopted, 
Third: 



Que oeux qui aont d'avia d'adopter oette resolution yeuiUemt bien lever la main. (LaiM 
da ffioJM.) Paa d'oppoaition. Adopts. 

Those who ore in favor of adapting this resolution will please raise tLeir hands. 
{Handt an. raited.) No opposition. Adopted. 

H. le President: Je doia vouh faire connaltre que pour ^puiser notre ordie du jour, it 
nous reete troia questions & examiner; nous avons rieervi la question dee refonnes poetaks et 
il r a les questions 7 et 8. fividenmient, si nous sommcs certains de pouvoir lee examiner dans 
la session de demain matin, & partir de dix heures, nous pounons terminer noe travaux de- 
main dans la matin6e, vers une heure; mais si nous devons singer dans I'aprte-midi, eette 
Bslle-ci ne sera plus disponible et nous devrons singer it la Public Library, en face de oet HAl^ 
Je pense que le mieux est de continuer la discussion aujourd'hui — il est 4 heures 15 — nous 
pourrona dans oee coiiditions-l& terminer demain. 
(Trantlalvm) 

I must call your attention 4« the fact that to complete our order of the day tbeie 
remain three questions to be discussed; we have postponed the question of postal re- 
forms and there are also questions 7 and 8. Of coutse if we are oerlain of being able 
to discuss them in the morning session to-morrow, to start from tot o'clock, we oould 
finish our woric to-morrow in the morning towards one o'clock; but if we must have a 
session in the afternoon, this hall will not be available and we will have to hold tiw 
session at the Public Library opposite this hotel. 1 think that the best way is to oon- 
tinue the discussion to-day — it ia a quarter past four — and we can under those cir- 
cumstances finish to-morrow. 

H. Shonlnger: Je vous ferai remarquer, monsieur le president, que la question que 
vous avez mise au vote n'ftait indiqu^e que pour demain matin, et qu'il y a plusieun dUb- 
gu£s qui ne sont pss pr^pat^ pour parler aujourd'hui sur cette question, tandis que la ques- 
tion de la r^orme poetale ^tait indiqu^ pour aujourd'hui. 
(Tranilalion) 

I will call your attention, Mr. President, to the fact that the question which you have 

put to vote was asngned for to-morrow morning, and that there are several delegates 

who are not prepared to apeak upon it to-day, since the question of postal reform was 

assigned for to-day. 

M. le President: Cette question, d'accord avec le rapporteur et certains orateun, a eii 
remise il jeudi; elle dtoit primitivenient indiqu^ pour aujourd'hui. Voici oe que je toos 
propoeeraia: que demain matin nous commencions nos travaux & diz heures pr^i^sea, et que 
nous lee continuous jusqu'^ une heure, a'il le faut. Je vous serais trte obUg6 d'eipUquer la 
chose k voe amis. 
(TramlatMn) 

That question, with the consent irf the Reporter and certain speakers, has been post- 
poned until Thursday; it was origmally designated for to-day. I would make this sag- 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMEBCE 243 

gestion: that to-morrow moising we begin our work at t«n o'clock predael^, and that 
we continue until one o'clock, if necessary. I should be greatly obliged if you would 
explain the matter to your friends. 



(Tmntlation) 

The question, I understand, will be atill open to discusBion to-morrow morning? 

H. le PiCBidont: Oui. Dans oes conditions-l&, done, nous ajoumons & denuun. Nous 
reprendrona noe travaux i, dix heures praises, aveo la bonne volenti de lea continuer juBqu'& 
U fin, «u beaoin juequ'^ ime heure, de maniire k ne pas avoir de session dans rapris-midi. 
(Tnmtloftim) 

Yes. Under these conditions, then, we shall adjourn until to-morrow. We will resume 

OUT proceedings at 10 o'olook precisely, with the intentiou of continuing if neceesary 

until 1 o'clodc, in order not to have a session in tlte aftenioon. 

H. Shooinger: Si voua me le permettes, je dirai que pour gagner un peu de temps de- 
main matin, nous pourritma commencer par la question qui n'est pas tennln6e. Comme 
cela, nous aurans aauvegaid^ les int^ts de tout le monde. 
(,Traiulalion) 

If you will permit me, I will suggest that in order to gain a little time to-morrow 

we might begin with the question which is not concluded. In theA way we shall have 

safeguarded the interests of everybody. 

The President: Gentlemen, it is well understood that we will begin work to-motrow 
morning at just 10 o'clock, in order to go through the three minor points and finish our work, 
if possible, by 1 o'clock. The meeting is adjourned. 

Adjourned at 4.20 e.tt., to meet on Thursday, September 26, at 10 a.u. 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 



The Besuon waa called to order at 10.13 A.ii., September 26, 1912, Presidetit Louis 
CAHON-LEaRAND in the chair. At the deek, General Secretaiy Ckilk Jotthand, Mr. Alfred 
Gborq and Mr. Edvard A. Filens. 
Prosident Cuion-L«gnuid 

Messieurs, la stance est ouverte. M. Lazard demande la parole sur une queaticMi d'ordre. 
(Trmtdalion) 

Gentlemen, the Bession is opened. Mr. Laxard asks for the floor aa a question of 

order. 

Mr. Lonli laztird, Chamber of Commerce, BrueeeU, Beiffiwn 

Mr. President and Gentlemen, on behalf of tiie Belgian delegation I want to s^ that we 
were very much disappointed in reading this morning in the Boston ptqters that the Belgian 
delegates nipport a gentleman who spoke yesterday about arbitration and iaterrupted our 
sympathetic Preddent. We want it t« go out that the Belgian delegates to this Congten 
are Mr. Paul Hagemans, Consul General of Belgium in the United States, in liiiladelphia; 
Mr. Adolphe Charlet, Vice-President of the Chamber of Commerce of Bniseels; Mr. Leco 
ChauBsette of Brussels, Mr. Louis Lazard of Brussels, Mr. Louis Canon-Legrand, our Presi- 
dent, Mr. fimile Jottraod, our General Secretary, and Mr. Charles Christopbe from Ghent. 
We know no other delegate from Brussels, or from Belgium. We have thought it better 
that these few words should be said at the beginning of this morning's session, in order to avoid 
any misundenrtanding. We do not want the delegates to think tliat we supported the gm- 
tleman who spoke yesterday and who ia not known to the Belgian delegation. (Applauae.) 

Mr. Edward A. F&ene, Viee-Prendenl, at this point read a lett«r from Mr. Edwin D. 
Mead stating his position in the matter. 



utternatioival postal reforms in view of tee next con- 

FBRENCE OF THE UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION IN 1913 

H. le Priaident: L'incident est clos. Nous abocdons maintenant notre ordre du jour. 
Nous avona & parier des r^ormefl postalea Internationales en vue de la prochaine conf^renM 
de I'Union Postale Universelle. Le rapporteur est M. Georg. Je tieoa i, r#p£t«r, meeeieuis, 
que si cette question a m remise it la s&ince de ce matin, c'est & la demands du Postmaster 
General des fitato-Unis, et non pas parce que M. Geoi% n'itait pas pr6t k donner lecture de 
eon rapport auasitAt qu'on I'aurait voulu. 
ITraruiation) 

The incident ia closed. We now take up the order of the day. We have to speak (^ 
int«mational postal refonns in view of the next conference of the Universal Postal Unioo. 
The Reporter ia Mr. Georg. I wish to repeat that if this question has been postpootd 
to this morning's session, it ia becauae of the request of the Postmaster-General of the 
United States, and not because Mr. Georg waa unprepared to read us his report when ii 
was wanted. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 245 

Ur. Alfred Geors, Vice-Pittuhnt i>f the Geneva Chambtr of Commerce 

Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

As 70U have in hand tlie Kngliah translation of the report OQ International Poetal R»- 
forcte, I beg leave to say in French, my own language, the few words that I wish to add in 
support of the piopoeed refoima. 

{ConHnvinB in French) 
Mt»ksieuT le prudent et mesBieuiB: 

S'il est exact que tuw congrte ont pour t&che d'^tudier les moyens de facilit«r le com- 
merce international, voua estimerei avec moi qu'il est superflu de motiver longuement les 
propositions de r^orme poatale que voua aves sous lea yeuit, Cea propositions soat en quel- 
que sorte la rfeultante des diacusaions, et je puis ajouter, des reclamations qui se sont pro- 
duites depuis un certain nombre d'ann^ea dans le seia des Chambres de commerce, et d'autres 
associations aimilairea, de la plupart des pays conunergants de notre globe. 

£videmment, ces propositions eont loin de comprendre toutes les demandes qui ont £t6 
formul^es k gauche ou i, droite, et je comprendrsis fort bien que I'un ou I'autre d'entre vous 
d£aitlt completer la liste des postulats exprimSs dans la conclusion du rapport; m&is, mee- 
meura, dans un domaine ausai vasto que celui des relations postales intemationales, il faut 
Bsvoir se restreindre, en se disant qu'k chaque jour suffit aa peine, et qu'ici comme ailleuts, 
il convient de proc£der par itapea. Qui trop embrasse mul ^treint. 

D'autres trouveront peutr^tre— et j'ai diik entendu exprimer ioi cett« opinion — que 
nous demandoua trop k la fois. A ceux-lJL je r^pondrai que, sans manquer de modestie, nous . 
pouvons et nous devons demauder aux Etate de I'Union Postale Universelle de r^aliser des 
rdfoimes dont la n^cessit^ n'eat plus contestable. 

Les d£l^£s au prochain congrds poatal universel, repr^sentants des administrations 
postales et du fisc de leur pays, objecteront que la plupart de aos demandee auront pour 
cons^uence des diminutions de recettes auxquelles ils ne peuvent souscrire; mais k ces pr^ 
occupations d'ordre financier, nous opposons et noua continuerons d'oppoaer les beaoins du 
commerce et de I'industrie, dont la poBt« est I'instrument et le v^hicule le plus indispensable. 
Et nous pouvona ajouter que cea apprthensiona fiscalea — I'exp&ience de toua les paya I'a 
monti^ — ne aont pas juatifi^es, ou tout au moina aont fort exag^r^ea. Plaie d'ai^ent n'est 
pas mortelle, et un nouveau dSveloppement des afiairea, consequence cettaine de I'adoption 
des reformee que nous demandons, viendra r^idement combler les diminutions de recettes 
que redaut«nt lea repr6sentants du fisc. 

Ceci dit, je passe aux questions ^ciales qui font I'objet du rapport. 
Si la prudence eat d'accoid, nous pourrions, en vue de faciliter les debate et lea decisions 
finales, prendre I'une aprte I'autre lea propositiona foimuieee. Chacune d'eUee n'exigera que 
quelques brefs commentaires. 
iTran^ation) 

Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

If it is a fact that the task of our Congress is to study means of facilitating inter- 
national coomierce, you will agree with me that it ia superfiuoue to argue at length 
the propoaala for postal reforms which you have before you. These proposals are to 
some extent the outcome of debates, and 1 may add also, of complaints which have 
made their appearance frcnn time to time among the chambers of commerce and other 
similar associationa of most of the commercial countries of the world. 

Clearly, these proposals are far from comprising all the demands which have been 
made from various directions, and I understand very well that some of you will wish to 
add to the list of suggestions formulated at the conclusion of the report; but, gentlemen, 
in a subject aa wide aa that of international postal relations we must exercise some 
restraint, and be as patient as possible, since here, as elsewhere, it will be easier to ad- 
vance by stages. Who tries too much, succeeds poorly. 



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6 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Othera may poaaibly coiuider — and I have alreculy heaid the opinioD expressed — 
that we are asking too much at a time. To these I would re{^, with all due modesty, 
that we can and we should demand of the States of the Universal Postal Union the 
realisation of the lefonns whose necessity is no longer debatable. 

The delegates to the approaching Universal Postal Union repreaenting the postal 
and financial departments of their countries will object that most of our demands will 
have as a reeult a reduction of receipts to which they cannot consent; but to these 
financial coneiderationB we oppose and we ah^ continue to oppose the needs of commerce 
and industry, of which the postal service is the most indispensable vehicle. And we may 
add that these apprehensions on the score of finance — the experience of all countries 
has demonstrated it — are not justified, or are at least much exaggerated. A wound in 
the pccketbook is not mortal, and the further development of business, the certain result 
of the adoption of the reforms which we ask, will speedily offset the diminished leoeipta 
which are feared by the representatives of the treasury. 

After saying this I will now pass to the special questions which are the object of the 
report. 

If the Chair is willing, we might in order to faciUtate debate and final deciaon, 
take up the drafts of the resolutions one by one. Each of them will require but a few brief 



H. le ftfiaident: M. Georg, toub pourries pour chaque proposititm donner lecture 
dans lee troia langues. 
iTrambiHon) 

Mr. Geoi^, you may be able to give a reading of each of the proposed resolutions 

in the three languages. 

M. Gooic; Meaedeuis, pour la question No. 1, et en me r^^rant aux explications qui se 
trouvent aux pities 5 et 6 du rapport, actuellement, en vertu de la convention postale univei^ 
selle No. 1, la taxe de transport eat de 2S centimes, ou leur Equivalent, pour la lettre juaqu'i 
20 grammes, avec supplement de 15 centimes pour chaque poids ou fraction de poids de 20 
grammes. Or, le commerce demande une taxe uniforme de 10 centimes, soit, la taze pay^ 
dans le trafic interne pour le mSme poids ou suppltoient de poids dans touts I'^tendue de 
I'Union Postale, I'impAt £tant calculi d'aprto le eyetdme m^trique. 

Voua savei que la lettre & 10 centimes — 2 cents, 1 penny, 10 pfennigs, etc. — a d^jjl 6t& 
adopts, pour une partie importante du trafic international et intercontinental, par la Grande 
Bretagne, par I'Allemagne, par I'ltalie; sa g^^ralisation contribuerait & donner i. ce trafic 
un puissant essor, favorable i I'extension des relations commercialee. 

Je vous propose done d'^mettre le voeu qui porte le No. 1 dans la conclusion du rapport. 
J'en donne lecture: 

I. La taxe 6x6 par la conveution poatale universelle pour le transport des lettree seta 
abaisste de 26 centimes i 10 centimes, aoit & la taxe d'affranchissement du service int^eur. 
Cette taxe d'affranchiasement sera per^e par poids ou fraction de poids de 20 grammes dans 
toute retendue de I'Union Poatale, le poids ^tant calculi d'aprte le Hystime m6trique. 

(Translaiion) 

Gentlemen, in regard to question No. 1 and referring to the explanations on pages 5 
and 6 of the report I would say that at the present time, by virtue of Universal Postal 
(^reement No. I, the rate of postage is 25 centimes or its equivalent for a letter up to 
20 grams in weight with an addition of 15 centimes for each 20 grams or fraction 
thereof. Commerce, however, requests a uniform rate of 10 centimes; in other words, 
the rate paid for domestic postage for the same weight or additional wei^t throu^iout 
the extent of the Postal Union, the tariff to be based according to the metric syeton. 

You know that the letter rate of 10 centimes — 2 cents, 1 penny, 10 pfeimig, and 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 247 

K> toTth — has Already been adapted for an importfint portion of mtemational and 
intei^^ontineDtal cmmnunicstioiia, by Great Britain, G«niisny, Italy, etc, I\e gener- 
alisation would suffice to give a decided impulse to this traffic to the advantage of the ex- 
tension of conuneretal relations. 

I therefore propose to pass the motion which is marked No, 1 at the conclusion of 
the report, and which I will now read; 

1. The rate fixed by the Univeraal Postal Convention for the carriage of letters shall 
be reduced from 25 centnnes to 10 centimes, that ia, to the tariff rate for domestic postage. 
This tariff rat« shall be collected by the weight or fraction of the weight of 20 Erams 
throughout the extent of the Poet^ Union, the weight being calculated by the metric 

H. 1« PrSaideat: Devons-nous, messieun, faire la discuasion aur ce point mainl«iant, ou 
aller jusqu'au bout et prendre le vote aprte? Je vous consulte but ce point. 11 est prtf^rable 
d'aller jusqu'au bout, et nous reprendrons les points. 
(Trtmalofton) 

Gentlemen, shall we debate on this point now or continue to the end and vote 

afterwards? I beg to consult the meeting. It is preferable to continue to the end and 

we will go on with the itema. 

H. G«org; Je prends la question 2. Vous savez, monsieur le president et messieurs, que 
phuieuis dee fitata sigiuitaires de la convention postale universelle de 1906 ant, au b£n6fice 
du chiffre III du protooole final de cette convention, conserve les limitea de poids et lea taie« 
de la pr^c^dente convention postale de Washington. H serait & d^sirer que ces Etata renon- 
cent 4 cette prerogative, et c 'eat pourquoi nous avona formula le deuziime vceu coounesuit; 

2. Lee Gtats signataiies de la convention postale universelle de 1900, qui, au b&i^ee du 
chiffre 111 du protooole final de cette convention, ont conserve les limitea de poida et lea taxes 
de la COQventiou poetale pr^cMente, renonceront k ce regime d'exception. 

Nous paasons au No. 3. II s'agit ici de la surtaxe en cas d'abeence ou d'inmifflsance d'af- 
franchisaement. L'article 5 de la convention universelle principale fixe au double de la taxe 
d'aSranchiasement la surtaxe k payer par le destinataire des lettres et des cartes postalea uon 
affranchies qui lui ont 6t6 adreas^es. E^ cas d'insuffisance, la surtaxe est fix£e au double de 
cette insuffisance. 

L'^l^vation de cette surtaxe lui donne le caroctiie d'une veritable amende, qui est d'au- 
tant moins justifiie que cette amende frappe le destinataire de la lettre, qui n'est, en aucun 
caa, fautif, si faute il y a. Nous savons d'ailleurs que le travail suppl^mentaire de la poste 
pour les envois de cette nature serait largement iitribu£ par une taxe beaucoup plus rfiduite, 
et c'est pour cela que nous avons formula, sous le chiffre 111, la proposition euivante: 

3. Dans le trafic international, la surtaxe perdue par la poste pour absence ou insuffiaance 
d'affranchissement des objete de la poste aux lettree sera fix£e unifoim^ent & 5 centimes. 

Nous passons au No. 4: Remise au destinataire des lettres de provenance ^trangira. 

MeesieurB, cette proposition a pu ^tonuer quelques-uns d'entre vous. II semble naturel 
qu'une lettre remise il un Ctat de I'Union Postale par un autre £tat de I'Union Postale eoit 
remise par lui au destinataire. Or, on m'a cit£ un cas — et j'ai eu en mains la preuve de 
I'exactitude du renseignement qui m'a St^ foumi — on m'a cil^ le cas d'une administration pos- 
tale — c'fitait un £tat de I'Europe — qui, recevant d'une autre administration — diaons de 
I'Australie — une lettre destinte & un habitant de cet Etat de I'Europe, que je n'indique pas, 
a retoumte cette lettre en Australie, ne I'a pas livr^ au destinataire, parce que I'adreeee de 
cette lettre se trouvoit sous une fen^tre trausparente dont tee conditions ne r^pondaient paa 
exactement aux prescriptions nationales du pays destinataire. 

Messieuis, d'autres cas analogues de r^ementation nationals peuvent se produire, et 
c'est pour cela que noiia croyona absolument nficessoire de fixer cette rigle, k savoir, qu'une 



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248 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

lettre que I'lm des £;tats de rUaion Postale remet i un autre Ctat de rUmon doit 6tre naiat 
au destinataire, quelle que aoit I'apparence ext^rieure de oette lettre. II est bien eutendu que 
I'appareace ext^eure de U lettre ne doit pas Ctre coatraire aux bonnes mcEurs et k I'wdie 
public; mais en detora de ces exceptions, toute lettre remise k un £ltat de I'Union Postale par 
un autre £!tat doit Stre remise au deatinataire. C'est pour ceU que nous avons formula la 
proposition suivante: 

4. Lea administrations postales des fitats de I'Union univeraelle FMnettront k leura dee- 
tinataires toutes les lettres lenntee qui leur parviennent de I'^tranger, alore mbne que 1'^)- 
paience ext^iieure de ces lettres ne serait pas conforme k la r^ementation postale dn pays 
oe destination. 

Nous paaeons maintenant aux £chantillons de marchandises. La convention postale uni- 
Tereelle dispose que les ^chantiltons de marchandises ne doivent pas d^passer le poids de 350 
grammes et ne doivent pas avoir une valeur marchande. Messieure, en pr^voyant une ta:K 
de transport r^uite pour les ^hantillons de marchandises, on avoit I'intention de favoriser 
le trafic de cette categoric d'envoi; mais la condition spteiale k laquelle est life la nkluction 
de la taxe rend illusoire cette facility dans des cas tiis nombreux. La plupart des fehantilltms 
ont, £videmment, une valeur marehande, si minime eoit-elle, et le terme "valeur marchande" 
est tellement flastique que, n^cessairement, il a donnfi lieu h dea interpretations fort difffi- 
rentea dans les fitats de I'Union, et il en rteulte des difficult^ et des complications que nous 
Toulons chercher k faire disparattre. 

Ce n'est pas, disons-nous, I'absence de vaJeur, mais c'est la limitation de poids qui doit 
etablir la distinction n&iessaire entre cette categoric d'envois et les colis qui aout soumis sux 
taxes et aux formality douani^rea. 

Dans la plupart des pays, le commerce estime d'aiUeuiB insuffisante la limite octuelle de 
3S0 grammes, et le congrte des Chambres de commerce t^ptondrait k un vteu gSndral «n de~ 
mandant I'^l^vation k 500 grammes de cette limite. Cette augmentation de poids pooirait 
6tre accordfe d'autant plus facilement que dans certains pays les colis ne d^assant pas le 
poids de 500 grammes sont d^j^ actuellement exon£r£s des droits de douane. H en eat ainsi 
dans mon paj^, la Suisse, entr'autres. Je vous propose par consequent d'adi^ter les con- 
cluMons Buivantes: 

5. La disposition de I'article 5£ de la Convention postale universelle I, disant que les 
6chantillons de marchandises ne doivent pas avoir de valeur marchande, sera rapport^e. Ia 
limite de poids des ^chontillons sera elevSe k 500 grammes. 

Nous arrivons k la question des colis postaux. La Convention postale universelle IV 
fixe i, 5 kilogrammes la limite de poids des colis postaux. Le commerce international demonde 
dans ce domaine de nouvelles facilit^s, d^jk crepes dons les relations postales entre certains 
pays. II conviendrait de fixer k 10 kilogrammes — c'est la limite actuelle E4>piiquee par les 
pays dont je parle — la limite de poids, tout en admettant pour les pays dont la legislation 
int^rieure n'admet pas le transport de colis supedeure k un poids de 5 kilogrammes le droit de 
mointenir la limite de 5 kilogrammes. 

La limite du poids de 10 kilogrammes etant ainsi devenue la rigle g^nerole, il convien- 
drait de cr^er une cat^gorie speciale de colis postaux aco^erte d'un poids maTimum de 1 
kilogranuue, et qui, moyennont une taxe speciale, seraient transport's par voie rapide. On 
donneroit ainsi satisfaction k un vceu general du commerce tendant au transport par la poete 
aux lettres d'^chantillons allant jusqu'au poids d'un kilo, vceu dont la prise en consideration 
s'est heurtfe jusqu'& ce jour k des objections d'ordre douanier. Ces objections ne seraient 
pas opposables k I'innovation projetee des colis postaux de 1 kilo, qui resteraient soumis, 
eux, au contrAle douanier. 

Je vous propose par consequent d' adopter le v<eu suivant: 

7. La convention universelle etablira une categoric speciale de colis postaux d'un poids 
maximum de 1 kilogramme et qui, moyennaot une taxe speciale, seront transportee par voie 
acceieree. 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 249 

NouB BnivoDB & U question du t«tard dee coUb poBtaux. Messieurs, alots que la con' 
vention universeUe concemaot r^change des colia poetaux assure ces colis dans une mesure 
pt^eise, ddtennjii^, centre la perte, contra la Bpoliatkm et contre I'avarie, cette m&ne con- 
vention ne contient aucune disposition engageant la responsabilit€ des administrations en 
cas de retard dc livraison des colis postaux. Le retard n'engage la responsabilit4 du trans- 
porteur que pour autant que le colis est consid^rt conune perdu, c'est-ft-dire au tenne d'une 
aim^ seulement aprto la reclamation pour cauae de retard. 

Mesrieurs, le commerce international souffre de cette lacune. On r^aliserait done un 
grand pir^rte en admettant un tenne raisonnable au del& duquel la responsabilit€ des ad- 
ministratious serait engages. Le d^Iai pourrait dtre different selou la distance, et particu- 
li^rement si le pays de destinatioa est un pays d'outremer. A la rigueur, on pourrait, comme 
il est indiqu^ dans le rai^rt, pr^lever ime modeate aurtaxe qui aerait perQue de I'exp^teur 
qui a un int&6t special k ce que la marchandise arrive en temps voulu. Mais, messieurs, il 
paralt absolument anormal et inadmissible qu'un dommage, qui peut Stre trte considerable 
pour I'exp^teur ou le destinataire d'un colis postal, dommage resultant d'un retard conai- 
durable dans la livraison, n'engage en aucune mani^re la responsabilit^ des administrations 

Nous voufl proposons par consequent d'adopter le vtcu auivant: 

8. La coaventba postale univerMlle imposera aux Etate de I'Union un deiai de lirraiaon 
raisonnable des colis poataux, different eelon lea pays de destination, et au del& duquel la reo- 
ponaabOite dea administrations poetales sera engag^e. 

MessieuiB, apr^s la publication de ce rapport, il y a quelque tempa d6ja, il m'a €16 de- 
mands de completer cea vceux par quatrea autrea demandes, que je vais vous indiquer et 
motiver briivement. 

Lee vceux qui m'ont ete transmis emanent de I'TJnioD des Chambrea de commerce alle- 
mandes, et en partie de la Cfaambre de commerce de Prancfort. Je tiens k ajouter que les 
demandes qui out et£ formyl^es de ces cOt^s, je les consid^re, en ce qui me conoeme, comme 
entidrement acceptablea, et je dfeire vivement que le congr^ veuille bien y donner son assen- 
timent. 

II e'agit d'abord de I'aSranchissement dee papiers d'affaires. Comme vous le savei, la 
convention universeUe prSvoit un aSrancbissement de S centimes par 60 grammes pour les 
papiers d'affaires, maia en fixant un mininm in de taxe de 25 centimes correspoiulaDt k un poids 
de 250 grammes. Or, messieurs, le commerce estime qu'il n'a paa il payer oe m i n i mnm alora 
qu'il fait transporter dee pliers d'affaires d'un poids de beaucoup )nf£neur, et il demande la 
suppression de cette limitation de poids de 260 grammes et du minimum de taxe de 26 cen- 
times, n fotxDule la proposition suivante: 

"L'aSranchiseement dea papiers d'affaires sera fix^, conune pour les imprimis, k 5 cen- 
times pour cbaque poids ou fraction de poids de 60 grammes — sans aSranchissement minimnm 
de 25 centimes?' 

Je paaee h la deuxi^e demande qui m'a 6t6 adresaee: 

"L'aooeptatton d'envois grevfa de rembooisement sera obllgatMre pour tous les pays de 
I'Vnion poetale." 

Meseieun, voua saves qu'en t'etat actuel des choaes la convention intemationale permet 
aux fitats signataires de la convention d'accepter ou de refuaer lee envois grev^s de rem- 
bouieement, et egalement de fixer la limite de la valeur des remboursemente. Nous de- 
mandons que dans tous lee cas, I'acception d'envois grev^s de remboureement soit obligatoire 
pour tous les £tat6 de t'Unioa. 

L'ftvant-demidre pn^Kwdtion est la suivante: 

" La poete est responsable pour lea envois greves de remboursement dont cite s'est dessaisie 
sans perception du montant du remboureement." 



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250 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Meiaeura, beaucoup d'entre voub ignorant abaolument que dans le trafic intematJcniBl, 
lonqu'une adnunietratkm a accepts un envoi grev# d'un remboursement et qu'elle a livti 
cet envoi sane se faira payer, pour tout ou partie de la valeur du reinboureemeat, ell« n'est 
pas responaable via-ft-vis de I'exp6diteur. C'est 1& ime situation abaolument aoonnale, con- 
traire aux principes ^l^mentairea du droit, et nous demandons que lee administrationB qui 
ont accepts un envoi gfevi d'un remboursement Boient responsablea juBqu'& concurrence du 
montant de ce remboursement. 

Enfin, dans la demi^re question, il s'agit dea colia postaux avec valeur d^lar^. Nous 
demandons que toutes les administrationB eignataires de la convention coneemant lee colia 
postaux soient teaues d'accep(«r lea colia avec valeur dtel&r^. 

Je croia que cette proposition n'a paa besoin d'etre motiv£e autrement; il eat Evident que 
le commerce international a un grand int^t k ce que cette propoeition soit accepts. Lea 
adminiBtrationa aignataires de la convention coneemant lea colia postaux seront tenus d'ac- 
cepter les colia avec valeur d^clarfe. 

Meeeieurs, j'ai tennini. 
iTranskUion) 

1 will now take up question 2. As you know, Mr. Preaident and gentlemen, several 
of the signatory Statee of tbe Universal Postal Convention of 1906 have by virtue ot 
clause III of the final protocol of this convention preserved the weight limits and the 
tariffa of the preceding Postal Convention at Washington. It is demrable that these 
States give up this privil^e and it is on this account that we have drawn up the second 
motion which is as follows: 

2. The States subocribing to the Universal Postal Convention of 1906 which, by 
virtue of item III of the final protocol of this agreement have retained the limits of wught 
and the rates of the preceding poetal agreouent shall renounce thia exceptional practice. 

We will now paaa to No. 3. The question is here of the additional charge in the 
cose of lack of postage, or inaufficient prepayment of postage. Article 5 of the main 
univeraal convention fixea Ibe extra chaige to be paid by the addreeaee of letters and 
postal cards upon which postage has not been prepaid at double the tariff rate. In 
case of insufficient postage the extra charge is fixed at double the deficiency. 

The high rate of Uiis extra charge gives it actually the character of a fine which is 
moreover the less justifiable since it falls upon the adressee of the letter, who is not to 
blame if there ia any blame. We know, moreover, that the extra work occasioned to the 
Post-Office Department by postal matter of this description would be well compensated 
by a far lower charge, and for this reason we have formulated under item III the follow- 
ing motion: 



at 5 centimes. 

Thia brings us to No. 4. The delivery to the addressee of letters of foreign origin. 

Gentlemen, this proposal may astonish some of you. It spears natural that a letter 
delivered to a State ot the Postal Union by another State of ihe Postal Union should be 
delivered by the former to the addressee. However, a case has been cit«d to me — and 
I have had in my hands the proof of the correctneaa of the information — where a 
Postal Department of one of the European countries which received from another de- 
partment, for instance, Australia, a letter intended for a resident of thia European 
country which I will not name, has returned this letter to Australia, and baa not 
delivered it lo the addressee, because the address of the letter happened to be under a 
transparent window so that the conditions did not exactly conform to the national regu- 
lations of the countiy of destination. 

Gentlemen, other analc^ous cases of domestic regulations might occur, and it ia for 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 251 

thftt leaaon that we consider it absolutely neceasuy to cite this rule, vii., that a letter 
from one of the States of the Postal Unkm forwardnl to another State of the Union must 
be delivered to the addressee, regardless of the exterior appearance of this letter. It 
is of course understood that the exterior appearance of the letter must not be contrarjr 
to good morala or public order; but with these exceptions every letter debvered to one 
Stat« d the Postal Union by another State of the Poetal Uuiou must be delivered to the 
It is for this reason that we have proposed the following: 



We will now come to the subject of merchandise samples. The Universal Postal 
Convention No. I provides that samples of merchandise may not exceed the weight of 350 
grama and must not have a merchantable value. Gentlemen, in permitting a reduced 
rate for the transportation of asmples of merchandise the intention was to favor this 
traffic; but the special condition with which this reduction of tariff was linked has ren- 
dered its benefits illusory in many cases. It is clear that the majority of samples must 
have a merchantable value, even though small, and the term "merchantable value" is so 
elastic that it has, necessarily, given rise to very varying interpretations in the different 
States of the Union, resulting in difficulties and complications whioh we desire to abolidi. 

In our judgment, it is not the abeence of value, but the limitation of weight, which 
should establish the distinction between this claas of package and the shipments which 
are subject to customs duties and formalities. 

In most countries the business world considers the present weight limit of 350 grama 
to be insufficient and the Congress of Chambers of Commerce will respond to a general 
wish in demanding the raising of this limit to 500 grams. This increase of weight might 
be permitted the more easily since in some countries packages not exceeding 500 grams 
in weight are already exempt from customs duties. It is thus in my own oouittry, 
Switcerland, for instance. I therefore ask you to adopt the following resolution: 

5. The provision of article 55 of the Univenal Poetal Conventitm I, reading that' 
samples of merchandise must have no merchantable value, shall "be repealed. The limit 
of weight for samples shaJl be raised to 500 grams. 

This brings us to the question of postal parcels. Univetsal Postal Convention IV 
fixes the limit of weight for postal parcels at 5 kilograms. International buuness asks 
in this respect increased facilities, already provided by the postal airangements between 
certain countries. It would be satisfactory to fix this limit of weight at 10 kilograms 
— this is the limit at present allowed by the countries to which I refer — while per- 
mitting countries whose interior regulations do not permit the transportation of packages 
exceeding 5 Icilograms to retain the limit of 5 kilograms. 

The limit of weight of 10 kilograms having become the general rule, it would be de- 
sirable to creat« a special classification of express postal parcels, with a maximum 
weight of 1 kilogram, which, in consideration of a special rate, should be carried by a 
quicker way. This would satisfy a general desire of the business world for the carriage 
by letter post of samples up to the weight of 1 kilogram, a desire the consideration 
of which has up to now been hindered by objections arimng out of the customs arrange- 
ments. These objections would not tie against the proposed innovation of postal 
packages of 1 kilogram which would themselves remain subject to the customs 
regulations. 

I therefore suggest the adoption of the following motion: 

7. The Universal Convention shall establish a special cate^ry of postal parcels of 
amaximum weight of 1 kilogram which, in oonsideratirai of a special rate, shall be shipped 
by a more r^>id route. 



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»2 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

We now come to the question of delay in deliveij of poetal p&reels. While the Uui- 
veraal Convention regarding the interchange of postal parcels insuras these parcels to 
a definite, fixed extent, against loss, theft and damage, this same convention contains 
no provision, pledging the reqmnsibility of the poettd departmenta in case of delay in 
the delivery of postal parceb. A delay only renders the carrier liable when the package 
is considered as lost, that is, after the period of one year from the filing of the claim for 
delay. 

Gentlonen, international commerce suSeis from this omission. A great advance 
would be accomplished by providing a reasonable term beyond which the postal ad- 
ministration would become responsible. The term might be varied according to the 
distance, particularly if the country of destination is across the sea. If necessary, as 
pointed out in the report, a reasonable extra charge might be levied on the sender who 
is particularly interested to have his goods arrive at the desired time. But, gentlemen, 
it seems entirely abnormal and inadmissible that a loss, which might be quite consider- 
able to the sender or consignee of a postal parcel, a loss resulting from a coosidersble 
delay in deUveiy, should not in any way involve the reqmnsibility of the postal de- 
partments. 

We therefore propose for adoption the following resolution: 

8. The Universal Postal Convention shall impose on the States of the Union & rea- 
sonable period for the delivery of postal i)arcel8, varying aocordinx to the country of des- 
tination, beyond which the postal administration shall be reaponsmle. 

After the pubUcation of this report, which ia now some time since, 1 have been 
asked to complete these resolutions by the addition of four other demands, which I 
shall briefly state and explain. 

The resolutions which were sent to me emanate from the German Umon <rf 
Chambers of Commerce, and in part from the Frankfort Chamber of Commerce. I 
wish to add that the requests formulated by these bodies appear to me, as far as I am 
concerned, to be entirely acceptable, and I desire sincerely that the Congreffi may see 
fit to lend its approval. 

These refer first to the mailii^ of business peters. As you know, the Universal 
Convention provides a carriage of 5 centimes for 50 grams for business ptfreie, but fixes 
a minimum charge of 26 centimes, corresponding to a weight of 250 grams. Now, 
gentlemen, business men consider that they should not have to pay this m'P'mum rate 
when sending business p^)ers of a much lower weight, and desire the abolition of this 
limitation of weight of 250 grams and of the mmimiini charge of 25 oeatimee. Tbey 
word the proposal as follows: 

ners should be fixed, as for minted mattj,_, 

I will now proceed to the second demand which was sent to me: 



Gentlemen, under the present conditions, the International Convention pennita the 
fflgnatoiy States to accept or refuse packages for coUection on delivery, and likewise 
to set a limit of value for such collections. We ask that in all cases the acoeptanoe of 
packages for collection on delivery sh^ be obligatory for all the States of the Union. 

The last proposal but one is the following: 

"The Postal Department is respMiuble for parcels sent for collection on deUveiy and 
which it has delivered without collection of the amount of the charge." 

Gentlemen, many of you are not aware that in international traffic where a dqiart- 
ment has accepted a pan»l for collection on delivery and has delivered this package 



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CBAMBERS OF COMMMERCE 253 

without obtaining payment of the whole or part of the value of the charge, it is not 
responsible to the sender. This is an entirely abnormal situation, contrary to elemen- 
tary principles of lav, and we demand that department which have accepted a parcel 
chaiged for collection shaU be responsible until the return of the amount of the 
collection. 

Finally, the last questitm refers to postal packages with a declared value. We re- 
quest that all the administrationa who signed the convention be held to accept such 
packages with a declared value. 

I believe that this proposal does not need any further }Ust[fication: It is evident 
that international commerce would be greatly interested to have this suggestioa 
adopted. The administrations which signed the convention relative to postal parcels 
should be held to accept these packages with a declared value. 

That is all, gentlemen. 

U. 1« IMsident: M. Brett n'est pas ici7 Nous avions remis la question k aujourd'hui 
afin du tuj donner Toccasion de parler sur le sujet. 11 n'est pas ici, nous allona paaser. 

Nous avons une court« lettre k lire d'un d£l£gu£ de la Havone: 
(Trantlation) 

Mr. Brett is not here? We hod postponed the subject to to-d^ in order to 
afford him on opportunity to be heard. As he is not here, we will proceed. 
We have a short letter to read from a delegate from Havana: 

MoNBmoB CANON-LxaBAin), 

I^eeidoit of the Congress. 
Dear Sir: In behalf of the Chamber of Commerce of Havana, Island of Cuba, we offer 
our hearty support to the reform propositions of Dr. Georg in his able paper, and we wish 
especiallj' to emphasize the recommendation of this Congress to the Postal Confess to be held 
in Madnd in 1913 for the "Extension of domestic rates of postage on first-class matter to in- 
ternational correspondence within the Postal Union," such extension to begin it possible by 
the first of Janua^, 1915. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. M. Andbbiki, 
Carlos Arnoldson, 
DeUf/aiet Chamber of Commene 
Hanana, Cvba. 

M. le Prtaident: M. Manxs est inscrit, je lui donne la parole. Je prie les orateurs 
d'etre auasi courts que poaeible et de bomer leur temps de parole i, cinq minutes. (^ppUm- 

(Trantialion) 

Mr. MAma is registered and I ^e him tiie floor. I would aak tlie speakera to 
be as brief as poaaible and to limit th^ speeches to five miout«8. (jlppIouM.) 

Hen Kigo HasM, AuociatUm of Export Hovtet, Frankfort-anrlh»-Main 

Meine Herrenl Die Postfrage, welche wir heute lu behandeln habea, ist meiner Ansicht 
nach eine der wichtigsten, die den intemationalen Handelskommer-KongreB beschfiftigt. Es 
ist heutnitage n6tig, daU mun sich einen Techniker anschafft, urn lu atudieren, was die ein- 
■elnen Porto-Sfitce in den verschiedenen Staaten sind. Der Zustand, der augenblicklich 
herrscbt, besteht seit 37 Jahren. Es hat sich in dieser Zeit sehr viel verftndert, so daC ich don, 
was Dr. Georg gesagt hat, vollst&ndig beistiromen kann, um lU bitten, daB der Internationale 
EongreQ beechlieBe, daC unter alien Umst&nden das Weltporto eiuheitlich wird. Ich kann 
unter keinen Umet&Dden, da uns our fOnf Minuten Redeieit aufgelegt sind, Beispiele anfOlf 
ren, die die Unaimehmlichkeit der Versctuedenheit des Fortos lum Ausdruck bringen. 



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254 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Ich komme nim eu veischiedeDen Antrftgen, die speiiell in dem Faitgnpb 5 enthalten 
siod. D& vermisBe ich, dofi der Herr Berichterstatter etwaa eingefOgt h&t, waa eigentlidi 
unter alien tJmst&nden gebracht werden mUCte, imd ich mochte Herm Geo^ bitten, vie)- 
leicht hiuzuzufUgen, daQ bei Artikel 5 der Internationale KongreQ wQnecht, daS beiQ^icli 
der Vereendung von Kliacheea, dieselben nnter alien UmetSnden, da aie keinen Handelswert 
besktien, als Muster ohne Wert behandelt werden. Ee ist una bia heute in DeutscUand nicht 
gelungen, die deutache Reichspoat dazu lU bringen, daH diese Kliacheea als Muster ohne Wert 
veraendet werden. Wir h^>en dadurch die grOBten Schwierigkeiten mit imaeien aualaadi- 
achen Kiinden, veil, abgeeehea vom Porto, die Kunden geiwungen aind, auf die Zollimter 
lu gehen und die Sendung zu veraoUeo. 
(Translation) 

Gentlemen, the question of postage which we are treating to-day is in my opinkui 
one of the most important which engagea the attention of the International Ccmgrca 
of Chambers of Commerce. It ia necessary at the present time to employ an ejqwrt la 
study out the postal r^ulationa of the various States. Thia situation has existed for 37 
years. There have been many changes in this time so that I can fully agree in Dr. 
Georg's piopoaal to ask the International Congress to resolve that the int«niati<ma] 
postage ^ould be unifonn in every way. As only five minutes' time is allowed it is 
impoaaible for me to quote examples showing the inconveniences resulting from the 
variation in postal tariffs. 

This brings us to the various motions contained in paragraph 5. It aeema to me 
that the esteemed Reporter has omitted on addition which is quite essential, and I 
should like to aak Mr. Georg if he will not add to Article 5 that, in relatioa to the 
mailing of electrotypes, these should be accepted in all cases for mailing as "sampleH 
without value" since they possess no merchantable value. We have not aa yet suc- 
ceeded in Germany in persuading the Imperial post^ffice to accept these cuts as 
"samples without value." This occasions conaiderable difficulty with our foreign cus- 
tomers, since, even regardless of the rate, the customers are obliged to go to the 
custom-house and to pay duties. 

H. Georg: Je d^aire dire que je suis abaolument d'accord avec I'honorable prtepinant 
que aea cliche devraient £tre accepts comme &;hantillon8 sans valeur, mais j'estime qoe 
nous ne pouvons pas pr^iser dans la proposition, parce que si noua le faisions but c« point 
special, d'autres viendraient imm^diatement avec d'autres categories de produits dcmt k 
transport k ban marcbS et dans dea conditions faciles s'impose tout autant que celuiJL Je 
crois que nous devona vereer aux dfbats les declarations de I'honorable prtopinant, mais que 
noua ne pouvons pas I'introduire dons la proposition que nous avons formulae. 
iTrantlation) 

I wish to say that I am entirely agreed with the esteemed speaker, tliat his 
electros should be accepted as "samples without value," but I feel that we cannot 
well state this proposition in detail, because if we should do bo on one special detail, 
others would immediately propose other classes of products whose cheap carriage, under 
convenient conditions, would be as important as this. I beUeve that we may admit in 
our discuaaion the statements of the speaker, but that we cannot introduce it into 
the resolution which we have drawn up. 

H. le President: Je pense que c'est pr^cis^ent de cette fa^on que nous devtms torn- 
sager la discussion. Noua ne eommes pas ici des apecialistes en mati^res postales, nous sommes 
des membrea de Chambres de commerce ou d' associations commerciales ou industrielles. H 
y aura une reunion de sp^ialistes en mati^ de poete, et il me paralt difficile que, nous, con- 
stituis comme nous le sommes, nous discutitots eu detail tons ces points apSciauz. Je eerait 
abaolument de I'avis que vient d'&nettre M. Georg de verser tout ceci comme documents 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 255 

pour le coagtia epieial qui doit se tenir I'an prochain. Si nous entrions dans la discussion 

point par point, nous serions encore ici demain matin. N'est-ce pas votre avis, messieurs? 

{A pplawiusemenU. ) 

(Trantlatitm) 

I think this ia exactly the course along which we should direct our discussion. We 
are not here as specialista in postal matters; we are members of chambers of commerce 
or commercial and industrial associations. There is to be a meeting of specialists in 
postal matters, and it seems difficult for us, made up aa we are, to discuss all these 
special points. I am entirely of the opinion expressed by Mr. Georg to forward all 
these opinions as documents to the special Congress which is to be held next year. If 
we enter on the discussion point by point, we should still be here to-morrow morning. 
Is this not your opinion, gentlemen? {Applaute.) 

H. Uanes: Alois, vous ne permettea pas que je continue? 
Crranilatum) 

Then, you will not permit me to continue? 

H. le ft^aident: Qui, oui; seulement, nous n'adoptemns pas de resolution k cet effet, 
Dous verserons ces remarques comme document. 
(Tranalalion) 

Yes, certainly; but we shall not adopt a resolution to this effect, we wiU record 

these remarks as a document. , 

HeiT Hugo Uanes: Meine Herrenl Wir haben hier fenierhin den Paragraphen 6, das 
Gewicht der Postpakete betreffend. Das ist eine Sache, die meiner Anaicht nach ebenfalls 
dnrchgeftUut werden mufl, nur fehlt hier etwaa, was unseren Eiporteuren manchroal eehr 
viel Schaden und UnannehmUchkeiten macht, nAmlioh, das von einigea Staaten eingefiihrte 
gam besondere Gr61SenmaO. Es gibt verschiedene Postverwaltungen, die unsere Paatsen' 
dui^en refiisieren, wenn die Hdhe oder lAnge auch nur um einige Zentimeter differiert, und 
da handelt es sich spesiell um die Sendungen, die bis zu 5 Kilometer gehen. Was ich verlange, 
ist, daC der Post-KongreB darauf Obacht gibt, daB diese rigordsen Bestimmungen besiiglich 
geringen Unterschieds in den GrOSenmaGen bei den Poetsendungen von der Tagesordnung 
verschwinden. 

Dann handelt es sich hier noch um erne Fr^e, die ich mr Sprache bringen mdchte, das 
ist die Schadenersatipflicht der Fostverwaltung fUr Einschreibeeendungen, die dem Erapf&n- 
gerohne Inhalt Qberliefert werden. Im Artikel 8 des Weltpostvertragea heiUt es; ,,Geht eine 
Elinschreibesendung verloren, so hat der Abeender, oder auf dessen Verlangen der Empffinger 
den Fait hOherer Gewalt auagenommen, Anspruch auf eine Entsch&digung von 50 Franken." 
In meiner Praxis ist ea verBchiedene Male und in verschiedenen Lfindem vorgekommen, daQ 
kleine GegenstAnde von Waren, die einen bestimmten Wert haben, in registrierten Briefen 
geechickt wurden und behauptet wurde, daG diese Briefe ohne Inhalt abgeliefert wurden. 
Es fragt sich, ob die Fostverwaltung nicht dafUr verantwortUch ist, daB der Empfanger das 
Recht hat, die voUstiindige Sendung zu erhalten. Die deutsche Reichspostverwaltung hat 
auf meine Reklamation geantwortet, daC das nicht ginge, und ich mdchte daber den Bericht- 
erstatt«r bitten, eine kurze Bemetlcung hinzuzufdgen, daQ die Schadeuersatzpfficht der Post- 
rerwaltung fOr derartige Einschreibesendungen in voUem Mafie existiert. 
(Translation) 

Gentlemen, we now come to paragraph 6 relative to the weight of postal parcels. 
This is also a matter which, in my opinion, ought to be carried out, but one detail is 
omitted, — a question which has often caused our exporters loss and annoyance, — 
namely, the restrictions of some countries regarding dimenuons. There are some 



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256 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

poBtoffice departments wbo refuB6 our packages should the height or length be only ft 
fev centimeters out of the way, and this concenis particulariy the packages of up 
to 6 kilc^rams. What I would like would be to have the postal congress take into 
consideration the lepeal of these stringent regulations regarding trifling variations in 
the dimensions of packages. 

Still another question which I would like to mention is the Utility of the postal 
service for registered packages which aie delivered to the addressee without their 
contents. Article 8 of the International Postal Convention says: "In case of the loee 
of a registcTed package the sender or, at his request, the addressee, haa right to claim 
comi>ensation up to 50 francs, except in the case of force major." In my experience it 
has happened several times and in different countriee, that small articles having a definite 
value were mailed as registered packages and it was claimed that these padcages were 
delivered minus their contents. The question is whether the poslroffioe department 
is not liiU>le to deliver to the addressee ih« entire parcel. The German Imperial Poetal 
Department replied to my claim that this was not the case, and I should therefore 
like to ask our Reporter if he will not add a short note to the effect that the liability 
of the post-office for such roistered packages should cover the entire parcel. 

U. le Prtaident: M. SnoNiNaEB a la parole. 
(Trandalion) 

Mr. SHONiNaBB has the floor. 



Hr. Beroaid J. Shoninger, American Chamber of Commerce of Parit 

Tlie position of the American Chamber of Commerce of Paris and the experience of its 
memben places it particularly well in a position to speak authoritatively cm this subject, 
and the delegates for whom I speak can only express admiration for the wonderful care and 
study that has been given tliis question by Mr. Georg. And while we thoroughly understaod 
the difficulties — because we of the Chamber have asked at different times certain things 
from certain governments to facihtat« commercial intercoune, and we know that these ques- 
tions are fundamentally part of commercial intercourse and commercial exchange — there- 
fore we *.^inif that we should not make the attainment of our ^iimft more difficult by ^^^^^iTlg 
to the already large number of proposals that are embodied in these eight propositions. We 
therefore heartily teoommend to all the members of the Congreee to endorse and adopt unani- 
mously the propositions as proposed, without any further modification. (AppIauM.) 

Th« Praddent: The next speaker on my list is Mr. Kent. 



Ur. A. B«rton Kent, London CAam6er of Commerce 

I will take but half a minute, as we are all, I feel absolutely sure, in accord with the prop- 
ositions presented by Dr. Georg. But I thought it might be of interest to tell you that I 
was dining at the aimual baitquet of the French Chamber of Commerce in London the other 
day, when a high functionary of the postal telegr^h at Paris was present, also Mr. Samuel, 
the Postmaster-General of England. Naturally, one of the subjects of discussion was the 
reduction of the rate of postage on letters between England and France, and the Frenchmen 
hoped that we should get this rate of 10 oentimes for 20 grams between England and 
fiance alone. I very much r^ret to say that the English Postmaster-Qeneral pointed out 
that even between France and En^and that would involve the ^'^g''"*' government in a loss 
of about £300,000 — I think that is 11,500,000 — and we could not afford it. 1 was surprised 
and shocked to hear it when I believe that his department makes a prt^t of four millions 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 257 

ateriing a jrear. Tliat is only to point out to you that though we m<ut all be agreed on these 
questions, I am afraid there is not much hope of their being accepted by all other nations 
when poor little England cannot ofToid it. {Laughter.) 

H. le Pr^Bideiit: J'ai encore deux orateura inacrite, et pour ne paa prolonger le ddbat, je 
Tous propoee de dore le ngmbre dee orateurs, (Applaudiitemtnlt.) Je n'en admettrai plus. 

{TTamlaiion) 

I have still two epeeJcen registered, and is order not to prolong the debst«, I 
would suggest the closing of the number of speakers. (Applauae.) I shall not admit any 
others. 

M. Eduabdo Agusti, of Barcelona. 

U. Eduardtt Agnsti, Chamber of Commerce of BarceUma, Spain 

Monaieur le President, messieurs, je viens apporter mon petit grain de sable k ce con* 
grte. Je suia venu ici plein de bomte volenti et si . . . 

(Tnm^ation) 

Mr. Preaident, Gentlemen, I wish to add my little grain of sand to the Congress. I 
have come here full of good will and if . . . 

M. 1« Prfsident: A la question. 

{Tratulation) 

To the question. 

H. Agtuti: Je dMre done ^ettre trois vceux: 1'un d'eux est peut-Atre compris dans la 
premiere propoeition du rapport de M. Georg- Si la proposition No. 1 de M. Georg n'est 
pae adopts, ikous pourrions peut-itre du moins adopter celle-ci. 

(Traiutalian) 

I desire therefore to offer three reeolutions: one of them is perhaps covered by 
the first proposition of Mr. Georg's report. If resolution No. 1 of Mr. Georg is not 
adopted, we might possibly at leaet adopt the one which I offer. 

M. le Prfsideat: Nous ne voterona pas sur les points s^par^e. 

{Trandation) 

We cannot vote on single items. 

H. Agnstl: Premiirement, ^tendre aux pays limitrophee les taxes du pays propre. 

Secondement, que les cartes postalea que Ton vend dans les debits publics soient veikdues 
avee le timbre dessus, de sorte que I'on n'ait qu'& €crire la carte postale et la mettre & la 
poete. 

Troisidmement, que les timbres, dans tous lee pays de I'union postale universelle, soient 
interchangeables. 

ITnmdatioii) 

First, to extend to nei^iboring countries the postal tariff of the country itself. 
Second, that the postal cards sold by vendors generally may be sold with the stamp 
)re<m, so that one would only have to write on the card and mail it. 
Third, that postage stamps should be interchangeable throughout the countries of 
the UniverBal Postal Union. 



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>8 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

H. I* Pr<8ld«nt: M. le Dr. Almeida & la parole. 



Dr. Candido de Hendes de Almeida, Ddegait oS th» Gooemment o} BntU 

Messieurs, je suis charge par I'Uiuoti des conseillerH de raaa pays de lea n 
line chose qui int^resse toute les Chambres de commerce du monde. Je saie que je ae peux 
pas fairs des amendementa, je ne veux faire que des vceux. 
{TTanalation) 

Gentlemen, I am aaked by the Uuion of Councillors of my country to repreaent than 
in a matter which intereata all the chambers of commerce of the woiid. 1 know that I 
am Dot allowed to make amendmenta. I only wish to express some wishes. 

H. le President: Qui eeront d£p>os^ comme documentsT 
le documentsT 

Dr. Almeida: Oui, c'est cela. Alore le d^sir est que la franchise postale aoit donnfie k 
t«ut«8 les publications officielles des Chambres de commerce, des F6d6rationB commerciaks, 
des bulletins, d^partemente officiels et statistiques commerciales, de fa^on que ces publica- 
tions puissent passer d'un pays A I'autre avec la franchise postale integrate. 
(TTandaHon) 

Yes, that's it. The wish is then that the postal fraoohise be given to all o£Bcial 

pubbcations of the chambers of commerce, of commercial federations, bulletins, official 

departments and commercial statistics, bd that these publications may go from one coun- 

tiy to another with complete postal franchise. 

H. I« PcSsident: Vous pouves le demander. Je doute fort que toub robteniei. 
(rrondarttm) 

You may aak that. I have ettong doubta if you will get it. 

Dr. Almdda: Cert le vceu. C'est I'int^rM de tous lee pays d'avoir toua ces nnaeigae- 
ments. Alore le voeu est seulement que ces communications-lA soient pr^sent^ jk la convot- 
tion postale ainsi que toutes les publications officielles des Federations commerciales, de 
Chambres de commerce et des depart«ments officieb des pays. 
{Trandaiion) 

That is the wish. It is to the interest of all countries to have all such information. 

The wish is then only that those should be presented to the postal convention, aa weD 

as all official publications of the commercial federations, of the chambers of oommerce 

and of the official departments of nations. 

H. le PrfBident: La discussion est done close. Vous avei entendu les diffdrenta ora- 
teura, voua aves vu le d^pdt de leurs documents; je vous propose done de passer une resolu- 
tion dans oe sens, et que le comity permanent ait pour mission d'attirer I'attention du Bureaa 
International de I'Union Postale sur les d^pAta qui ont m faita au cours de cette stance et 
de veiaer k ce bureau les documents que nous svons regus k ce sujet. 

Je propose done d'avoir la rdsolution suivante: 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 259 

The diaciuBioii is Uien cloeed. You h&ve heard the difierent speakera. You have 
seen the text of their documenta and I would propose the passage of a resolution im 
that sense, that the Pennuieut Committee should have authority to draw the atten- 
tion of the International Bureau of the Postal Union to the propodtions which have been 
presented in the course of this sitting, and to turn over to that bureau the documents we 
have received on the subject. 

I propose, therefore, the following resohition: 



If. le President; M. le rapporteur Obobo a la parale. 
The Reporter, Mr. Gboro, has the floor. 

M. Georg: Je pense que vous 6t«8 tous d'occord que je demands K la prisidence de 
Touloir bien faire mettre au vote les propositicns qui sont consignees dans le rapport que je 
TOUS ai prieente tout k I'heure. 
iTrandaHon) 

I belike you will all agree that I may request tbe Chair to be so kind as to take 

a vote on the propositions which ^tpear in the report that 1 presented to you a short time 



M. le Pr<sid«nt: Si nous Totons point par point? 
(Translation) 

A vote on each point? 

H. Qtotg: NoQ, it a ete convenu au d^but que nous voterions sur I'eneemble de ces 
propositions, et que les observations formulas seroient vera^ee au d£bat. 
(Transtdticm) 

No, we have agreed at the outset that we vote on the ensemble of the proposi- 
tion, and that tbe observations made would be deposited at tbe desk. 

U. le President: Oui. Je demands done de passer un vote sur I'ensemble des proposi- 
tions, etant entendu que les observations formuUes aprte seront vers6es au dfbat k titre de 
documents. Eet-ce que la chose est bien comprise? Ceux qui sont d'avis de voter la r^lu- 
tion dans ce sens, qu'ils veulent bieo lever la main. (.Levte de maina gintrate.) L'6preuve 
contraire. (fersonnc ne Ihe la main.) II n'y a done pas d'opposition; en consequence la 
question est ainsi vid£e. 
{Tnmtlalion) 

Yes. I request then a vote on the ensemble of the propositions, it being understood 

that the observations expressed afterward shall be deposited at the desk as documents. 

Is the matter well understood? Those who favor the resolution in this sense, please raise 

their hands. {General rawing of handt.) Any opposition? (No handt art raited.) Then 

there is no opposition; as a result the question is thus settled. 



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INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 



THE DESIRABILirr OF UTTERNATIONAL DNIFORHITT OF 
ACnON IK THE UATTER OF CONSULAR INVOICES 

H. i« Pr^Bidaat: M. Tbomas Sammons remplace le rapporteur M. W. J. Cmt. 
(TrandaUm) 

Mr. Thomas Saum onb takes the place of tlte Reporter, Mr. W. J. Can. 

{Mr. TTiomiu Sammtmi is ealUd and hat the fioor.) 

Hon. Tbomas Sammmu, Untied Stales Contvl Omerat, Tokoahma, Japan 
Gentlemen: 

An hoikor has been suddenly thrust upon me ia being selected to pi«0Mit to this distin- 
guiahed assemblage the question of uniformity in consular invoices. The ideal MmMilar 
service of the world to-day contemplates the maintenance of a capable body of tmined 
men who are chiefly concerned in the promotion and extension of trade. Therefore, and 
because of his extended kikowledge of the subject, I deeply regret that the director of the 
consular service of the State Department of my government is unable to be present- While 
Mr. Carr, I am sure, could learn much from you, gentlemen, I am also equal^ CMifidei>t that 
be could contribute much of interest. 

In medieval times the consular service was concerned in the adjustment of trade troubles, 
and the same condition of affairs practically continues to-day. The consular service, tbe 
world over, and of all nations, is very fortunate in finding a good friend in the Intematicoud 
Chambers of Commerce when it becomes necessary or desirable to take up a question of the 
kind which Mr. Carr has reported on. 

While there are many questions involved with reference to consular invoices and consular 
fees, tbe chief step, the important step, which may possibly be taken here and now, is with 
reference to simplification and unification of consular invoices. Having that thou^t in 
mind, I will summarize tbe report made by Mr. Carr, which calls attention to the fact that 
this subject has been taken up at four seaaions of the International Conference of American 
States, and at the last conference formal action was taken approving uniformity and aimpb- 
city in a consular invoice which would save much time, save much mJsunderalAnd ing, also 
would cost less money if it were accepted and adopted. And the opinion prevails that if 
action were taken by this distinguished body in favor of unifomity and simplicity, that then 
the various countries concerned — and in fact all the exporting countries of the world aie 
concerned — would gradually fall into line and accept the form which has been ^proved 
after careful study running over four or five yean. 

That form has been placed before you in Mr. Carr's report. It will be unneccaaary for 
me to go into details. The matter is entirely before you and you are ready to act tiker«on. I 
would only say the question of simplicity and uniformity, putting aside all other questions widi 
reference to fees, with reference to whether a consular invoice is a good thing or not, is bdoK 
us to-day; and I trust that we may be able to act in favor of imifonnity and simplicity. 

I thank you. 

H. le PriddMit: M. Manuel Jacintho Febreika da Cunha a la parole. 
iTrattdatum} 

Mr. Manuel Jacintho Febrkira da CnnHA has the floor. 

H. H. J. Ferreln da Cunha, Conml General of BnuH, New York, N. Y.: Je fais d&istanoe 
d« la parole, je ne peux pae parler. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

(rranttofion) 

I will give up the floor; I cannot speak. 

H. le Prteident: Vous ne voulei pas parler, vous vous d^siatei? 
(Trantlaium) 

You do not wish to speak, — you yield the floor? 

M. H. J. Femirm da Cimtaft: Oui, monsieur. 



Dr. Edmnnd KuhobI, AtaitlaTii Secrelary in Ihe Royal Htmgariati Miniitry of Commeree; 
Ddtgate of Royal Govemmenl itf Hungry 

The question of unifyii^ consular invoices may be called an essentially American ques- 
tion, because mvoices provided with a consular vUi are predominantly requested in the Amei^ 
ican Republics. 

The question has, of course, too, an international character, inasmuch as it is also of con- 
siderable interest to nations importing into the American states that the regulations referring 
to the consular legaliiation of invoices by the American states ahould be stipulated in a manner 
which will cause to trade as Uttle vexation as possible. 

The most ideal international regulation of consular invoices will be to abolish them en- 
tirely. (Criei of "Hear, htarl") We in Hungaiy abolish them almost entirely except in the 
most exceptional cases. NeverUieleas, this is the ideal. 

First, I must in the interest of redressing thoee complaints made against consular invoices 
which prompted the manager of the Honorable Congress to put this question on the order of 
the day, readily second the proposition lying before the Honorable Congress according to 
which the Congress should express its desire to fix uniform regulations with regard to invoices 
in countries where invoices provided with consular authentication are requested, and that 
authentication should be restrahied to as few invoices as possible. 

It is very important that while unifying consular invoices it should be generally and uni- 
formly set down that the consular authentication should be effected as much as possible by 
the consulate having authority at the place of origin and not by the consulate of the seaport 
from which the goods are shipped to the state of destination. 

Stress must be laid on this measure, since for the sake of the compilations of international 
statistics, which ate mostly based on the facta Bscertained by the customs manipulation, goods 
should be registered according to their real place of origin. 

Under the present conditions, when consular invoices are for the most part legalized at 
the place of shippii^, it is impossible to form a precise idea of the real foreign traffic of these 
goods, as the exports from countries which have no seacoaat at all or possess no direct shipping 
connection are registered much below reality. 

This circumstance is very disadvantageous not only to American business men, who from 
these statistics are unable to get information about the very origin of the goods imported, 
but also to the conclusion of commercial treaties for which reliable statistics form an indis- 
pensable basis. 

The knowledge of the real foreign traffic is a very important economical factor. In order 
to find out the real amount of the foreign traffic of the American states it is therefore neces- 
sary that invoices should always be authenticated by consulates having authority at the real 
place of origin, and not at the port of departure, as it has to take place now in many States. 

The President: Mr. Benst. 



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262 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Ht. Lawrence V. Benet, American Chamber of Commerce <^ Pari* 

Gentlemen, the delegates of the American Chamber of Commerce of Paris, owing to the 
very aituation and daily experience of the memlMre with conmilar invotcee, are placed in a 
position favorable tor thoroughly appreciating the necessity for uniformity not only in 
consular invoices but also in certificates of origin. While we believe that means can and even- 
tually will be found to abolish the conmitar invoice, at the same time safeguaiding govero- 
mental interests and those of the world of commerce, we aie well aware of the present difficulties 
so ably set forth in the report which has been made before us. We dierefore heartily i^^prove 
and second the propositions of Mr. Wilbur J. Carf, who from his wide and long experience, 
and as director of the United States Consular Service, has been able to give this matter such 
profound and enlightening investigation. 

Gentlemen, I thank you. 

H. le Pr^^dent: M. Downs eat appel^ pour prendre la parole. 
(.Trtm^aHtm) 

Mr. Downs has the floor. 

Mr. Wmam C. Downs, New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Freeident and Gentlemen: 

Mr. Carr, in the report that baa been placed before you tm the matter of Consular In- 
voices, baa BO carefully indicated and described and so skilfully tabulated the principal points 
of difierence in the fonns of such invoices as at present required by various companies aa 
essential parts of the shipping documents covering goods which are imported by them, that 
it appears to me 1 shall best serve the purpose of the discussion by considering some of the 
consular requirementa a little more in detail from the practical point of view of the exporter 
to the Latin-American countries. The same difficulties and inconveniences will be encoun- 
tered by the European exporter as by the American shipper, since, with the exception of some 
alight modifications due to reciprocity treaties or favored nation clauses in the Paris regula- 
tions, the consular requirements of any particular country are the same, no matter whether 
the goods are exported from Europe or from the United States. As Mr. Carr veiy justly 
B^B, the question is one afiecting every exporting country on the globe. With your pennia- 
eioB, therefore, I will consider the consular regulations of some of the countries separately, 
beginning with the one which presents the least difficulties. 

The method of Uruguay is a model of simplicity, and is ^>psrently entirely adequate to 
its purpose. Absolutely no consular invoice, as such, is required; three copies of the bill of 
lading, however, must be presented to the Uruguayan consul, on two of which he places his 
official seal and returns them to the shipper. The third copy is retained by the consul, and 
must bear an endonement in Spanish giving a description of the goods, their marks and num- 
bers, the number of packages, their cubic measurement, net and groes weights and their value. 
A fixed fee of only $1.00 Uruguayan gold is charged for certifying these bills of lading. Such 
a document presents no difficulties to the shipper and entails so loss of time in mniHng it up. 

Costa Rica's system is also quite simple. While it is true that the consul in the port of 
•hipment does not certify an invoice, the shipper is required to make up and forward to the 
consignee with the other shipping documents an invoice on a special form for custom-house 
purposes, which is certified at the port of entry where the corresponding fee is also paid. 

The next most convenient system is that of the Argentine Republic. A certificate of 
origin, in Spanish or the language of the coimtry from which the shipment is made, stating 
the marks, number of packages, class of goods, their weight or quantity and their country of 
origin, and signed by the shipper, is attached to three of the bills of lading and oertified by 
the consul, tbe charge being only S2.00 for any shipment irrespective of its value. No state- 
ment of value is required. Two of these bills of lading eventually reach the consul Utrough 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMEECE 2o3 

the steamrfiip oompanjr. Thta again preeenU no difficulties, but involvea a Uttle more labor 
tliAD in the case of Uruguay. 

Hayti's method ia similar, Uie difference being that aiz copiee of a consular invoice de- 
scribing ib.« goods in mora detail and alao stating their value must be made up in either 
Froich or tJ^el'"*' on prescribed forms purohosed of the consul, who is also required to see and 
stamp five signed copies of the bill of lading, of which he returns four. This naturally involves 
still more labor and toes of time on the part of the shipper. There is, however, no charge for 
the certification of the documents. 

Next comes Brsail, whose requirements are three copies of a consular invoice on a pre- 
scribed form in Portuguese or the language of Ote country of origin, which are certified by the 
consul for a fixed fee of S1.Q6, and which must state the marks, number of packages, general 
class of the goods, their gross, net aitd legal weights, their value and origin, and the approxi- 
mate freif^t and otlier expenses. One of these copies is retained in the archives of the con- 
sulate, one is forwarded by the consul to the Federal Government in Rio de Janeiro, and the 
third reaches the eostom-houae in the port of entry through ihe consignee of the goods. The 
chief diffiotilty of the shipper in fulfilUng these requirements is that it is often practically 
inqKMsible to obtain from the manufacturer or supplier an accurate statement of the three 
clasaea of weights for his gooda. He may easily fnrniah the gross wagbt of tlie shipping pack- 
ages, the weight of the goods in their oontaiuen or wrappers, but he seldom knows the actual 
net wught of his product and is likely to eatimal« it or to omit it entirely, being unaware of the 
fact ihat the cualom-house regulations of Braail clearly state that "for any difference from 
the deelarationa of the consular invoice, in the contents of the volume or volumes, found at 
the time of examining the goods, ibe owner or consignee shall be fined double duties whatever 
be their amount, for the difference found, be it a difference in quality, weight, lower tax or 
valuation," and that "the declaration in the invoice of the gross weight of the merchandise, 
when the duties are payable on the net weight, or vioe-verea, incurs the same penalty. To 
take a concrete example of the woridng of this regulation, suppose that a shipment is being 
made of resin, a very common article of export from the United States to Braail. It is the 
trade custom in the United States that resin is bought and sold gross weight for net; that is 
to say, from the nature of the article, the wooden container or barrel forming an almost integral 
part of the goods, the buyer pays so much per pound for the gross weight of the package. 
The eustom-house regulations of Braiit, however, concede an arbitrary tare on resin of 20 per 
cent. The average slupper, being unaware of this r^ulation, would in the natural course of 
events declare in his consular invoice only one weight, the gross weight, the only weight which 
he knows. In ocmaequence of such a declaration the consignee would be obliged to pay 20 
per cent mote duties than he should, and would moreover be fined an amount equal to theee 
excess duties. In other words he would pay 40 per cent more duties than he should, for which 
he would naturally bold tlie ah^'per responsible. 

The next general class of ctmaular invoices is that in which die certification fee ia deter- 
mined by a fixed percentage of the value of the goods, there being in most casee a minimum 
cha^e. In this class the fee is evidently for the purpose of raising revenue and forms a tax 
on the goods, which is eventuaDy borne by the importer. To this group belong Bolivia, 
Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Panama and Peru. The percentage, however, is not uniform, and 
Utere are other differences in the respective requirements. 

Bolivia ooUects 2 per cent of the value of the goods alone, exclusive of freight and other 
charges, with a minimimi charge of S2.00, and requires that the manufacturer's originid invoice 
or a copy of the sworn custom-house clearanoe and the bills of lading shall be shown the 
consul as evidence that the value is correctly stated. 

Panama charges A of 1 per cent with minim ntn of Sl.OO, and also Sl.OO for certifying 
Uie bill of lading up to the value of SlOO; for over SlOO, $3.00 is charged. CerUfioates of 
insurance must be shown the consul as proof of the value. 

Peru ooUeets th» uniform fee of 1 per cent of the value of the goods alone, irrespective of 
the siie of the shipment. 



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264 INTERNATIONAL CONORE88 OP 

Eciudor'B chargM an &bo on Uie value of the goode alone and amount to 3 per cent witti 

a ininimimi of $1.00. 

Cuba's fee ie only i^ of 1 per cent on amounta over $200; for amaller amounta then are 
certain fniwimnm fees. The bille of lading must also be oertified at a charge of $1.00 per aet. 

Colombia divides its consular invoices into three claaaea; The first ooverB articles mdered 
by the government, or the diplomatic coipSi educational supplies, aeeda, plants and animals, 
no charge being made for the certification of the corresponding invoioes. The seccmd elaas 
includefl supplies for railroads, agriotilture, mines, etc., the fee being 1 per cent. 

The third class embraces all other general merchandise, on which the charge ie 3 per oent, 
except for articles of gold, silver and precious atones on which 6 per cent is collected. Tbe 
amount of Qm expenses must also be stated. These charges, however, are not on the value of 
the goods plus freight, insuranoe, commissioD aiul all otlier charges. This regulation, as in 
tiie case of Nicaragua, that the fee shall be coUected <ni the amount of the shipping expenses aa 
well as on the value of the goods causes great inconvenience to the shipper and often renden it 
impoeaible that the shipping documents be forwarded by the steamer carrying the goods. It 
is obvious that in order to comply faithfully with theee regulations, and he must comply faith- 
fully or render himself liable to heavy fince, the shipper cannot make up his oonsular invoice 
until he is in possession of all the details. He cannot know the exact amount of the freight 
until he actually receives ibe bills of lading from the steamship cmnpany and oft«n goods are 
placed on board up to a few hours before the sailing of the steamer. He eamtot calculate tlie 
amount of the insuranoe which he most cover until he knows the frei^t and has ^>prmdma- 
ted the other expenses, as prepaid freight and other advance charges must be iiunu«d as well 
as the goods titemselves. "Dien he must determiite the amount of his commission, if be is a 
commissioa merchant, which ie naturally figured on all disbursements. All this takes time 
and labor and leaves no time for the preparation of an accurate consular invoice and obtain- 
ing its certification by the consul before the steamer leaves, if the bills of lading are received 
only at the last moment. No rush orders can be executed. The shipper from New York 
e this di£Scul^ in some instances by forwarding his shipping documents after the 
!r has sailed via Mobile or New Orleans, trusting to luck that by thus employing a part 
nil and part water route his papers may reach their deetination before the arrival of the ste»- 
mer canying the goods. This method, however, is uncertain and is not available to European 
shippers or shippers from Mobile or New Orleans tbemselvee. If tlie consignee does not receive 
fais psfwrs in time he cannot take his goods out of the custom-house on their arrival and may 
have to pay heavy storage charges and may possibly incur a fine. 

The next and last classification which I make of consular invoices has the dirting<iiwhing 
feature that the fee is not a fixed sum or a definite percratage of the value, but is an aibi- 
traiy amount which varies according to the value of the shipment but in no proportionate 
ratio. This group is a Urge one and embraces the following countries: Chile, Guatemala, 
Hoiuluras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Salvador, Santo Domingo and Venetuela. There are also 
various differenoes in the requirements of the countries compodng this class, some taking only 
the value of the goods into consideration, others collecting the fee on the freight and other 
charges aa well; some requiring separate invoices for each shipping mark, others permitting 
several shqtping marks to appear on the same invoice. The objection to calculating the 
fee on the expenses has already been pointed out; the system of charging arbitrary sums for 
specified amounts is unjust to the small importer and gives an undue advantage to the larger 
importer. Consider briefly the fees of tbe different countries in this group. 

Chile charges $2.00 on the value of goods up to $250; $2.60 up to $300; $3.00 on the 
value of goods up to $450; $3.50 up to $500; $7.50 up to $1250; S13.50 up to S2500; $28.00 
up to $5000. As it is the importer who eventually pays the fee, it is evident that tbe 
merchant who imports $5000 worth of goods is taxed only i per cent, while the man 
who buys $300 at a time pays 83-100 of 1 per cent, and he who purchases $600, 1) per 
cent. The larger the importer, the greater the advantage which his own govenunent pves 
him over his smaller competitor. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 265 

In Guatenula the djaenmm«tian in favor of the Urge man ■■ atill greatw. For iooda 
vahied up to SW.M the fee is S7.00; op to S44I».M it is SIO.OO; up to S9W.99 it is $14.00; up to 
12990.99 it ie 116,00; up to S5909.9g it is S20.00. ForS6000uidoTerit iaS30phuS2f(»ew^ 
additional SIOOO ot fracticm therecJ. On this basis the importer of (10,000 worth of goods 
would be taxed S28 or a little mam than i of 1 per tent, while lh« teOO importer wonU bav« 
to pay $14 or nearly 3 per cent. 

Such great diflemiees alao funtiah a strong temptation to under-vahiatkm of goods, which, 
alUiough the under-vatution may be very slii^t, is neverthelesB dwnoraliaing. Suppose the 
true vahie oi the goods is S502; if honeatly declared the fee would be (14, while it wooM be 
only $10 if they were declared at $496. 

For H<Hiduras the fee on goods valued up to $25 is $1.00; up to $50 is $1.50; up to $100 it 
U $3.00; up to $500 it is $6.00; up to $1000 it is $10.00. For over $1000 it is $10 phw 25 cents 
for each $100 up to $10,000. For over $10,000, it ■ $32.50 plus <»ly Ifi cents for each $100. 
Thus for $500 you are taxed U per cent, while for $10,000 coly 1 of 1 per cent. 

In the case oi Menoo the fees change for every $500 with the advantage always in favor 
of the laige importer, alUiou^ not in so marked a degree as in some other cases, $500 paying 
about ( of 1 per cent and $5000 about i of 1 per cent. 

Nicaragua preemte the following case, the fee being: $2.50 up to $100; $3.00 up to $200; 
$5.00 up to SSOO; $10.00 up to $1000. In excess of $1000 the fee is $10 and (of 1 per cent 
of the esoeae. Hence the importer of over $1000 has a great advantage over the smaller im- 
porter. Nicaragoa also ealeulatea its fees on the frei^t and other chafes. 

Salvador also penaliiea the amoll man by charging $1.00 on invoicee up to $25; $2.00 
up to $100; $4.00 up to $500; $6.00 up to $1000. For over $1000 the charge is $6.00 plus 
25 oenta per $100. For over $5000 the chai^ is $16.00 plus 10 cents per $100. Thus the 
tax on $500 is $4.00 or | of 1 per cent, while on $10,000 it is $21, or only t of 1 per cent. 
A similar acale for Santo Domingo compels the $500 importer to pay $3 or | of 1 per 
oent, whUe the $10,000 importer pays $11 or 11-100 of 1 per cent. The scale is: $1.00 for $50; 
$2.00 for $200; $3.00 for $1000; $4.00 for $2000; $5.00 fw $4000; for over $4000 the charge is 
$5.00 plus $1.00 for each $100. 

Venesuda has a still different range of fees, the charges running: $3.75 for up to $100; 
$5.00 for up to $200; $7.50 for up to $800. For over $800 the consul coUecta $7.50 plus $1.25 
for each $200. Thus $500 pays $7.60 or li per cent; $1000 pays $8.60 or 85-100 of 1 per 
ewit; $10,000 pays $63.76 or 64-100 of 1 per cent. 

In the interests of fair play to their own merchanta the countries in this last group should 
revise their scale of consular fees and put them upon a percentage basis, no matter what ao- 
tdon they nu^ take in the matter of securing uniformity of such invoices. 

The disadvantage to the small importer might be overcome were the shipper permitted 
to consolidate shipments to various parties on a bill of lading and issue only one consular in- 
voice, consigning all the goods to one party for distribution. This, however, is prevented by 
the regulation of most of the countries that only one shipping mark may appear on the con- 
Dular invoice. It is possible, of course, to give all the goods one general shipping mark, design 
Dating the separate consignees by the different numbers given to the package composing the 
shipment, but this recourse is generally available only to the lai^e commission houses who 
may have several clients in one place — and seldom to the manufacturer who does a direct 
business — and these customers must all be on good terms with each other and consent to the 
arrangement. In any ease it is liable to cause delay in the execution of the order, confusion 
in the deUvery of the goods and makes it impossible to negotiat« each invoice separately. In 
short, it is generally unsatisfactory. 

This system of calculating fees alao works somewhat to the restraint of trade in r^dering 
it extremely difficult to make 0. I. F. quotations, — that is to say, quotations which include 
the ooet, insurance, freight and all other charges. Practically all articles that are sold in bulk 
or that are subject to violent Saotuations in [oice should be sold on cable quotations, subject 
to acceptance by cable, these quotations being the price per unit deUvered in the port of entiy. 



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266 INTERNATIONAL C0NOBES8 OF 

With the consular fees or tazes, however, vaiying in no fixed ratio to the value or quantity, 
it is impoaaible to detenniite a unit, Thus the countries using this synteni force their mer- 
chants to do a business which is unnecessaiilj speculative. 

I have gone thus into detail in the matter of consular AquiremcDts in older to emphasise 
Uie importance of mwlfing some reforms. It is now two years since the resolutions cited by 
Mr. Oarr were adopted by the Conference of American States in Buuioe Aires and nolhiog 
whatever has been done. It is possible that the matter has not been brought forcibly eaoM^ 
to the attention of commercial organisations such as are represented at this Congress. 

After examining this somewhat formidable di^lay of the differences and difficulties in 
the documents, it might be asked why are consular invoices required. They ^puently serve 
one or more of three puipoees. 

First, to facilitate statistical work. 

Second, to classify and value the goods for custom-house puxposee and to prevent false 
entriee. 

Third, to raise revenue. 

As to the first, the making of consular invoices would ^tpear to cause unneoeesaiy labor 
and loss of time. All steamship companies require that the bill of lading shall show maib, 
numbers, numbers of packages, class of goods, quantities and value. If the consul requires 
tlieee particulars for bis records, an extra copy of the bill of lading can easily be furnished him 
as in the case of Uruguay. The custom-house at the port of entry gets an identical record, as 
a bill of lading must be presented to the consignee when the goods are entered. These two 
copies should be sufficient for all statistical purposes. 

As for the second object, the bill (rf lading again answen every requirement end is again 
supplemented by the consignee's custom-house entry. If desirable a separate invoice may be 
prepared for custom-house ends as in the ease of Costa Rica, and it is immaterial whether it 
ia certified at the point of shipment or at the port of entry — for it must be borne In mind 
that in the final arkalysis it is the shipper's word that the consul takes that the statements in 
the consular invoice axe true and correct. He has neither the time nor \he means to verify 
them himself. 

In regard to the third object, to ruse revenue, it has already lieen pointed out that it 
is the consignee who eventually pays all the consular fees, since the shipper invariably eith^ 
eharges them separately in his commercial invoice or adds them to the price of the goods, 
be they anall or large. It therefore seems to be a circuitous method of taxation, giving ub- 
rkeoessary trouble and causing loss of time to the wrong party. 11)0 fee or tax could be col- 
lected more directly at the port of entry by adding its amount to the duties as a sui-tax to 
mftint.aiii, if you will, the cousulaT service. It is well to note that none of the counbries re- 
quiring consular invoices are free-trade countries, although there are countries which require 
no consular documents aitd which still have a hi gh tariff; hence it woukl necessitate no new 
machinery to collect the fee in this way. 

I venture to suggest, therefore, that to facilitate international commercial relations, the 
aim of the International Congress of Chambers of Commerce should be, not merely to secure 
uruformity in the matter of consular invoices, but to abolish them entirely, as documents 
whose purpose can be more conveniently served otherwise. The certificate of origin reqiured 
for goods affected by tariff treaties may be ret^ned, as it gives but little trouble, althou^, 
be it said with all due respect to the consular service, the certification by the consul of such a 
document is a farce, as he never verifies the statements, the word of the shipper being taken 
as sufficient evidence. The abolition of consular invoices would cause a great saving to the 
shipper in time and labor and in the hire of clerks who must be familiar with the requirements 
of various coiutries, woukl relieve the consignee of many fines occasioned by the fact that 
many of the present forms are simply traps for the unwary, and would give the consuls them- 
selves more leisure to devote to studying business conditions and to Teport on matteia that 
would promote the commercial interests of their respective countries. The consul whoes 
time is taken up by the merely routine work of certifying invoices and recording fees cannot 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 267 

do much in the way of indepeDdent reeeuch which might be of great value. It might be well 
to uot« in thia connection that most of the countriee of Europe, some of which are free-trade 
and acme of which are high tariff countriea, get along veiy well without consular documents. 
Their statistics are just as compIet«, their custom-houses do not suffer any more through 
fraudulent entries and their revenues are maintained as well as in the case of countries requir- 
ing such documents. 

This is the ideiJ. Failing to reach this, strive for the second beet — umformity of con- 
sular invoices. For this the form recommended by the Fourth International Conferenos of 
American States held in Buenos Aires in 1910, a copy of which has been submitted by Mr. 
CfUT, seems to answer the purpose. 

If even this cannot be attained, or perhaps as a preliminaiy step to this end, the coun- 
tries which collect fees on shipping expenses and those whose fees are disproportionate fixed 
sums for specified ajnounta should at least reform these inconvenient requirements. 

My recommendation, then, in the matter of consular invoices, in the order of desire 
bility, would be; — AboUtion, Standardisation or Modification. 

I beg to thank you, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, for the courtesy and attention with ' 
which you have listened to this necessarily dry and technical exposition and argument. 

The President: The next speaker has token considerable interest in tliis matter, is 
especially fitted to apeak upon it, and I think you will all be pleased to hear him. 

Hon. John Barrett, THreelor'Qentnd of fAe Parii-AmerUan Union 

Mr. President, and Members of the Congress: 

I shall take but a moment of your time thia morning, because I know how little time is 
now left to the Congress. But I shall explain why I wish to say a word upon this subject. 

The Pan-American Union, of which I happen to be executive officer, is greatly interested 
in this problem, because perh^is no other official institution in the world appreciates moro 
the necessity for improving the facilities for exchange and trade among nations. For the in- 
formation of some of the European delegates who are here I want to say this, that the Pan- 
American Union is an international organisation maintained in Washington by the joint 
contributions of the 21 American republics, from the United States and Mexico on the north 
to Argentina and Chili at the south. Its governing board is made up of ambassadors and 
ministers of those countries and its affairs are directed by a director-general and assistant- 
director chosen by that board. 

I stand before you in my capacity as an officer, an international officer, not only of the 
United States but of the other 20 republics of the Western hemisphere, to urge upon you 
the adoption of a resolution, if presented, in favor of uniformity of consular invoices, to im- 
prove md facilitate the exchange of trade. 

Evety day our correspondents bring to us letters not only from American manufacturers 
and merchants, but from those of Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, England, all over 
the world, asking if the Pan-American Union as a great international organisation cannot do 
Bometbing t« advance the cause of uniformity of consular invoices. 

I want to say also that there is the sentimental side. As the head of the international 
organization which to^y is doing the best possible work for peace, an organization which 
is pertts^ doing more woik along this line than any other great official organization of the 
world in a practical form, that being the great thing for which we are all woricing, I would 
say that there is nothing that promotes friendship and accord among nations so greatly as 
the extension of trade. . Trade is the apostle, the agent of peace and prosperity throughout the 
world, and the more we can do to make the exchange among nations facile, the mora we can 
do to remove the difficulties and obstacles, the nearer we will come to the ultimate object of 
this organization — that of peace among all nations. 

1 want to say this, tiiat the Pan-American Congress held in Buenos Aires in 1910, in 



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268 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Rio de Jameiio id 1906 and in Mexico in 1901, to which I had the honor to be a delegate for 
the United States — and even the one which met before in Wuhington, nearly 20 years ago, — 
dealt with this subject as one of the most profound interest to the three hundred or four 
hundred men who gathered from every one of the nations of the Western hemisphere. If it 
is of interest to tliem, it is of interest to all the world. 

The Pan-American Union, as I have often said, although controlled and developed by 
the American nations, being an American organiiatton, has nothing whatever in its constitu- 
tion or work that is antagonistic to Europe. On the other haikd, it is desirous of soeing trade 
between the Latin-American countries and the United States, and Europe and the Orient, 
built up, because it is of interest and benefit to aU. This concerns the countries of Europe 
just as much as it does the United States aitd South American countries; aitd so I appeal to 
you to go forward in a spirit of faimesa, as men who want to see every country get the ad- 
vantage in trade, consid^ing the proposition in a fair wi^, and in some manner getting some- 
thing practical out of the discussions this morning. 

Gentlemen, I thank you. 

H. le Prfiaident: M. C H. Catelu a maintenant la parole. 
iTraruiatvm) 

Mr. C. H- CateuJ, now has the floor. 

H. C. H. Catelli, Member of Montreal ChanAer of Comment 

Monsieur le President, messieurs les membres du congrte international, je repr^sente la 
Chambre de commerce de Montr^. Comme I'a dit M. WiUnir Garr, il faut de plus en plus 
tendre h la simplification des moyens pennettant aux nations d'avoir des relations les imes 
avec lee autres. 

Faire I'^conomie du travail et dee capitaux et faire I'accord mutuel oomme base dea re- 
latione, tant politiques que commercisJes; et pour arriver & cette simplification, & cette £co- 
Qomie et vers cet accord mutuel, M. Carr reconunande d'assurer la r^ementation uniform 
en ce qui conceme la facture paraph^ par les consuls. Or, la Chambre de commerce de Mon- 
tr^ (Canada), soumet respectueusement k ce congr^ s'il ne serait pas desirable d'&ar^r le 
cadre de la question qui nous occupe en ce moment et d'^mettre le vteu que le gouvernements 
des divers pays repr^sent^ k ce congrto, autorise les Chambres de commerce & Ifgaliser les 
dcritures d'expMiteurs, cranme cela se fait d£j& par le consul en vertu du traits qui r^e lee 
relations commerciales du Canada avec la France. Cette autorisation est donn£e aux presi- 
dents des Chambres de commerce et aux pr^idents des associations commerciales en Italie. 
Je crob que le prudent des Chambres de commerce a cette autorit4 nulle part autant qu'au 
Canada. Cette innovation aura d'heureux rfeultats. I^e Canada est appel^ & deveuir un grand 
pays d 'exportation, mais le nombre de consuls n'est pas aussi considerable qu'il devrait I'Stre. 
Or, si les gouvernements exigent un certificat d'origine vis* par les consuls, les exportateurs 
canadiens auront k souSrir de graves inoonvenients, et il en serait de m£me pour tous [lays 
oii le territoire est immense. 

En Canada, les consuls sont etabUs dans les grandee villes. Or, on ne peut se rendre 
compte dea ennuis dea eiportateurs que le jour oil il faudra se rendre che* le consul pour faire 
viser les factures. D'un autre cAte, il existe des Chambres de commerce dans toutee les villes. 
On voit quels services peut rendre une toi qui aulorise les prfsidenls dea Chambres de com- 
merce k parapher les factures; c'est par ce moyen qu'on arrivera k simplifier toutea les 
formality qui r^gissent les rapports entre les commergants des divers pays. 
(rrandn/Mm) 

Mr. President, Members of the International Congress, I represent the Chamber 

of Commerce of Montreal. As Mr. Wilbur Carr has said, there is more and more need 

for the simplificatioD of the means by which nations have relations with one another. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 269 

Wtdi a Tiew to the econonqr of e^Mt«l and labor and with a view to '"■^'"e mutual 
good win the fouodatioa ot hoOi poUtical and commercial relations, and in order to 
arrive at thia •ooaomy and to ^>proach this mutual good will, Mr. Cair recommends 
unifoim regulatioDa in the nuktter of cmuular invoices. Na-w the Chamber at Commerce 
of Monb«al, Canada, respectfully submits to this CongresB whether it will not be de- 
sinible to enlarge the scope of the question which we have under conaiderati<m at this 
time, and to adopt a resolution that the governments of the different countries repre- 
sented at this Congress authorise chambers of commerce to legalise the documents of 
exporters, as is dime alre«dj by the consul under a treaty which regulates the commer- 
cial rebtions of Canada with France. This authority is given to the preudenU of 
chambera of cmnmeree and to the presidents of oommercial associations in Italy. I 
think that the |we«idents of chamben of commerce have this authority nowhere as 
much as in Canada. Thia innovation will have very happy reaulta. Canada is becoming 
a greftt exporting country, but the number of consuls is not as large as it should be. 
Now if the governments demand a oertificate of origin viaU by the consuls, Canadian 
exporters will have to suffer great tntxmvenience, but it will be the same for all coun- 
ties where the territory is immmse. 

In Canada the consuls are located in the large cities. It is impossible to realise 
the great inconvenience to exporters if it should be necessary to go to the office of the 
consul to have the invoices aigiied. On the other hand chambers of commerce exist in 
all cities. It is easy to aee of what great service would be a law which authoriaes 
the presidents of the chambers <rf commerce to sign the invoices. By this means the 
formaUtiee governing the dealing between merchants and different countries would be 
simpliffed. 

U. le Prteidant: M. Mobton a la parole. 
(Translation) 

Mr. MoBTOM has the floor. 



Hr. C. D. Morton, London Chamber of Commerce 

Mr. Preddent and Gentlemen, we have great pleasure in supparting the moat able paper 
of Mr. Wilbur Carr, whom we think has dealt with this subject in a very clear, concise and 
able manner. He has taken up every possible detail and explained it fully, and we give it 
most hearty support. 

There is one point I would like to mention, and that is in regard to a custom that pre- 
vails in some parts of South America of delivering goods against a consular invoice. I have 
always understood myself, and I think it is the general understanding, that a consular in- 
voice ia not to be used as a bill of lading. But this does occur in a. few of the republics. 

I take the liberty of mentioning it here, as I think it ia a practice that we do not wiah 
to see grow. In London, we consider the bill of lading to be the legal document which fur- 
nishes the only title to claim the goods. (Applause.) 

U. le PrteJdent: M. Soetbzek a la parole. 



{TranOaUon,) 

Mr. SoETBzEK has the floor. 



Dr. Socrtbeer, " Der Deuttche Handeliiag " of Berlin. 



Meine Uerren! Die Tageeordnung lautet: „VereiDheitlichung der Konsulsts-Fakturen," 
und der Herr BerichUrstatter wfinscht, daC wir uns dafUr aussprechen, daB die KoDOuUts- 
Fakturen vereinhdtlicht werden. 



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270 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 



Icb bin nioht dagegeD, — im Gegenteil, ich ^ube, daB dies « 
ich habe dfts BedOifnis su erict&ren, daB der Wunsch sehr beacheideD ist. Es ist nicht so 
wichtig, daC die Konsulata-Fakturen einheitlich sind, als dafi mOglichst wenig Belftstigungea 
duTch die Konsulats-Fakturen heibeigefflbrt werden. MOglichat wenig BeUatigungen nach 
drei Richtungen ^in ; einma], daQ die verlangte Zahl der Koii0ulato-Fak;turen mOglichst gering 
iat; iweitens, dafi die geforderten Formalititon tunlichst einfach Hind, — damit man nicht 
etwa erat lum Notar lu gehen braucht, wie ea einige Staat^i veriangen; und drittens, dafi me 
mOgUchst billig Bind, (j^tkr riehtigl") 

Das Bind drei Fordeningen, die unbedingt wichtiger Bind, als die Vereinheitlichung, denn 
wenn diese Vereinheitlichung schlecht ist, dann habot wir kein Interesse daran, wir haben nur 
dann ein Interesse daran, wenn die Vereinheitlichung gut ist, und wii baben das ent« Interewe 
daran, — wie auch schon einer der Herren Vorredner bemerkt«, — doB die Konmilats-Faktuien 
flberhaupt abgeacbafft werden. i„Braeo/" — „Sekr richiif f ") 

Es ist eine beaondere LiebenswOrdigkeit unaerer Freunde aus den Vereinigten Staaten, 
daO Bie una Qel^enheit geben, hier zu Bagen, dafi wir leider in Deutechland sehr beUstagt 
werden durch die Fordenmgen der Veteinigten Staaten, die man an diejenigen Finnen stellt, 
die nach den Vereinigten Staaten ezportieren, hinaichtlich der Konsulate-Fakturen, wie s. B. 
Angabe dee Wertes uew., und ich m6chte um Nachforschungen darOber bitten, inwieweit 
dieae Anforderungen richtig eind, nach der Art, wie die Saohen genutcht werden ii>nii« ii 
Kun und gut : es gibt eine ganse Ansahl von Dingen, die man hier vorbringm kOnnt«, und ich 
mdchte erid&ren, indem ich schliefie, dtuQ ich den hier in der Vorlage geiuBerten Wunacb fOr 
Behr beacheiden halt«, und dafi ich nur defdialb keine neiteren Antrftge stelle, weil sie Ober 
den Rahmen der heutigen Tageeordnung hinweggehen wQrden. (Be-all.) 
(Tratulalum) 

Gentlemen, the order of the day reads, "Uniformity in the Matter of Qmsular In- 
voices," and the esteemed R^Ktrter wishes to have us pronounce ourselves in favor of 
having consular invoicea made uniform. 

I am not oppoeed, — on the contrary, I believe this is highly deairsble, — but I 
would like to say that this wish is rather modest. It ia not ao important to have the 
conaular invoicea uniform as it is to have sa few annoyances as poaeible in connectiiw 
with consular infoicea. We wiah to reduce as far as poasible the trouble in three direo- 
tiona: firat, the number of copies of the oonaular invoices ehould be as small as poaaible; 
second, the formalities required ahould be aimplified as far as possible, — for instance, to 
make it unnecessary to first go before a notary, as is required by some counUiee; and, 
third, the charges should be as tow as possible. (Approad.) 

These three demands are undoubtedly more important than mere uniformity, sinee 
if this uniformity is bad it would not be to our advantage. We are only interested in it 
if the uniformity ia good, and our greatest interest, — aa one of our apeakera has 
already said, — would be to have the consular invoices abolished altogether. (.^ppIauM.) 
It ia eapecially kind of our frienda in the United States th^t they give us an appor- 
tuuity to say here that we are in Germany very much bothered through the require- 
mmts of the United States from firms exporting to the United States in respect to the 
consular invoices, as for instance, the statement of value and M) forth, and I HboukI be 
glad to obtain infonnation as to how far these requirements are comet and bow the 
matter really ahould be carried out. In brief, there are many things which might be 
stated here, and I will say in closing that I oonaider the desire expressed in the moUoo 
to be very modest, and that I am only withheld from a further motion by the fact that it 
would exceed the scope of our present order of the day. (Applause.) 

H. 1« Pr^sldont: M. Kibsselbach a la parole. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 271 

Dr. A. Eiendbach, Haminfrg ChatiAer of Commene 

I am not aUe lo follow the deduvtions of this report, because I believe that the disad- 
rantages of the present intern of consular invoices would not be avoided if we should accept 
this proposed form for ccaunilar invoices. On page 2 of the report you find enumerated a 
number of complaints about the |»esent system. The first eonplaint you find there is that 
"S<Mne oountriee require the ah^per to submit only three copies, while othen require five, 
six or, as in the case of Ecuador, seven copies." The proposed form of invoice does not say 
anything ^>out the number or price which the alilppet would have to submit, so Uiat at this 
point the acceptance of the proposed form would not be of any advantage. 

The second point concerns the language which is to be used for the invoices. The report 
Bays, "Most countriee require invoices to be in Spanish, while others permit also the use of 
English." The proposed form of invoice uses the English language. 1 do not know if it is 
intended to prescribe exclusively the use of the E "g1i'Ji language. That would be no relief 
for an exporter in Spain. But if it is not intended, also in this point the acceptance of the 
proposed form could not bring any advantage. 

The third point you find on page 2: "Invoices for some of the countries must be sworn 
to," etc. That la the same as with other points you find enumerated there. 

So I am Horry to come to the conclusion that the acceptance of the proposed form of con- 
sular invoice cannot be considered, as I eay, as in the line of progress. 

M. le Pr£ddent: M. Mambb a la parole. 



Berr Hugo Hanes, Auoeialion of Export Hmua, Frantforl-on^he-Main 

Meine Henent Um Omen nur an einem Beispiel klanumachen, wie eehr «e nStig ist, die 
Konsulats-Fakturen einer einheitlichen Rcgelung zu unteriieben, will ich nur mitteilen, dafi 
ich hier lu^ef&hr ein Dutzend Briefe von deutschen Exporteuren und Fabrikanten habe, in 
denen au^efOhrt wird, dafi die Konsulate der Kubanischen Republik die deutechen Faktu- 
ren, die nach Euba gehm, in einer sehr eigentOmlichen Weise behandeln. 

Der General-Konsul in Hambui% verlangt eine aiebenfache AusfOhrung auf von ihm 
beiogenen Formularen, von denen je die ente Seit« mit 10 Pfemug und je die iweite Seite 
mit 5 Pfennig berechnet wird. Der Konaul in Bremen verlangt eine fOnffache und der Kon- 
sul in NOmberg eine dreifache Ausfertigung der Fakturen. 

Hieraus eraehen Sie, meine Herren, dafl es unbedingt erforderlich ist, die game Prage 
ajomal einheitlich lu regeln. {Beifall.) 
(Translolton) 

Gentlemen, to show you by an example how necessary it is to have consular in- 
voices subject to uniform regulations I would say that I have here about a dosen tett«n 
from German exporters and manufacturers stating tliat the consulates of the Cuban 
Republic treat the German invoices which are sent to Cuba in a very peculiar manner. 
Hie Consul General in Elamburg requires seven copies on forms furnished by him, 
for which a charge is made of ten Pfennigs for the first page and five Pfennigs for each 
additional p^e. The Consul in Bremen requires five oc^ies, while the Consul in 
Nuremburg only donands three copies. 

This will show you, gentlemen, that it is entirely to be desired that the entire 
question should be uniformly re^pilated. {Applause.) 

U. le PrSsldant: M. Paul Meter a la parole. 



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272 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Mr. Paul Meyer, Nottingham Chamber of Commerce 

Mr. President aixl Gentlemen, the time for cloeing our proceedings is approaching, and 
I shall be very brief. While I am most anxious not to hurt the feelings of our American 
friends, who have done and are doing so much for our comfort and pleasure, I think I must 
not let this occasion pass without mentioning the abuses to which consular invoices aometimeB 
lead. You are all business men and you know that between customers one sometimes has to 
differentiate. That is to say, a man who buys a hundred pieces generally gets an advantage 
over the man who buys five or ten. While the American Government is most anxious to study 
alt the markets and get to this real maricet value of merchandise, and while, as far as I know, 
the Europeans are most anxious to support the endeavor of the American ofBoets, we find 
great difficulty in getting satisfaction, One abuse which I think I must bring before ytm is 
this, that when the oustom-house in the United States is in doubt as to whether the market 
vahie is correct, as stated in the invoice, they generally go to some of the firms who haitdle 
tlie same article and get their information. This is all ri^t, everybody wants to do what he 
can to support honest trade. But if the custom-house in some instances goes so far as to 
show the invoice to the competitor of the man to whom the invoice is directed, I say it is 
abusing consular invoices. (Apptaute.) 

I am quite prepared to give chapter and verse to some select committee who may wisfa 
to know facts. Speaking for the Chamber of Commerce of Nottingham, we heartly agree witb 
the idea of unifying as much as possible the consular invoices. (Applaute.) 

M. I« President; M. J. A. Leckiu a la parole. 

{Trantlation) 

Mr. J. A. Leckix has tlie floor. 



Mr. Joseph A. Leckle, WaUaB {England) Chamber of Commerce 

Mr. President and Gentlemen, in view of the late hour I would waive my right to speak 
at this time, with the understanding that I may prepare a few brief remarks and put then in 
the proceedings. 

(Permietion wiat aeeorded Mr. Leckie to do thie, and laler he ntbmiUed the foBmeing:) 

Mr. FrcEident and Gentlemen; On behalf of the Walsall Chamber of Commerce I deeite 
tA give the most hearty support to the report of Mr. Carr, and to the recommendations which 
he makes. Anything that will tend to simplify these exasperating documents called Consular 
Invoices will have the enthusiastic support of Great Britain. Indeed we should like to go 
farther. We do not see that the value of consular invoices is commensurate with the trou- 
ble, worry and expense which their preparation involves. In fact, there is an idea in some 
quarters — mistaken it may be — that these documents are demanded in order to find woik 
and fees for the consuls of the countries which insist upon them. 

If great business nations like Germany and Great Britain can get along without eoa- 
Bular invoices surely that is prima facie evidence that they are not absolutely necessai; for 
the due conduct of import trade. Perhaps the abolition of consular invoices is at the momott 
not a question of practical politics, and in the meantime, we hope the recommeadatfoo of 
Mr. CaiT will be adopted by the different governments concerned. The simplification and 
uniformity which this will bring about will be welcomed by British business men. 

M. le Prfeident: Son Excellence F. A. Pssbt a la paiole. 

{Trantlalion) 

His Excellency F. A. Peekt has the floor. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 273 

Sb Ezcdlencr F. A. Paiat, Miniiter of Peru, Watkinnlvn, D. C. 

Mr. Freeident, Gentlemen, I do not want to take any of your time. I just wish to men- 
tion that I am here not aa representative of the Peravian Government, although I am Min- 
ister at Washington from that country. I am representative of the commercial interests of 
Peru, the Chambers of Commerce of Callao and Lima, and the Stock Exchange of Lima. I 
was in the consuhu' service many years before I went into the diplomatic. I am familiar 
with this question of consular invoices, and personally I have alwiQrs recommended to my 
government the abolition of consular invoices, as I considered them perfectly useless. ("Hear 
kearl") And, speaking for the commercial interests of Peru, the chambers of commerce of 
my country, I am authorised to state that notwithstanding the position which my govern- 
ment may wi^ to take in this matter, the commercial interests in Peru wish and deejre the 
complete abolitim of the consular invoice — just attach the signature of the consul to two 
oopiee of the bill of lading, thus Fr m Vin g it more valid if possible. I have the honor to salute 
you. (AppJauM.) 

U. le FrMdent: Le dernier orateur est M. ErrotNE Ai-labd. 

(TraiuIaNon) 

Mr. EuofcNB Au>Am> wiU be the last speaker. 



H. Engine AUard, Pretident qf Bti{pan Chamber of Commerce iff Parie 

Je n'ai qu'une seule demands k faire: devant les mesures qu'on noua propose, devant 
I'esp^ce de reportage qu'on veut donner K ees mots "factures consulaires," eh bient messieurs, 
je crois qu'il i^partient au congrte de demander carr£ment la suppression pure et simple de 
la facture consulaire. 

(Trantlatwn) 

I have oikly one request to make. Li advance of the steps which are proposed, 
in advance of the kind of continuance sought to be given to the words "consular in- 
voices," I think, gentlemen, that it would be proper for the Congress to demand 
squarely the absolute abolition of the consular invoice. 



H. le President: J'ai une proposition: nous nous trouvona en presence d'un report. 
Nous prenons acte de vos remorques. Les orat^urs ont fini d'adreaser la parole, je vaia main- 
tenant donner lecture de la proposition. 

ITranelation) 

A motion has been presented; we have a report before ua. We will make due 
note of your remaits. The speakers have finished their speeches. I will now read the 
draft of the resolution. 

(Continuing in Englieh) 

The Congress approves in principle the proposal for uniformity of consular invoices, and 
recommends to the mtereeted States lor their consideration the form of consular invoice pre- 
pared by the Fourth Conference of the Pan-American Union. 

The Congreaa approves the recommendation for moderate consular fees and their strict 
limitation to amounts necessary to cover the cost of the consular service. 

(ConlintUng in French) 

Ceux qui sont d'avis d'adopter ces conclusions, qu'ils veulent bien lever la main. 
iLev4e de mains gfniraU.) L'£preuve oontraire? Le Congrte adopte. 
(TnnuIaMon) 

Those in favor of adopting these resolutions will please raise their hands. (Qeneral 

TttiHng of handi.) Contrary mindedT The Congress adopts the resolutions. 



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4 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Un D^^EuC: Monsieur le Frfmdent . . . 



H. le President: Sur quelle question, monsieur? 
(Tranilatum.) 

On what question, please? 

His Ezcellenc; Antonio Haitin Kivero, Minuter <^ Cuba, Washington, D. C; DdegaU of Oa 

Gooemment o} Cuba 

I will speak in T'^gi'"'' Tttis proposition was piesented at tlie table by tlie delegation 
from Cuba. 1 sent it myself and I want it to stand on lecord that this was ptopoaed by thia 
delegation, and also that I know that the repreeentative of Japan desires to sooond Uutt mo- 
tion before it is put to vote — that is, the question before the house. 

The President: That will be recorded in the transactions. 



THE DESmABILITT OF kS mTERITATIONAL CONFERENCE 
ON PRICES AND TOE COST OF LIVING 

H. la President: Msint^iant, nous aboidons le dernier ordre du jour. J'ai demand^ 
hier d'avoir un peu de patience et que nous poumons ainsi terminer ce matin. II est midi, 
nous avons une heure devant nous, et aveo un peu de bonne volont^, nous pouvons finir. 
(Translation) 

We will now b^in on the last subject on the order of the day. 1 asked yesterday 

ttiat you kindly have a little patience which will enable us to finish this morning. It 

is now twelve o'clock; we have an hour before us and with a little good will we shall 

be aUe to finish. 

M. le I^fisident: Le rapporteur, M. E^bhkb, a la parole. 

{TTondation) 

The Reporter, Mr. Fibheb, has the floor. 

Prof, bvlng Fisher, Yale VnieeriUy 

Gentlemen, inaeonuch as my report has been published and circulated I will oonfine n^ 
self, in order t« save time, to a brief summary of the report, for the benefit of tlMwe irtw bare 
not read it. 

The fact of high prices is world-wide. Primarily this is a business faot. OwTulsionB in 
prices, booms and depreaaimis, concern rightly busineas men. Leea than a generation ago 
the whole world was complaining of a proloi^ted fall in prices; now it is ctxnplainmg of a pro- 
longed rise in prices. Then the cry was, Depression of trade; now the cry is, The hi^ cost of 
living. Then there was a great deal said about the purchasing power of money increasing, 
and now the purchasing power of money is decreasing. Then much was said about the scar- 
city of gold; now much is said about the abundance of gold. Then there were proposals carried 
out for international conferences on the gold question, and to-day there is a proposal for an 
international conference on the whole subject of the high coat of living. 

I believe the time will come when business men may well feel t^ need of a more stable 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 275 

stamdanl of value. Ili&t is, we should have a gold etandard which is of oonatant purchaaing 
power instead of merely, as at present, constant weight. One of New Yoric's fotemoet buw- 
ness men, a cotton broker, b to-day devoting much of his time to exhibiting the evils to in^ 
veetoro and business men of a variable dollar. 

The proposal for an intematiooal inveatigstion of the high cost of living — the facts, tbe 
cauBsa, the Affects, the possible remedies, including not only the subject of a variable unit of 
purcbaaing power, but also the subject of the purchasing power of one's whole income, has 
been endraaed by the leadii^ buaineas men and organizations of thia country and some of 
Europe. Financial editors, railway presidents, bankers and others, have joined in the move- 
ment for an international investigation. Many chambers of commerce have done this, A 
partial list is included in the printed report. It includes the Boston Chan^r of CcHnmerce. 
The proposaJ has the eodotsemfflit of Uie President of the United States and of all the candi- 
dates for the presideaey in the present campaign. It has the endorsement of the "London 
Economist," of the "London Statist"; the endorsement of Bernhard Detnburg, formerly 
Secretary of State of Qermany; of Hon. Raymond Foincare, Premier of France; Dr. Robert 
Meyer, Finance Minister of Austria; Dr. Morawiti, President of the Anglo-Austrian Bank 
of Vienna; Signor Luigi Luitatti, formerly Minister of State, Rome; of Baron Y. Sakatani, 
formerly Finance Minister of Japan, and many others, a partial list of whrau is given in the 
printed report. 

On Febiuary 2, 19L2, President Taft sent a special message to Congress, advocating that 
Congiesa autboriw him to call together an international conference to discuss the cost <tf 
living. In that message he said: 

"There has been a stroi^ movement among economists, business men and others inter- 
ested in economic investigation to secure the appointment of an international commission 
to look into the cause for the hi^ prices of the necessities of life, 

"For some years past the high and steadily increasing cost of living has been a matter of 
each grave public concern that I deem it of great public interest that an international confer- 
ence be proposed at this time for the purpose of preparing plans, to be submitted to the va- 
rious governments, for an international inquiry into the high cost of living, ite extent, causes, 
effects and possible remedies . . . 

"He numerous investigations on the subject, official or other, already made in various 
countries (such as Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmaric, France, Germany, Great Britain, 
Italy, the Netheriands and the United States) have themselves atran^y demonstrated the 
need of further study of world-wide scope. Those who have conducted these investigations 
have found that the phatomenon of rising prioea is almoet if not quite general throughout the 
world; but they are baffled in the attempt to trace the causes by the impoesiblility of m airing 
any accurate international comparisons." 

IMor to the President's message. Senator Crawford had introduced a bill for this pur- 
pom, and afterwards Mr. William Sulier, ch^rman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs in 
the House, introduced a bill, and the Senate bill has been unanimously passed in April, 1912, 
and it has been unanimously recommended by the House Committee on Foreign Affairs cm 
May 15, 1912, in an elaborate report of twenty^^iiue pages. It now goes over as nnfinished 
business, to be voted on in the House of Representatives at the next Congress. Having 
passed one House it still requires passage in the other and the signature of the President. 

The work to be undertaken by such an inquiry would relate to three branches. Firat, 
the facte — the facts as to the high coet of living; second, the causes; third, the remedy. 

Even aa to the facts, there is difference of opinion. Although there is a great deal of glib 
discussion, when the facts as presented are challenged they are found to rest on very insecure 
foundation. Very few nations have any index numbers showing the extent of tlie change in 
prices. The few that have — such as the United States, Canada, England, France, Germany, 
Japan and India — all have them by different methods. For instance, the United Stales 
Bureau of Labor has an index number involving 266 commodities; England, through the wool 
merchant, Mr. Baurbeck, has an index number of 44; the "London Economist" has 22. 



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276 INTERNATIONAL C0NGRE8B OF 

Oiirrrtmmiiimnm.rnfTjihnr, Th- NhiTI, him lung uniighf.fji Bw-iirp Minn. ilBgr»nfniiilynfmrfh«i 

and oomputJiility of statistics and index numbers; and J am infonned this moming tJiat the 
N&tional Hungarian Commercial Aseociation at Bud^iest has recently passed a reaohitMo 
asking eome method of unifonnity in index numbers of prices. 

As to the oausefl, there is much disagreement. Much is said of gold, something of credit, 
something of tariffs. There are at least tventy odd causes assigned for the high cost of living. 
These should be investigated and reduced to a few, at any rate. 

As to remedies, there is still more need of an intomstional conference. Many imiK»' 
practical proposals have been made, and many radical suggestions bavo been made. All 
should receive conuderation. 

Among the suggestions to go to the root of the matter is ime of my own in reference to 
the dollar as a stable standard of purchasing power. The suggestion which 1 have made and 
which is elaborated somewhat in this report, and still further in eome tyi)ewTitten memo- 
randa here, is simply the wooing out of an idea suggested eome time ago by Gov. Woodrow 
Wilson, now one of the nominees for the preaideney of the United States. I did not inteod to 
mention this detail, but the Boston committee on program adced me to do so, and I have 
done so merely as an illustration of the kind of subject which would be conudeied by am in- 
ternational conference. And I wish to emphasise the fact, as I understand some one looking 
merely at the Bummaiy of this report has misunderstood it — that any endorsement of the 
plan for an international conference on the cost of living does not by any means commit tbia 
organitation to approval of my particular suggestion for a remedy. (_"Hear,ktart") It 
merely commits the association as in favor of having the disousaion of this and all the other 
remedies which may be suggested. 

As to the technical woridng out of the plan for maUng a more stable dollar, so far as il 
is not fully and technically expressed in this report, I would refer you to the dosing ch^ter of 
my book, "The Purchasing Power of Mwiey," or for a still more technical and complete ex- 
pteaaion, to the typewritten memoranda here which I have especially prepared for distribu- 
ticm at this Congress to any of those who may be particularly interested in this vital subject. 
And any of yon who take these memoranda would do me a service if you woukl send me your 
name and address, in order that I may oommunicato with you further. 

The plan, I would say, if I may add one word about my own particular plan, is one which 
does not involve any untried elements. It merely is novel in that it brings together a number 
of elements, every one of which has been tried out by business experience. 

Of course it is not pretended that to cure a variability in the purchasing power of the dollar 
would fully solve the great question of the high cost of living. The high cost of living is a 
problem of the purchasing power of inocmie, and therefore involves two great branches — 
first, the purchasing power of the monetary unit, the dollar, the franc, the matk, tJie pound 
Btorling; and second, the number of such units in the incomes of the people. Both of these 
prdaleme merit careful consideration by an international inquiry on the subject. It is not 
only of great interest to-day, but it will be of great interest in the future if the prediction which 
I venture to make with considerable confidence comes true — that the rising tide of the price 
level will continue in the future. I do not mean to say that it will steadily increase year after 
year; on the contrary, I believe that it will be broken before many years by a crisis more ot 
less severe. But 1 do mean to say on the basis of a careful statistical study which I have 
recently published in the Atn«ntxtn Economic Reoimii, that the general level of prices, the 
general trend of prices for a number of yeats in the future will be upward and not downward- 
No one nation can successfully cope with this great subject; it is too big. It requires an in- 
tomational conference, and an international conference will surely be called if there is suffi- 
cient demand for it; and the demand which counts most with legislatures is the demand of 
business men. And it is for that reason that I appeal to you as business men to lend your 
approval to the plan for an international investigation on the high cost of Uving, in order 
that this great subject may be dealt with in a statesmanlike and a businesslike manner. (Ap- 
piatite.) 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 277 

Th« Pratfdent: Mr. KuNoei. 

Dr. Edmund Eimo^, Assittanl Secretary Royal Hungarian idinwtry of Cwimerce; DelegaU of 
Boyai OonemmfiU of Htaifiarv 

Mr. Presideiit and Gentlemen, in the name of the National HuDgaritm Commercial As- 
sociation I submitted to the Congress a proposal of resolutiona and a report on the same on 
the uniform compilation of statistics of prices. This proposition was printed and distributed 
&mong the members of the Congresa; therefore, 1 will not trespass on your time by repeating 
it. I for my part accept the proposal of the Reporter, because the calling of an international 
conference on this question is necessary for the realization of our proposal concerning the uni- 
form compilation of statistics of prices, and because just before its adjourmnent the Coi^ress 
has no time to discuss such complicated methods. When this international conference is held 
I shall try to find opportunity to submit proposals to it. 

An EngUsh Delegate; Mr. President, I would like to ask a question. Is this really a 
question affecting chambers of commerce? Is it not really raising a poUtical question with 
ivhich chambers of commerce have really no say? 

H. le President: La question a 6t6 mise & I'^tude, des rapports ont it6 pr6par£es, et elle 
est & I'ordre du jour; nous suivons notre ordte du jour. Vous pouvez avoir votre opinion k 
ce sujet, mais nous derons quand m&ne continuer. 
iTrafulation) 

The question has been given study, reports have been prepared, and it is in the 

order of the day; we follow our order of the day. Vou may have your opinion on the 

subject, but we must nevertheless continue. 

Mr. C. H. Canhy, Board of Trade, CkKogo, lUinoU 

Only one moment, gentlemen. I will detain you but one moment. The profeasor has read 
from the brief which was submitted to all the members of the Congress practically his argu- 
ment in favor of the international conference on the cost of living. I have read his brief with 
some care, and I do not find anywhere in it any recognition of the law of supply and demand. 
["Hear, htarl") Those of us who have been closely identified with the handling of mer- 
chandise know that at no time in the past, not now and at no time in the f ututre will a dollar, 
a franc, a marie or a pound sterling ever have a fixed purchasing power for more than the one 
moment before you. ("Hear, hear!") Every merchant in the worid is changing the pur- 
chasing power of money every week. And how is he doii^ that? You have a stock of goods. 
Those goods you ofier l4>day for sale at a certain price. Within ten days' time the failure of 
a crop from which those goods are manufactured has changed the whole price level of that one 
particular commodity, without touching any one of another thousand commodities. What is 
the merchant's attitude? Instantly hia price is marked up. The dollar, the pound sterling, 
is not depreciated as a purchasing power — not at all ; but in this particular instance he asks 
a higher rate for his goods. 

Now, so far as the cost of living in the United States is concenked — and that b the only 
country of which I have any doee personal knowledge — I assure you I can take every article 
which has changed in value in the last ten years and 1 can show you a set of distinct, definite 
reasons why that price level has changed. The people of the United States are becoming 
more highly educated — what I term "the people," by which we mean the great mass of the 
people beneath the professional, beneath the merchant class; the great mass of the people are 
becoming more prosperous. Labor earns more for a day's woric than ever before in this land. 
They demand more comforts and a higher grade of public service. The municipalities have 
increased the water suppUea, tlie number of schools, the parks and all kinds of improved 



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278 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

conditions in the cities in which people live. What is the rcaultT Munioip&l taxation has tn- 
creaeed, and the municipal taxation is abaoibed in the rent roll. 

Now, there is one item. Take the other great item, that of meat. I come from the wes- 
tern countiy, and I assure you, gentlemea, that it is simply a change in the ratio of the nuiubv 
of consumerB to the number of nn'TiBl" That is all there is to the meat propoaitioik. (Ap- 

Now, gentlemen, there has been a great deal of talk about the high cost of living which 
is based on an incorrect statement of facts and conception of the situation. You can buy to- 
day on one of the streets of Boston a better pair of shoes for S4 than you could buy in 1880. 

You can buy a barrel of flour in any one of the grocery stores of the city of Boston to-day 
juHt aa cheap aa you could in 1885. Now the people are more extravagant, and furthenn<H« 
— I will say it myself, because I can look back to my boyhood days — the people to-day 
haven't got the thrift, they haven't got the saving instinct that our fathers had. 

The President: Profeeeor Tattsbio. 

Pnf. F. W. Taussig, Harvard Vnieersity 

Mr. Fresideat and Gentlemen of the Cimference, the sole question which preaents itaelf 
to this gathering on this topic is whether we shall agree that this b a raatt«r which concerns 
not one country but all the countries of the civilized world, and indeed all the world. We are 
not here to consider questions of causes or of remedies. It may be that the gentleman who 
has preceded me could present to an international conference a full, complete and exhaustive 
answer to all the questions that concern themselves with the cost of living. If ao, I am eon 
we hope he will do so if such a conference is called. Some of us believe that the subject is 
more complicated than it seems to him, that it deserves consideration not by one countiy but 
by all the countries. We believe there are difficulties more particularly with reference to as- 
certaining just what the situation is. The admirable report which has been presented by the 
National Hungarian Ck>mmercial Association suggests certain methods of ctxcpiling price sta- 
ttaticB to be adopted uniformly by all the different countries. Those methods deserve con- 
sideration because we do not now know what is the extent of the change, — whether it is 
greater in the United States than in Germany, whether it is true, as some people think, that 
it is greater in the United States than in any other country. These things we do not koow. 
In order to gain fair and full light upon the subject we ikeed an international undeistaitding 
as to the ways of ascertaining the extent of the phenomerton. Therefore it seems to me that 
tiiis gathering can very well say "Let us take the initial step for an international conference 
for the uniform consideration of the subject, and let us not here attempt a discussion of why, 
how, how much, what any individual understands or what any iitdividual proposes to do 
about it." I hope the motion in favor of the calling of an international conference will pre- 
vail. (Applause.) 

Tha PresldMit: Mr. Cook. 

Hi. F. W. Cook, DudUy (EtieSand) Chamber of Commerce 

Mr. President and Gentlemen, I strongly support the proposition that has been made, 
that an International Conference be called on this question. In our own country a large dis- 
cussion has been taking place with regard to the question of tariffs, and the booida of trade 
have been charged with the duty of going into various countries and trying to ascertain aa 
far as possible what we call the standard of living or the prices of articles in the various coun- 
tries. And the great factor that you have to consider is that you have a mass of evidence in 
front of you gathered from various sources and in different manners, but which ia not at all 
comparable. What is wanted is a standard, a unit, from which the cost of living can be 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 279 

taken, on which bb a basis all your arguments can take place. A recent speaker, I think the 
speaker before the last, spoke about the high cost of Uving, but he also referred to the high 
standard of living, and that haa to be acknowledged at the same time. I think certainly his 
contribution to our discuseion this morning deserves some consideration from that point of 
view. It is Dot what we get, — it is the standard of our living, — the picture palace, if you 
like to take it, which ia a necenity of the woiking man of to^y, and the whole range of 
hixury which he now brings into his standard of Uving, And I think in any statistics that are 
gatihered for this purpose it would be wise, at any rat«, for the Conference to have Uie stand- 
ard of living in front of them as well as the high cost of living. 

The Professor who read his paper spoke about the question of the dollar, I am not here 
to speak with regard to the question of the gold dollar, because, having been in the United 
StBtes many times, I have never seen one yet, and I have always found the price of a green- 
back is always the same. So it seems to me the question of gold is solved in a very easy man- 
ner, if you abolish it and use paper as the medium of exchange. 

And another matter t^t seems to strike me is this: That the tariff is certainly a ques- 
tion. I think if the United States had free trade, — I am only suggesting my own view, — 
ecnnetiiing might be accomplished. 

I only give these just as partial suggestions as to some of the things that may take place. 
But the main point is this, — that in any International Conference not only should they con- 
aider the imit of the cost of living in the various countries, but they should also conidder the 
standard of living, — that is, the requirements of the ordinary population, what they con- 
sider their life. 

The Prestdont: Mr. PruiNx. 

Hr. B. A. Fllene, Botbm Chamber of Commerce; Vice-Preeident of the Congreu 

I bad not intended to speak on this question, but I have been frightened lest the elo- 
quence of my friend Mr. Canby may have undue influence, and that the implication of the 
gentleman on the left that this was not a business queation might also have undue influence. 
Gentlemen, there is no more important business question than this. No business man 
can succeed unless he has fairly stable conditions, and the stable conditions are largely de- 
pendent on the stability of the government under which the business man woriu. Now, gentle- 
men, I submit to you that no government in the world, be it republican or imperial, whatever 
its form, ia safe if the proletariat finds it difficult or impossible to get food, clothing and 
shelter, — and on that basiH, gentlemen, I submit to you Uiat this is the most businesslike of 
businees questions and deserves to be studied not alone for that reason but because in its 
solution *e business men wiU have a large say. If it seems to us that this is a theoretical 
and a vague question, I call your attention to what is happening all over the world. In order 
not to infringe upon other countries, the sensitivenesB of other countries, let me call attention 
to what has happened in this country. Within five-years, gentlemen, these questions, which 
were termed vague, unbusinesslike, anarchistical, if you please, by very many men, have 
come from that undefined realm to be the very questions which are at the basis of the plat- 
form of our poUtical parties, on which we are waging our presidential election. Now, gentle- 
men, we know that a similar thing is happening in all countries of the world. Nothing, I 
repeat in ckwing, is more buainesalike, nothing will conserve for us what is justly due to us 
as business men and will help us to do our duties to our cotmtry mote than to make sure that 
the great mass of the people in every country shall get all our help, so that the cost of living 
will not be so high as to be insupportable. 

H. la President: Je n'ai plus d'orateure inacrita, et je m'excuse si, lors de la discussion 
pr£c6dente, certains orateurs n'ont paa eu leur tour de parole. C'est, ^videmment, qu'ila 
n'avaient pas iXk inacrita. C'est trte involontairement de ma part si quelques-uns oat £t£ 
oubli^. 



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2S0 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

(TVonsIdtMrn) 

I bave no more speakers on my list, and tnut I shall be excused if, during the 
discussion, certain speakers have not had a chance to take the floor. If such has been 
the case, it is evidently because they were not listed. It was entirely involuntary aa 
my part if certain apeakere have been overlooked. 

U. Pierson: Je demande la parole. 
iTiwulation) 

I adc the floor. 

U. le President: M. PniBSON a la parole. 
{Trarulalion) 

Mr. FiEBSOH has the floor. 

Hr. J. Pierson, Member oj the Neiherkmda Chamber <tf Commerce, Parii 

Mr. Chairman, Gentlemen, it is a great pleaaute to tne to have an opportunity to sup- 
port Uie proposal of Prof. Irving Fisher, but only to a certain eictent, vie, as far as it con- 
cerns the plan for an international inquiry on the cost of living. 

A well-known European economist has said: 

"Le meilleur remMe centre la cherW c'est la chert*." 

The best remedy against the rise in cost of living is the rise in cost of living. 

The actual continual rise in price of all products is due to various causes, aotae people 
attributing it to the greater production of gold, and Professor Fisher seems to be one of them. 
For my part I think that the rise is mainly due to the higher standard of living and the greater 
requirements of all classes. 

At a recent meeting of the "SociSt* d'fioonomie Politique," a French economist has read 
a p^>er on this question, and it results from his investigations that there are, or better have 
been, constant waves of prices going up and going down at very regular intervals and for 
periods of several years. 

We have now a few years since reached the bottom of one of these waves and are going 
up again. 

As in various countries this question has been very seriously discussed by the most emi- 
nent economists. I think that there will be a great advantage to bring these economists to- 
gether in an international congress and "du choc des id£es jaillira la viiitA." 

There is one thing, however, gainst which I wish to warn. It would be a great danger 
for the cause of free trade, which, notwithstanding the protectionist tendency of the whole 
world, will have to come to the front again (I am thoroughly and firmly convinced of it), to 
attribute the rise in prices to protectionism. This, however, docs not say that free intetoourae 
between nations will not reduce prices. Free intercourse will enlarge the fiekl. The larger 
the field, the greater will be the development of division of labor, and the more intense the 
division of labor will be the lower will be the cost of commodities produced, the greater viD 
be the number of people that will see the prices of commodities come within the reach of 
their purchasing power. 

As the greeting, kindly sent to ns by the Boston Chamber of Commerce, requested our 
endeavors to get a bettor knowledge of international economic conditions and problems, I 
think the proposal of Professor Fisher must have the full support of this Congress as far as 
regards the International Congress for examination of the causes of the high cost of living. 

But let me express a wish and permit me to say that I hope that this question of reduc- 
tion of the cost of production will abo be examined from the standpoint of a freer intercourse 
between nations so as to come to a more stable basis for intereourse than is now ruling with 
the absence of commercial treaties. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 281 

H. I« PrMdoit: Messieurs, il n'y a plus d'orateuis iuBcrita, je vais mettre vox voix lea 
risolutiona. Lea voici en frangaie: 
{Tmntialion) 

Gentlemen, there are no more speakera on the list. I will put the resolutions to ft 

vote. Here they are in French: 

Le coDgrds approuve la proposition de r^unir une conference intemationale au sujet du 
prix &sv6 dee choses n^ceasaires k la vie, de son augmentation, de aes causes, dea eSeto qui en 
r^eultent, des mesuree et remMea possibles en vue a'une amelioration. 

Le coogt^ tranamet le projet et le rapport de I' Association nationale commerciale Hon- 
groiso pour la compilation narmonique de la statistique des prix au comity permanent, en 
vue de sa prise en consideration et de sa remise £ventuelle k une conference intemationale. 

(The resolutton in English) 

The Congress approves the proposition 
auestion of the high cost of living, its mcrease, 
oiea possible to improve the situation. 

The Congress transmits the project and the report of the Hungarian National Commercial 
Association, for the uniform compilation of statistics of prices, to the Permanent Committee, 
with the view of its takii^ it into consideration and referring it eventually to an international 
conference. 

(TAe TeaolvHon in Gertnan) 

Der KongreQ billigt den Vorschlag einer intemationalen Konfereni fiber die Teuerung, 
ihien Umfang, die Methoden aie featKUStellen, ihra Ursachen und Wirkungen und die m5g- 
lichen Mafiregeln fOr Abhilfe. 

Der KongreS beschlieGt, die Resolution und den Bericht dea Nationalen Ungarischen 
Handelsvereins dber eine gleichmfiBige Preis-Statistik dem st&ndigen Komitee zu Qberweisen, 
damit ee aie erwige und einer etwa zu berufenden intemationalen Konferens untetbreito. 

Que ceux qui sont d'avis d'adopter ces propositions veuiUent bien lever la main. [Leeit 
de mavM.) L'ipreuve contraire. Le congr&a adopte i. I'unanimite. 
(Trantlatvm) 

Those in favor of adopting these propositions wiU raise the hand. [Handt raised.') 

Contrary minded. The Congress adopts the resolutions unanimously. 



INTERNATIONAL ASBITRATION 

H. le President: Maintenant, mesaieure, avant de t«nniner notre ordre du jour, avant 
de parler de I'endroit du prochain congi^, avant d'adresser k tous lea remerciementa que j'ai 
jl cceur de vous adresser, j'ai une proposition i, vous faire. Je vous faie cett« proposition, 
messieurs, non pas tant comme president oEBciel que comme Tun dea deiegu^s du congrte 
venu d'Europe, parlant en son nom et au nom de nombreux congresaistes d&ireux de donner 
aux congressistes d'Amerique la satisfaction qu'ils att«Ddent, et que ikous leur avons d'ailleurs 
toujours reaerv6e au sujet de leuis d£airs k propoa dea questions d'arbitrage. 

Juaqu'i present, les congrte out itt conduits en fr&njaia, et en Europe, quaud le franfais 
est parie, il est compris par la majority dea auditeura. II n'ea est pas de m6me ici, et c'est 
evidemment k cause de ce fait que certains malentendua, que je vais effacer compl£t«ment, 
aoyei-en eOr, out pu se produire. J'ai tenu jusqu'JL present k parler frangaia, mais tantAt je 
m'ezprimeni en anglais, mon anglais & moi. D n'eet peut-dtre pas iria bon, maia je le parle 

Eh bionl messieurs, dans cett« grande question de I'arbitrage, vous avei, il y a deux 
jours, adopts les oondusiona du rapport pripate sur les diSerends entrea partiouliers et £tatB. 

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282 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

G'^tait la seule question £tudi6e et prSparte. Je tous oi dit aloiB que t'autre question, U 
seconde, celle de I'aibitrage entre particuliere de diff&^nts pays, et la troisi&ne, la plue gnnde, 
U plus haut«, celle de I'arbitrage g£n£ral entre les nations, £taient d&ns nos cohub k tous, et 
que si nous n'avions paa de rapport pt^par^, parce que lea questions n'^taient pas k I'ordre du 
jour, Dous ^tions tous d^aireux de tous dire bien haul que nous sommea c«nme tous parti- 
sans des admirablea institutions d'aibitrage, et que nous sommes conune vous ddsireux de 
voir les atrocity de la guerre ne plus jamais reparaltre sur la surface du globe. 

Messieurs, c'est dans cet ordre d'id^s — et j'espire avoir efface les malentendua — que 
je propose, i. titre personnel et parlant au nom de beaucoup de d61£guto ^tntngera — et si, 
messieurs, ma pri^re peut avoir une action hut eux, je demanderais & tous les diV^aia ttnif 
gets, quels qu'ils eoient, de donner ime preuve de reconnaissance aux Am^ricains nombreuz, 
dans le beau pays desquels nous eommes en ce moment, en vot&nt k I'unanimit^ la resolution 
que je vais vous presenter. La voici: 

"Le congr^ affirme son diair de voir r^unir auseitAt que possible des conferences int«T^ 
nationales officielles qui sssuretont de nation & nation I'eriHt^nce de juridlctions arbitnlee 
conQuea dans le sens le plus large et de nature k assurer une solution^quitable & tous conflits 
int^nationauit, soit entre nationaux d'£tats difKrents, soit entre les Etats. Et le congrte d^ 
cUre adherer au principe d'une combinaison de nations, 1& et oti ce serait possible, pour s'ef- 
forcer d'empdcher les atrocity de la guene." 

Voil&, messieurs, le texte de la proposition que je vous fais. (Appltntdit»em«nU.) Je 
crois avoir rencontr^ les d^sirs de tous. Et si, peutrttre, au bout de trois jours, vous en £tce 
arrive i, me suivre quand je parle le franfais, je m'£viteiai la peine de riptier en anglaiw- 
Sinon, si vous le d6aireB, 

{Pretident Canon-Legnnd amehided hie gpeech in Englith.) 

(_Tran»lation) 

Now, Gentlemen, before finiHhing our order of the day, before speaking of ibo meet- 
ing place of the next Congress, before expressing the thanks which I have in my heart 
to express to you, 1 have a proposition to make you, I make you this proposition, 
gentlemen, not so much as tlie ofBcial president as one of the del^ates to this CongrCM 
from Europe, speaking in his own name and in the name of numerouH members of tbe 
Congress, desirous of giving to their oollesgues of America the satisfaction that tbey 
await, and that we have moreover always reserved for them, on the subject of Uieir 
desire in regard to these questions of arbitration. 

Hitherto the Congresses have been conducted in French, and in EuK^, when 
French is spoken, it is understood by the majority of the hearers. It is not the same 
here, and it is evidently on account of this fact that certain misunderstand inpi have 
been created, which I am going to wipe out completely, you may be sure of that. I 
have continued up to this time to speak French, but soon I will express myself in EngliA 
— my English. It perhaps is not very good, but I will speak it myself. 

Well, gentlemen, in this great question of arbitration you adopted day before yes- 
terd^ the conclusions erf the report prepared in regard to controversies between indi- 
viduals and States. That was the only question studied and prepared. I said to you 
then that the second question, that of arbitration between mdividuals of different 
countries, and the third, the greatest, the highest, that of general arbitration betwetti 
nations, was in the hearts of us all, and that if ne had not had the report prepared — 
because these questions were not on the order of the day — we were all desirous of tell- 
ing you emphatically that we with you are partisans of the admirable institution of 
arbitration, and that we Uke you are desirous of seeing the atrocities of war reappear 
no more on tbe surface of the globe. 

Gentlemen, it is with this idea — and I hope to have effaced the misunderstand- 
ings — that I propose, in my peraonal ctQ>acity and speaking in the name of many 
foreign delegates, to offer a resoluton. If, gentlemen, my prayer can have an effect 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 283 

upon them, I will aak all the for«igD del^Eites, whoever they may be, to give a proof 
of their gratitude to the numerous Americans in this beautiful country in which we are 
at this moment, by voting with unanimity for the resolution- which I am going to pre- 
srait you. It is this: 

"The Congress affirms it« desire to see convene, as soon as possible, official interna- 
tional conferences which will assure between nations the existence of arbitral jurisdiction 
conceived in the widest sense of the tens, and of a nature t« assure an equitable solution 
of all international diaputee, either between individuals of different States or between the 
States themselves, llie Congress declares its adherence to the principle of a combina- 
tion of nations, when and where posssible, to endeavor to prevent the atrocities of war." 

That, gentlemen, is the text of the proposition which I make you. (Applause.) I 
believe I have met the wishes of all. And if periiaps at the end of three days you 
have become able to follow me when I speak French, I will spare myself the trouble 
of repeating in English. However, if you desire it, 

(fJonHnumg in Englith) 

I would state that all the miBunderstandingB come from this fact — that we hsd a dis- 
cussion about the quite well-settled matter of an arbitration court between individuals and 
foreign States. That question had been completely reported and we were prepared to ask a 
vote on it. As to the other two questions, the one about an arbitration court between in- 
dividuals of different nations, was not prepared, but we all agree with you iu saying it wiU 
be a very good thing to have as soon as possible an arbitration court to settle those matters 
between individuals of different nations. About the question of arbitration between the 
States, I said from the b^inning — as I spoke French perhaps I was not well imdeistood 

— I said from the beginning about the question of aibitration between the States that we 
all agreed with you that it will be the best thing of all (appUaae) by all means to prevent in 
the future the atrocities of war. ("Hear, heart" otuI renewed appUmie.) 

Now, gentlemen, I hope I have been quite well understood, and if you do not fiii4 it 
necessary to translate the reeolution into three languages — because I only wrote it in French 

— I would read it again, and of course before paseiDg to the vote I will permit those gentle- 
men who will second the motion to speak. I repeat the motion, and I hope you will all un- 
derstand me' 

"The Cong^ress sfBrms its desire to see convene, as soon as possible, official international 
conferences, which will assure between nations the existence of arbitral jurisdiction conceived 
in the widest sense of the term, and of a nature to assure an equitable solution of all inter- 
national controversies, either between individuals of different States or between the States 
tliemselvee. The Congress deolares its adherence to the principle of a combination of nations, 
when and where possible, to endeavor to prevent the atrocities of war." (Applaase.) 

Mr. R. S. Fraser, London Chamber of Commerce 

Mr. President and Gentlemen, I think we ought to congratulate ourselves upon such a 
very succeesful termination of this Congress in the remaikable and satisfactory speech to 
which we have just listened. To me it is a matter of the greatest possible satisfaction that 
the subject has been dealt with. 

I now have to submit to you, perhaps pro forma only, a few propositions of a concrete 
character for your adoption. They are as follows. It will not take me two minutes to read 

"]. The general spread of culture has served to exalt commerce from the subordinate 
social position assigned to it by tradition and requires that merit should alone regulate a man's 
order of precedence. 

"2. Commercial men of to-day owe their very exaatence to the conflict which their foie- 
fathers waged through successive centuries in repelling the forces of reaction. This conflict 
must be continued if the waivcloud which darkens our horizon is to be dispelled. 



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284 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

" 3. An international campaign is needed against medieval feudaliflm which has, within 
recent years, grown aogressive fcieyood all reasonable limits. It is not merely a question o£ 
national defense, but the larger proposition of international defense, which claims attention. 

" Tie official world should be mformed by the representatives appointed by the several 
governments attending this Congress that it must adjust itaelf to the requirements of inter- 
national life, and abandon the minor conceptions of provincial politics. 

"3a. Commercial men realize to the full the limitations of politicians and diplomatists, 
and that it is for the commercial world to take its destinieB into its own hands and do their 
thinking for themselves as to the problems of to-day, including the organisation of peace, of 
which commercial arbitration is an integral and not the least part. Indeed, it may be claimed 
that commercial arbitration constitutes the foremost plank in the platform of world-wide peace 
and solidarity. 

"It is claimed that the interests of commerce, which provide so great a proportion of 
taxation, are neglected by the official world save where taxation is affected. In tiie future, 
ministries of commerce, commensurately staffed on a scale equal at least to tiiat assigned to 
other ministries, should exercise controUing power in all countries. 

" 4. That tne principles of Efficiency Engineering recently introduced into the univeisities 
of the United States, for systematizing plant and the machmery of business and getting the 
most out of everything, should be exercised by the ministries of commerce in the future to the 
advancement of commerce and industry, and the upbuilding of the common weal. 

"5. That conferenceasuchas that of this association serve to epitonuEe the well-considered 
judgment of the commercial world, and consistency requires that the principles approved by 
the accredited representatives of the commercial countries represented should r^ulate tl^ 
future action of such constituent States." 

Sir, I thank you for the opportunity to submit these propositions in support of your 
resolutions. (Applause.) 

Mr. Jacob Heilbom, London Chamber of Commeree 

Mr. President, you have bo ably presented the resohition in French and English to this 
Congress that I believe every member understands it. Sir John E. Bingham is here. Vou 
have asked for a second to that resolution. I move that Sir John Bingham be now given the 
floor to second that resolution. 

The President: The consul general of Japan has asked the floor to speak on this sub- 
ject in a letter which I have received from him. However, he does not respond. Sir Jobs 

E. BlNQBAU. 

Sir John B. Bingham, Bait., London Chamber of Commerce 

Mr. President, after your eloquent expressions on this subject I shall be brief. I am 
proud that you have taken up this subject as you have. I think it is the apex, I might almost 
say, of this great meeting. I think it should be, as it were, written in letters of gold, that we 
are all in this Congress, a combination of the nations of the world met here t^^ther, of one 
mind that when and where possible we should endeavor to prevent the atrocities of war. 
["Hear, kearl" and applaute.) 

I was prepared, gentlemen, — but it turned out not to be in order — to send forwatd 
this resolution myself. In that I was supported by the concert of the London Chamber of 
Commerce and also of my native city of Sheffield. But I am prouder still that I do not bring 
forward this resolution, but that the President himself has brought it forward and has honored 
this convention by ""tlfing it a resolution from his own lips. {Applatue.) ''. \ 

I hope, and 1 know, that all of you gentlemen here present at this conference will exer- 
cise all over the world, in the countries which you represent, that power which you have and 
which it is to your interest, as representing the commercial intetesta of the world, more than 
to the interests of others, to exercise; for a war between two great nations might eet back the 
commerce of the world for fifty years or more. Therefore, it is to your interest to support, 
to back the resolution of our President and to give ban voyage to the resolution. (AppJouse.) 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 285 

Hr. Fnnk D. La Lanae, PhOadeipKia Board of TraiU 

Mr. PreeideDt and GeDtkmen, I consider it a distmguiahed honor to be pennitted to 
address you in the closing minutes of this Hession. I think we abould all feel higtily gratified 
that this principle, so near to the heart of every delist* from every nation, should have been 
recopiized by our distinguished President, and that he himself should have brought in this 
resolution, which I have high honor in seconding. 

I represent the United States Government, and I have received two letters from the 
Department of State, of which I will give a synopsis. 

To-day more than ever the executive of the world is public opinion, and the nations of 
the world cannot disregard the words of a great Congress like this, which represents the sen- 
timents of all the busincBB world. Your decision to^y to approve of this principle will be 
known in every chancellery of the world to-night, and I sincerely hope, gentlemen, that we 
are a unit in the thought that the continuity of the business iuI«restB of the world demand 
that there shall be an arbitral court of justice to prevent future wars, which destroy our 
lives commercially. 

The Secretary of State of the United States, whom I represent, the Hon. Philander C. 
Knoi, directs me to say that the responses to his note along this identical line, sent out a few 
months ago as a circular note to all the nations of the world, manifest such a willingness and 
desire on the part of the leading nations to constitute a court of arbitral justice, that he be- 
lieves a pennanent court, of purely judicial arbitral responsibihty, competed of judges acting 
with a sense of their responsibility and representing the various nations, will be establiahed 
in the very near future. The assent and approval of this Congress will be highly appreciated 
by my government. 

Gentlemen, I thank you. 

H. 1« Prlsident: M. Shoninger a demands la parole. 



Ur. Benurd J. Shoninger, American Chamber of Commerce of Paris 

Mr. President and Gentlemen, my desire to remove a misunderstanding having become, 
unwittingly as well as unwillingly on my part, the point of departure for rather unexampled 
behavior on the part of some one else later, I think it now behooves me to express myself and 
to say how much satisfaction and how much extreme pleasure it gives me that the President 
himself shouki have taken the initiative, of which you see the result in these resolutions. 
{Applaase.) 

Owing to the experience we have had in connection with this matter, it has been sug- 
gested by a nimiber of the delegates, my colleagues, that a word might be said at this point. 
This matter is to be submitted for future consideration, and I beg leave to read these, so that 
they can be put upon the order of business for another Congress. In the light of experience 
at this Congress, and to avoid misunderstandings and disappointments in the future, we will 
submit the following propositions for study and consideration: "All papers" — 

Mr. F. W. Cook, J. P. (Dwiiey, England): Mr, President, is this in order before the 
resolution is put? 1 rise to a point of order; we have business pending before the body 

Hr. S&oningar: I am coming to it. 

The President: Will you finish in a minute? 

Ut. Sboningar: This will take two nunutes. 



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286 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Sir Joseph Lawrence: I move that the fitst resolution be put to the meeting. 

Mr. Shoningei: If you wiU permit me, I will afterwards take the floor, becauae my 
intention woe merely to say a word becauae of my innocence in having — 

Sir Joseph Lawrence: The reaolutiou first. (CrU» of "VoUl Qutttuml") 

Mr. Shoninget: Take the vote and then the matter can be explained further. 

The President: I have a final request from a del^ate from China, Dr. Chin-tao Cbea. 
Is he here? 

Dr. Cbln-tao Chen, M.S.: I want to apeak on another queetion which will come aft«r 
thia motion is di^>osed of. 

M. le ft'isident: Je vous propose maintenant le vote de la resolution dont je vais dtmner 
lecture dans les trois Ungues. 

Ceuz qui sont d'avia d'adopter la rteolutioa voudrMit bien lever la main. (Levte d« 
maint.) L'^preuve contraire. (f srMmnc ne Uue la main.) 

{Crude "Hip! Hip I Hourrakt Hipl Hipt HemrrtAI" ApfimidinemenU.) 

{TranOaHtm) 

I win now present to you for vote the resolution which I will have read in the three 
languages. {RndvUon read in tkrtt Jan^uaga.) 

Those in favor of adopting the resolution will please raise their bands. (Baitini/ tf 
handt.) Those opposed. {No handi raited.) 

(Cheers and applause.) 



invrTATions for the next cohorbss 

H. le KMdent: Maintenant, messieurs, en terminant nos travaux, je dois vous daoscr 
oonnaiasance des invitations qui nous sont parvenues pour le prochain congrte. 

{TransloHon) 

Now, Gentlemen, in closing our labors I wish to advise you of the invitatioos, wfaidt 
have come to us for the next Congress. 

{Coniimiing in Englith) 

Our next meeting will be held in two years. We have received an invitation from 
Barcelona, Spain, from Geneva, Switierland, from Amsterdam, Holland, from Monoeo 
(latvAier), from Leipaig, Germany, and from Lisbon, Portugal. As a rule, the choice of the 
next place for the seaaion is given to the Permanent Committee. I suppose, as we have so 
many invitations, it would be a good thing at this time to leave the question in the hands 
of the Permanent Committee to decide. Do you agree? 

(There being no diaaenl, U vxu decided to leow the ettoiee of the next place for meeting to 
the Pennanent CommiUee.) 

Mr. Pilese; Gentlemen, we have an invitation from the merchants of St. Louis, that 
all delegates may come to visit them. They assure you a good time. You will find it printed 
in full in the Boaltm Chamber of Commerce Newt to-morrow. 

{The tetegram referred to iom aefollouit:) 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 287 

St. Loum, Sept. 25, 1912. 
Mr. Altbxd Aslett, 

Chambers of Commerce, Boston, Maaa. 
St. Louis has extended a coidial invitation to membeta of the CongresB to visit St. Louie, 
and our Buainefis Men's League will moat heartily entertain wliatever number of representa- 
' tives visit us. I trust to greet you and all the friends of the Campania and all others who will 
accompany you. Please see that the members of the Congress are made aware of the invitation. 
Wire answer at my expense, care the Business Men's League. 

(^ifftitd) Goodman Eino. 

H. le PrSBident: M. T.*7*Rn a la parole pour une motion d'ordre. 
iTrantkUUm) 

Mr. Laiaiid has the floor for a point of order. 



CONTRIBUTION FOR THE POOR OF BOSTON 

Ht. LooJs Luard, Chamber of Comvierce, Brusteh: Since we landed in the beautiful city 
of Boston we have been most cordially received. Our hoate, who are full of verve and chum, 
have managed for the delegates the most wonderful reception. (ilppIauM.) All of us appn- 
ciate very highly their kindness and their attentions. Although knowing well the American 
hospitality, the way we have been treated is above all expectation. {"Hear, hear/") And 
how cao we foreigners return the courtesies extended to usT It is too late now to organise 
a banquet. The Brussels delegation, on behalf of which I am speaking, wants to suggest that 
the visiting membeia of the Congress open a subscription, the full amount of which would 
be turned over to the Honorable Mayor for the poor of Boston. {Apptawe.) Thus doing, 
we should ally charity to thankfulness, and I hope our Boston friends would tqipreciate our 
donation. If our proposition goes through — as I sincerely hope and expect — I should 
suggest that the Committee make the necessary arrangements for collecting the eontribution 
— the amount of which, in our opinion, should be fixed at S5 each. (Applame.) 

M. le Pi(Bld«nt: Je prie, pour notification, ceux d'entre vous qui voudiont bien se rendre 
& I'invitation de M. Lasard, de s'adresser au secretaire. II est ctair que nous ne pouvons 
obliger personne. 

{TranOaHon) 

As a matt«r of information, I would like to ask those of you who wish to accept 
the invitation of Mr. Laiard to advise the Secretary. It is clear that we cannot 
oblige any one to do Uiis. 



TERUINATION OF THB SESSION 

H. le IVfisident; Maintenant, messieurs, je me live pour terminer la session et poor 
adresscr k tous les remerciements auxqiiels ils ont droit. 

Je remercie tout d'abord le president des £tats-Unis, M. Taft, qui nous fait I'honneur 
ce soir, d'etre present au banquet de cl6ture. 

Je remercie les autorit^s de l'£tat du Massachusetts, en la personne du gouvemeur, que 
nous avons £t£ heureux de rencontrcr; et la citS de Boston, en la personne de son maire, que 
nous avons pu appr^cier depuis notre arrive 4 Boston. 

Je remercie tous les d£l£gu4s officiels des gouvernements, qui ont bien voulu par leur 
presence rehausser I'^lat de cette c^r^monie intemationale et mondiale. 

Ts, tout Bp^cialement la Chambre de commerce de Boston. Four 



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288 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

elle, je 1'^ dit diji, et je me propose de la redire ce Boir, nous n'avons pae de mots euffisanta 
pour exprimer nos Bentimenta. 

Je remercie tkuesi lea industrieb qui nous regoivent, qui nous ouvi«at toutes l&rgee !«■ 
portes de leurB uaines et qui noija montt«roDt lea merveilles de I'industrie et de la ocienoe 
amSricainea. 

Je remercie, messieurs, toua lee clubB de la ville, qui nous out si agr^ablement donnC le 
libre aocfs de leurs locaux. 

Nous nous Gentons absolumeitt chei nous et nous emporterone de Boston un souvenir 
inefFa^able. 

En fin, last but not Uaat, je remercie la prease, lea jouraalistes, cea travailleura de tous les 
instants, qui ont, eux, le hard labor, alors que nous, nous sommea en banquets et en r^jouis- 
sance. Je reconnais tout leur tile. Et k voua tous, au nom des diHgaie venus de tous les 
coins du monde pour assister & ce merveilleux congrts de Boston, de tout mon coeur, je vou> 
dis: merci. 
(TTattlatum) 

Now, Gentlemen, I rise to close the session and to express to all the tlianks to which 
they are entitled. 

I thank first of all the President of the United States, Mr. Taft, who will do us the 
honor this evening to be present at our cloeing banquet. 

I thank the authorities of the State of Maaaachusetts in the person of the 
Governor, whom we have been delighted to meet; and the City of Boston in the person 
of its Mayor, whom we have learned to appreciate since our arrival in Boaton. 

I thank all the official delegates of the govenmtents, who have by their presence 
heightened the brilliancy of this international and world-wide ceremony. 

I thank, gentlemen, most particutariy, the Chamber of Commerce of Boston. As I 
have already aaid and as I propose to repeat this evening, we can find no words sufficient 
to express our sentiments. 

I thank also the manufacturers who welcome ue, who open wide to us tbe doorv of 
their establishments and wiU display to us the marvels of American industry and aciemce. 
I thank, gentlemen, all the clubs of the city who have so kindly given us Uie liberty 
of their houses. 

We feel ourselves absolutely at home, and we shall carry away indelible memories 
of Boston. 

Finally, "last but not least," I thank the press, the joumalists, these unceasing 
workers who have for their part the "hard labor" while we ourselves are at the banquets 
and entertainments. I appreciate their seal. And to you all, in the name of the 
delegates gathered from aU the comers of the world to attmid thia wonderful Congress 
of Boston, with all my heart I say: I thank you. 

Mr. Filene: One moment, gentlemen, please — Sir Joseph Lawxxnci. (Applauta.) 

Sir Joseph Lawrence: Gentlemen, on behalf and in the name of you all I must, in the 
name of the London Chamber of Commerce, probably the oldest Chamber of Commerce in the 
world, propose a cordial vote of thanks to our distinguished President, M. CaDoo-Legrand, 
and to thank him (or the dignity and efficiency with which he has conducted the proceedings. 

As a former member myself of the British House of Commons 1 have winced sometimes 
under the rulings of the Speaker of my own House. Many of us have winced under his rulings. 
but we have always recognised at the end of a session not only his general courtesy but his ab- 
solute impartiality and fairness. In that sense, gentlemen, whatever ripplee may have passed 
over the surface of our proceedings, we all recognise that the Preaident of the gathering, this 
world-wide Congress, has endeavored to conduct the proceedings for the best e£Bciency of 
all concerned. {"Hear, htarl" and applauae.) 

In that spirit of thankfulneaa, I ask you to join with me in according him your heartiest 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 289 

tiunks for the way in which he tuts presided over the proceedii^ of this conference. I do not 
think that that needs really to be put in the form of a motion. It hardly needs to be seconded. 
If you ^Kiuld agree with the spirit of the motion — 

Ur. FQen«: It is going to be seconded by Mr. Shoninger, in a moment, and then the 
motion can be put. 

Ut. ShoningeiT: Mr. President, as president of the American Chamber of Commerce in 
France, representing American and also French interests, I heartily second the motion which 
has now been made. I will leave it to Sir Joseph Lawrence to take th^ vote, which I know 
must be unanimous on the subject. (Applauie.) 

Sir JOB«ph Lawrence: Gentlemen, those of you who are in favor of that motion will 
signify the same by acclamation. 

(The motum tnu imanimoialy carried by aedamation, amid applavae.) 

Mr. H, Z. Osborne (Zos Angelet) : Mr. President and Members of the Congress, speaking 
as a delegate from the Chamber of Commerce of the City of Los Angeles, of which I have 
tlie honor to be president, but apeaking still more for that great organization of survivors of 
the great Civil War of fifty yeais ago, of which organization I have the honor to be the second 
officer, 1 wish to say that the action of this Congress taken this day meets with the hearty 
approval of the 500,000 survivors of the Civil War of 1861-1865, who knew full well all the 
horrors of war. Gentlemen, on their behalf 1 thank you for this expression in favor of univer- 
sal peace. iApplaute.) 

H. 1« President: La stance est lev£e. 



The Preeident declared the Congress adjourned at 1.20 p 



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Wt^ ISattQuet 

ADDRESS OF JOSEPH B. RUS^LL 
Proridoit of Boston Chunber of CommorGO 

This is a dajr of great happiness to the Boeton Chamber of Commerce. To-night it seea 
ae its guests, not only the many distinguished gentlemen who have gathered together from 
the four comers of the earth as delegates to the Fifth International Congress of Chambers 
of Commerce of the world, but also the noted men who have come here to join with us in ex- 
tending a warm welcome and hearty greetings to our friends. We cordially welcome Uiese 
delegates to our city, and to all that our Chamber affords. They truly represent all that is 
foremost and best in commercial activitiea — and commercial activities are no longer con- 
fined to the narrow realm which marked the past. To-day the grave questions which have 
occupied your attention, the broadest and most faNreaching, and such great questions as 
that of conservation — and I do not mean the mere conservation of mines, of forests and 
of forest streams, but all that pertains to the conservation of human life, of human health 
and human energy — are regarded as of supreme importance in all commercial bodies. 

Gentlemen, for some two years the Boston Chamber of Commerce has woriced with leal 
and industry, first, to bring to our city this distinguished body of men; and when the news 
reached us that Boston was chosen for the meeting place for this Congress, then began our 
more serious task to leave no stone unturned to make this Fifth Congress ever remembered 
by all partic^ting in its deliberations as the most noted meeting in all its succesrful career. 
How far we have fallen short in our high ambition we must leave to others, but this was our 
wish, this was our hope, and the extent of our failure, whatever it may be, but marks our 
lack of knowledge and experience. Our heart and soul were in it, and in all wajrs and from 
all directions we received that prompt and willing help which we had a right to expect from 
a generous community anxious to honor our noted guests, and to do credit to our own fair 
city. 

It is a great gratification to have with us to-night the Nation's President to bring to you 
the Nation's greeting. (_AppUm»e.) For the lofty office which he so well fills we all have the 
most profound respect, and whatever may be our party ties or political faith, the one who 
toHlay occupies that high position has personally our admiration and esteem. No matter 
how etrenuous may seem our present political struggle, I believe that all reasonable men 
do surely recognise in him the high-^ninded statesman, who has weighed the many and intri- 
cate problems of govermnent which have come before him, by the standard of highest in- 
tegrity and truest sincerity alone. (Apptauw.) 

I preaent to you the Pbesidbnt of the United States. (iTteoI applaut*.) 

ADDRESS OP HONORABLE WILLIAH B. TAFT 
Piwident of the Unit«d States of America 

Mr. Chairman, Del^at«s to the International Convention of Chambers of Commerce: 

On behalf of the people, the Government and the Congress of the Unit«d States I bid you 
welcome. (Apjiaitte.) After the Chamber of Cominerce of Boston had secured the meeting 
of this International Convention in this city, then, with that generosity that distinguishes 
2S1 



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292 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Congresa OavghUr), it passed a resolution requesting me to extend a cordis invitation to the 
chambers of commerce of the world through their governments, and having extended the 
invitation sad secured the acceptance, it referred the matter to the Chamber of Commerce of 
the City of Boston vrith power to act. (Prolonged laughter.) And I need not say to you, my 
fellow guests, that the reference was to a body competent to meet the obligations of hoepi- 
tality. (Chart.) 

There are a number of results that I am sure will follow this symbolic gathering of tbe 
nerves of trade from the world over. We think we know a good deal in the United States 
about everything (laughter), and one of the happy tbings in the future is the number of sur^ 
prises that are in store for us upon that particular subject. {Benewed Umykter.) And one of 
the good results to which I have referred, I hope, is the influence which this convention will 
have upon the responsible, governmental authorities and the people of the United States b 
convincing them of the necessity of associating in their governmental methods and in finding 
out the right courses to pursue in those methods of government that are akin to business 
("hear, heart"), — in associating with us the business men in their commercial bodies. 
(Appiause,) 

We know — that is, some of us know who have had occasion to study the subject — that 
the chambers of commerce of oUter coimtries have even an official or a semi-official relation 
to the government that gives them a real authority and a real influence in determining the 
course of the government in reference to matters that are akin to business {ap^ute), and 
that while we all believe in popular government, we believe that some people know more 
about some things than other people (laughter and applause), and that the way to help all 
the people is to get the information at first hand from those who are beet informed on the 
subject. ("Bravo'/" and applaute.) 

Now we cannot expect a government to be run exactly as a business establishment is 
run. That would be impossible, and it might not be well, either. But there are a great many 
methods that have been proven to be useful and necessary in business in accomplishing good 
results that might be incorporat«d into our governmental methods in this country. (Ap- 
plause.) We have been able to get along so well in this country because there were so many 
sources of taxation (^eal laughter), because the surpluses were so frequent that we have not 
had the occasion to consult the question of income as much, perhaps, as some countries older 
and less fortunately situated with respect to that subject matter. But we are coming to a 
time when it seems to me that unless we are to continue to do business as children we ought 
to adopt a ^stem of government bookkeeping and have a budget and know what we wish 
to spend and know what we have to spend before we go ahead to do either. (Applause.) 

Then we are engaged in levying a customs duty and internal revenue. Now I say that 
we ought to leam and know before we lay either the customs duty or the internal revenue 
what its effect is going to be upon business. (Applause.) We ought to punue the methods 
pursued by the foreign governments whose delegates I have the honor to address. We ought 
to have bureaus of statistics and accurate information on all the subjects that will enable us 
to judge what the effect of laws to be passed will be upon trade and commerce. (Applause.) 
Then we have gotten along thus far, with the help of Providence (Uaighter), with a By%- 
tem of banking and currency that no man can defend (applause), but that seems the last 
subject that Congress wishes to take up. (Laughter.) Now that is a subject matter that 
affects every one and affects most nearly the humblest and the poorest and those least able to 
protect themselves, and therefore it ought to be disposed of in a scientific we^. The reform 
ou^t to be carried on to a successful result by reference to bodies — chambers of commerce, 
banking associations and otliers — who are charged with that scientific knowledge of the needs 
of trade with reference to currency and banking, BO that when we act we shall act intelli- 
gently and act with respect to a matter of greater importance, I think, than possibly any 
other that I could mention to this body. (Applau«e.) 

So much, my friends, — and there are lots of other things that we can leam from the 
foreign delegates here and the methods pursued in those govemmenla with reference to the 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 293 

consultation <^ chambers of commerce, but my time is limited and I wish only to speak of 
another subject, not the influence upon this countiy by the coming of these delegates and 
these ohambere of commerce, but the influence upon the world of their coming here to meet 
us and our meeting them. You come here for trade — to promote trade — and trade is 
peace. {"Rear, hvarl" and applituee.) And if trade had no other good thing connected 
with it, the motive, the selfish motive in love of trade that keeps off war in order that 
trade may continue, is a sufficient thing to keep up trade for. (Apptaum.) 

I am not going to bore you with a reference to what can be done toward peace, for I 
have talked all over the country on that subject till those of my audience who are American 
citisens are tired of it ("no, no") but I believe that we must have some solution of the prob* 
lem that arisea and some escape in the future from the burden that is imposed by this iH' 
creaaiag armament of nations. {"Hear, heart" and applaute.) And you will never have the 
solution until 3^u have furnished some means of certainly and honorably settling evei? in- 
ternational controversy, whether of honor or vital interest ("Aeur, hear/"), by a court upon 
which all nations may rely. (Great applause.) And if, as I believe, meetings like this stimu- 
late the desire and the determination to reach some such result, I hope they may continue 
year after year until the dawn of permanent peace shall be with us. (Prdcmged and enthum- 
aetic cheering, culminaHrm in three cheari and a "tiger") 

President Rnsssll, Botlon Chamber of Commerce 

His Excellency the Governor of our state is with us to-night to join in our warm wel- 
come to all our honored guests. Some of us thought he might be our next President, but it 
seems not to be at ones, and so for him a little longer the pleasures of anticipation; and 
what more delightful, especially to one whose hand is already guiding the plow with a pretty 
substantial field to keep in ordsr, bearing some weeds and an occasional thistle. {Laughter.) 

I present to you HiB Excellxnct the Govebnos of MABSAcHnsETro. {Applauee.) 



ADDRESS OF HOHORABLE EUGEIIE N. FOSS 
OoT«inor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

Gentlemen, this Congress, representing the commerce and the commercial nations of 
the world, marics the beginning of a new era for America. It is prophetic of closer trade 
relations between this country and the rest of the worid. It constitutes a most effective 
pledge for the continuance of amicable international relations, of strongsr business friend- 
ships and more effective international undetBtandinga. 

You have come to Boston at the time when our entire country is tending toward a broader 
eommsrcial policy, a policy which is to take especial c(^;nizance of the foreign trade. In 
Massachusetts, as in other sections of the country, we have been passing through a period 
of rt^nd organisation and commercial expansion. Our mills and factories have multiplied, 
and their product has outgrown our domestic markets. We are seeking an outlet abroad 
for oar surplus products. It is, therefore, singularly appropriate that at this juncture the 
opportunity should be given us of entertaining the representatives of all the industrial 
world; of welcoming them to our industrial centers, acquainting them with New England 
and American enterprise, and forming those new business friendships which will remain as 
permanent factors in our further growth. 

We shall not continue the mistake which for fifty years has marred our commercial 
policy. The trade relations which bind the manufacturer of Massachusetts to the mer- 
chant of London, Antwerp or Hong Kong must be placed upon a basis of mutual interest. 
We an just beginning to realise the necessity of establishing such relations. If we are to 
continue the sale of our goods abroad, ws must in turn become purchasers from other 
countries. 



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294 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

It ia fortunate that the recognitioo of these fundamental principles is now uniTsnal in 
the United States. This is no longer the exclusive political doctrine of any one party; it ia a 
national demand. You will see this demand expressed in its highest tenna in the Panama 
Canal; and you will find the same deteimination bringing about the development of the 
Port of Boston, and of other great seacoast and inland hatbora on this continent. You win 
find boards of public commissionera working on the problem of dredgiog our principal 
rivers, and fixing the location of future seaports, not only at the mouths of the rivers, 
but, as in Europe, far inland in the heart of great manufacturing centers. We are becom- 
ing a maritime people, equipping ourselves to do business with the rest of the worid. 

It is a further earnest of this sentiment and of the recognition of the rights of othras 
that in the recent Panama Canal Bill, American ships engaged in foreign tmde are given no 
selfish advantage over the ships of other countries. (.Apptaute.) The reservation -which 
has been established in favor of American-built ships, engaged in coastwise traffic along our 
own shores is one which appears to be wholly consistent with established usages. But I 
hope that in time the absolute freedom and equality of the Canal to all may become estab- 
lished forever as the contribution of the United States to the commerce and progress of civi- 
Usation. ( Applause.) 

Gentlemen, this Congress comes at a time which is rendered still more significant of 
future commercial expansion by our awakening rec<%nitioD of the principle of Reciprocity. 
Our foreign guests have come to a country which, during the past half century, has at- 
tained a wonderful industrial and financial growth, by reason of that complete reciprocity of 
trade which marics the relations of each state with all the others in our Union, Among the 
nearly fifty separate governments within the United States each has built up its cconinercial 
relations with the others, without restrictions and without fear or favoritiam. Some of these 
states exceed in territory the limits of fore^ nations, which have grown to the foremost 
commercial rank. Others you will find that exceed in wealth and population some of the 
sovereignties of other lands. These states have prospered through reciprocity and mutual 
understanding, each profitng by the industrial benefits it has conferred upon the others. 

You have come to Massachusetla at a time when we are at last realising that the same 
ties should bind us to other peoples and other countries. Massachusetts realises her debt 
of gratitude to Preddent Taft for giving official expression to this neglect«d principle. You 
will find the people of New England joining with other sections of the country in offering 
to Canada a declaration of closer trade relations; and I believe that the lack of these rela- 
tions to^ay is due only to transient motives which a stronger mutual confidence will 
quickly overcome. 

You will find the great industrial centers of Massachusetts and New England (and I 
believe of the rest of the country as well), open-minded to the extension of reciprocal trade 
treaties to still other nations, in fact to all quarters of the globe, to the greatest degree ocm- 
sistent with the mtuntenance of American standards of life and labor. You will witliout 
doubt view with interest as a further sign of the times the activity in our great ship- 
building centers, and you will find that we ore building right here, within the limits of 
Greater Boston, ships that are fitted for all the demands of modem commerce. 

You will find the people of Boston aroused to the development of our great seaport. 
We recognise m the natural location of Boston, in its wonderful haifoor and the irxluBtrial 
communities around it, the logical marine frontier of this country opening toward the great 
markets of Europe. We are resolved that Boston shall be equipped in accordance with the 
exacting demands of modem commerce to accommodate the merchant fleets of the W4w)d. 
We are looking even northward to Canada, believing Boston to be the natural aet^tort fw 
the manufacturing and agricultural communities of that country. In anticipation of ckaer 
commercial telations with Canada and Europe we have invited to Boston one of the princi- 
pal railroads of Canada — the Grand Trunk. You will find the people of Hassachusetls 
earnestly resolved to effect the greatest posmble development of marine transportation, not 
only coastwise, but tnmsaUantie. 



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We ore at the dawn of our own era of commercial expansioD. With the extension of our 
foreign trade, and the development of our coastwise and interior waterways, our rivers, canals 
ftod baibors, you will find ue fitting ourselves for constantly broadening trade relations with 
jTOUiselvefl. The people of this Commonwealth would be proud at any time to welcome 
the moat distinguished commercial conference in the worid, but they are particularly grati- 
fied that you should have come here to mark for American history the beginning of our 
own broader industrial and commercial life. (Applaiue.) 

ftvsident RtiaHll, Botton ChanAer of Commerce 

His Honor the Mayor of Boston also comes to give you greeting. To ua here he needs 
DO introduction. To those from afar I can give assurance that his tireleas energy in all that 
tends to the development of our city is an inspiration and a lesson. Another year may see 
him sitting in the highest councils of our land; but whether in Washington or in Boston, 
wherever he may be, there we know stands a sealous advocate of the interests of our state, a 
Jaytl champion for the welfare of our city. 

I present to you P>" Honob tbb Mator or Boston. (Applauet.) 



ADDRESS OF HONORABU JOHR F. FITZGERALD 
Hayoi of the City of Boston 

Gentlranen, now that our serious labors are ended, we meet before parting to speak the 
finftl words of review and felicitation. The results of this Congress have, I am assured, been 
such as to justify the sacrifices which it involved, but above all its concrete enactments and 
salutary reforms I place those intangible values that do not figure in the program, but are 
incidental to our personal intercourse. 

The commerce of ideas, after all, is more generous, or at least more enlightened, than 
the commerce of commodities. By one of those paradoxes which are found in the spiritual 
life each side wishes the other to be the gainer. This is the amicable traffic in which we have 
beeO-engaged during the last few days. We trust that our guests have profited by their visit 
to Boston, though it is not for us to say in what manner or to what degree. Our own debt 
is certainly so large that we scarcely venture to express it for fear of seeming to exa^erate. 
It is enou^ to aay, gentlemen, that your presence has stimulated us to new aspirations and 
has awakened larger visions in our hearts and minds. 

Such conventions, I repeat, find their highest sanction in the strength which they impart 
to the eenee of interdependence among nations, which is, without doubt, their prime motive 
and original inspiration. They assume that the whole world of production, credit and ex- 
change is in a state of equilibrium so that a disturbance in any one market causes oscillation 
over the entire civihzed earth; and this view is amply justified by recent events. The tremors 
of the San Francisco earthquake were felt in the insurance companies of London. The war in 
Manchuria was reflected in the violent dance of prices on the Paris Bourse. A drought in 
India may determine the quotations for wheat in New York, and failures in Argentina have 
precipitated a disastrous panic. To preserve the universal stability which is necessary for 
the conduct of business is one chief aim of your assen^lies. 

What is true of calamities is no less true of benefits. It is conceivable that a traveler 
journeying from Portugal to Russia might find a different raihroad gage at every frontier, 
but such impediments to the free movement of trade would be a poor expression of patriotism. 
A difference of an inch between nation and nation would prevent travel at express speed for 
long distances, thereby causing delay, and would compel the needless duplication of rolling 
stock, thus increasing coat. In the United States one width of rail prevails across the conti- 
nent and the adoption of this uniform standard would be an advantage everywhere. My 
illustration is merely imaginary, but the principle is clear. Every device for increasing speed, 



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296 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP 

or saving life, or diminiahing the diacmnforts of travel becomes intemationaliied sooner w 
lat«r and ceases to be the escluave property of the nation in which it originates. The electrie 
engine, the air brake, the refrigemtor car belong to no pe<^e, but diffuse themaelvea with 
other beneficial inveotions over the entire norid. It is such a diffusion, not of mere appli- 
ances alone, but of fonns and regulations as well, that your Congress aims to promote, as it 
eliminates differences and compels local usage to conform to the requirements of the world's 
larger interests. 

Thia is, after all, only a new application of science to practical affairs. We know what 
science has accomplished for agriculture in the study of the chemistry of soils, the selection 
of seeds, the relation of birds to the control of peats, sod of bees and other insecta to fertili- 
lation. By no magic wand, but through reason and e:q)erieDc« guided by imagination, she 
has bidden the earth to t«em with manifold abundance. In manufacturing, mining, forestry, 
inigation, drainage and the conservation of water supply, the engineer and the e:q>ert now 
ezeroise an tmquestioned authority. Similar studies and the ereation of a similar body at 
experts will fortify conmterce in the same degree by reducing waste and cultivating facility 
in administrative and fiscal methods. Your collective importance and economic function are 
not inferior to those of the other interests which 1 have mentioned. 

As it happens, gentl«nen, there is a certain felicity in your visit to Boston whiob has not 
been pointed out by any other speaker. I do not know any class that appeals to the peo[^ 
of this city more than that which you represent. The traditions of our community uphold 
the merohant as the hi^ieat type of citisen. The nature of his occupation forbids seclusica 
and aloofness, and brings him into personal contact with his feUowmen. Out of the sense of 
reciprocal obligation thus created flow those noble benefactions which aro so common in our 
history. 

Art, scholarship and philanthropy are residuary heirs of the labors and accumulations 
of the captains of industry. Franklin, Lowell, Perkins, Carney, Arnold, McKay, Brii^iam, 
Porkman, Wentworth — these men of the world cherished to the end something unworldly 
And saw through the murk and confusion of the daily struggle the better day that is approach- 
ing. They grasped the broad conoeption that wealth is a trust of which all mankind and not 
merely a narrow circle should be the beneficiaries. Hospitals, schools, museums and pariu, 
free to all, perpetuate their names and offer to future generations examples of a wise libeivlity. 

As becomes a city of merchants, the people of Boston are not easily held in subjection. 
The first settlers were of the T-ir^ gliwh middle class, industrious, self-sustaining and aggres- 
sive. Prom the beginning they displayed a free, indomitable spirit, which awakened alarm, 
and at the same time excited admiration among the British statesmen. In the War of Amer- 
ican Independence orators of Boston took the lead, and the first pitched battle — the Battle 
of Bunker Hill — was fought within the confines of the present city. In the War of 1812 
our sailors did not hesitate to challenge the greatest sea power in the world. 

A tradition of sympathy with sufferers and freedom lovers eveiywhere grew out of these 
early conflicts and has continued to the present day. Whether the iqipeal comes from vic- 
tims of natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, or refugees from political tyranny, 
or apostles of social amelioration, our reqtonse has ever be«i quiok and generous. The 
movement to abolish American slavery, for example, may be said to have had its birth in 
Boston, and we are about to erect a monument to its foremost orator, Wendell Phillips, the 
son of our first Mayor. Faneuil Hall, which some of you may have seen, is affectionately 
known all over this country as "The Cradle of Liberty," from the meetings which have 
be^ held there in behalf of patriotic and humanitarian causes. 

A high sense of civic obligation ia characteristic of the citiiens of Boston. Every class 
responds with fervor to the call of public duty. During our Civil War fully half the adult 
males served as soldiers. Harvard Univemty alone sent over fifteen hundred volunteers, a 
large percentage of its graduates snd students. In times of peace the city drafts into its ser- 
vice on the various boards of government able men who labor without compensation for the 
good of their fellow citiaens. 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 297 

Our appreciation of human values finds no more significant eicpression than in the sacri- 
fices made for public education. We realise that our chief asset in New England is not the sea 
oi the water power in our tumbling rivers, and assuredly not the fertility of the somewhat 
niggardly soil, but our own manhood and womanhood, the quality of which we strive to main- 
tain by careful training given to the minds and bodies of the young. Our school children, an 
army more than one hundred thousand strong, are the objects of our teuderest solicitude, 
which is revealed not only by lavish public expenditures, but through the participation of 
all claases of citizens in the problems of juvenile education. Only a week ago the Central 
Labor Union, a body representing the allied trade unions of the city, passed resolutions in 
favor of a different form of organization for the school committee. 

That culture in the higher phases flourishes among us needs do demonstration before 
a gathering which, itself, represents the culture as well as the commercial enterprise and in- 
tegrity of forty nations. The chief Uterary school of America had its seat in Boston in the 
middle of the last century. Such names as Hawthorne, Emerson, Longfellow, Lowell, Whittier 
and Holmes suggest to readers of English literature a certain refined beauty and serene ideal- 
ism as well as moral ardor. We are proud of this poetic group; of our statesmen, jurists, ar- 
tists and divines; and of the universities and technolo^cal institutes, famous far beyond the 
borders of this country, which complete the educational structure. 

The government of Boston ministers to the wants of the citizens more assiduously per- 
haps than that of any other American municipality. The benefits of our libraries, parks, 
baths, gymnasiums and concerts are open to all. In the treatment of tuberculosis we have 
pointed the path in which others are following. A pension system provides for teacher, la- 
borers, military veterans, firemen and policonen, who, from advanced age or other causes, 
are unable t« continue at work. City labor is weU paid on the theory that the government as 
an employer should set a conspicuous example of humanity and justice. Foreign cities which 
pride themselves on their spirit of pn^rees find that Boston has anticipated them in many of 
their beneficent undertakings. 

Such are the fruits of civic policy in aji industrial democracy led by captains promoted 
from its own ranks. In reviewing thus briefly some of its aspects I do not feel that 1 am di- 
gressing. I merely expand my ^reeable theme of community and resemblance between 
visitors and ourselves. You, too, gentlemen, are in the main residents of cities, striving, as we 
are, to make these centers of productions, which are more and more gathering the popula- 
tion within their precincts, worthy places of habitation, for the generations which are to 
follow us. 

Let us, then, forget all differences to-night, if any differences exist beyond the super- 
ficial distinctions of language and custom, and pay tribute to the spirit of human brotherhood. 
There are many islands but only one ocean, and that is the heritage of all the sons of Adam. 
This common possession, this liquid emerald without price, unit«s us all — north, south, east 
and west — in ever increasing facility of intercourse and ever strengthening bonds of friend- 
ship. Grant that variety has its value and individuality must be preserved at any cost, yet 
the blood in our veins is of one color and the world will be better when all men can meet, as 
we have met this week, in the spirit of fuU-souled unity and mutual concession. Such gather- 
ings forecast the golden age when peace and law shall reign over a worid too long tormented 
by unprofitable dissensions. This, gentlemen, is the fairest truit ot your Congress, which has 
brought honor to our city, our state and our country. (AppUntee.) 



PretidMit Hsuoll, Botbm Chamber erf Commerce 

It is now my pleasant privilege to present to you one who, probably more than any other, 
is responsible for the inception of the International Congress of Chambers of Commerce, and 
who through his earnest lesl aikd great ability has done much to bring to it the commanding 
poeitioo of influence which it to-day holds. He was its first President, and is now its Presi- 



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298 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

dent. The highest honor within the gift of the commercial bodies of the world baa been ten- 
dered to him year after year. Well fcoown by his work in all civilized countriea, his iofluoiee 
has permeated to the furthennoat comers of the earth. 
1 present to you Mr. Louis Canon-Legband. 



ADDRESS OF MONSIEUR LOUIS CANOIt-LEGKAITD 

FreBident of the Fifth Internation&l Congress of Chambers of Commerce; Pretident 
of the Permanent Committee of the IntematlonBl Confjress 

Monsieur le Prudent de la Chambre de commerce de Boston, 
Monsieur le President des Stats-Unis: 

C'eat un grand honneur pour moi, au nom de toua les d^l^fo etrangera, de prendre la 
parole dans ime assemble aussi importante que celle-ci, 4 la fin des travaux du CinquiteM 
Congrte International dea Cbambree de Commerce et dea Aasociations Commercialea et Indus- 
trielles du monde entier. 

Conime orateura devant r^pondre i vos aimables diacoure, trois d'entre nous ont 6t£ d6- 
sign^, et, dans I'ordre des congrte tenus pr^c^denunent, il ee fait qu'en parlent fran^ais, je 
repr^sente la region moyenne de I'Europe; que M. Salmoiraghi, parlant en italien, pereonni- 
fiera le midi, et que M. Faithful! Begg, en anglaia, parlera pour lea paya du nord. D n ssob 
dire que si Ton n'avait dfl se bomer, c'eat dana toutes les autree Ungues de la tene qu'il ae 
eeiait ilevi un concert d'^logee et de remerciement. 

Notre ceuvre des congrte a toujours 6ti accueillie avee faveur par les gouTemements, 
lea miniatres, les princes et les monarques d'Europe, mais cette fois la reception doDt nous 
Bommes gratify est & la taille de ceux qui nous reyoivent: c'est une grandiose reception am^ 
ricaine. 

Aux autorit^ de ce beau pays de Massachusetts et de Boston, a bien touIu ae jotndre le 
premier citoyen des £tats-UniB, M. le President Taft. Je tiens, au nom de toutea lea naticnu 
du monde ici prdeentea, k lui adresser, avec notre aalut respectueux, I'expreasion de notre vive 
et bien sincere gratitude. 
(TFOtuIotton) 

Mr. Premdent of the Boston Chamber of Commerce, 
Mr. Preradent of the United States: 

It is a great honor for me, on behalf of all the foreign debates, to raise my voice 
in an assembly aa important as the present one, at the close of the work of the Fifth In- 
ternational Congrem of the Channels of Commerce and of the Commercial and Industrial 
Associations of the entire world. 

Three among our number have been selected as speakers to respond to your Idnd re- 
marks and, following the order in the Congresses previously held, it appears that, in 
addressing you in French, I represent the central part of Europe; that Mr. Salmoira^u, 
speaking in Italian, will represent the South, and Mr. Faithfull B^g, in English, will 
apeak for the countries of the North. It goes without saying that if we were not 
limited, a (»ncert of praise and thanksgiving would have been raised in all the lan- 
guages of the earth. 

The work of our congresses has always been greeted with favor by the goveni- 
mente, miniatera, princes and monarchs of Europe, but this time the reception with 
which we are honored equals the greatness of those who received ua; it is a magnifiocnt 
American reception. 

The first citisen of the United States, Mr. Taft, the President, has graciously united 
with the dignitaries of this beautiful land of Masaachusetts and of Boston. On behalf 
of all the nations of the world here present I wish to present to him, together with oar 
leapectful greetings, the assurance of our heartfelt and most sincere gratitude. 



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CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE 299 

{Ctmtiiuiing in EnglMi) 

The work of our IntemationAl Congreaa of Cbamben of Commerce is one of peace Emd 
concord. It brings into contact men of the same mentality and of equal abilities, who ore not 
alow to agree on all practical questions that can be realized. It is also in out oBsemblies that 
propositions of humanitarianism and arbitration are seen to arise; it is in the contact of mer- 
chsntfl and men of industry that one becomes the more easily convinced of the absurdity of 
wars, and the necessity of uniable settlement in business c<niflicts, thus avoiding the delay 
imd the costs of old legal formalities, I am happy to state here, before you all, that we have 
no purer objectives in our labors, and that in the future sittings of our congresses we will 
endeavor to aim at the reoUsation of those wishes. 

(Continttmg in Frendi) 

Vous dirai-je, messieurs, I'impression profonde que les gena du vieux monde, au nom 
deequels je parle plus sp4cialement, ^rouvent en d£barquant aux £ltats-Unis? L'ampleur 
et la grandeur de tout ce qui frsppe les 'yeux n'ont d'^gales 'que I'activit^ et I'^nergie des 
hommea qui ont crM ces merveiUes. 

Quand, aprte New-Yoi^ carrefour de I'Univers, avec see gigantesque constructions et 
sa d^vorante allure de oit^ commergante et grouillante de vie, on arrive i. Boston, on ^rouve 
en outre un intense sentiment de repoeant bien-dtre intellectuel, car cette ville de Boston, k 
part ees industries et son port, possMe des ritobliBsements d'instruction de premier ordre; 
c'est la perle dee £tats-Unis; et ce fut pour nous tous une satisfaction raffinie d'y avoir le 
si£ge de notre cinquiime congres des Chambres de commerce. 

C'est & la sont^ de cette admirable ville que je vais vous convier i, vider voa verres; mais 
je veux y joindre, et je le ferai dana votre belle langue, la sant^ de la puissante Chambre de 
commerce de Boston, de ses 5000 membree et de son distingu^ Prudent, M. RusseU: 

(^ransloiton) 

Shall I describe to you, gentlemen, the profound impression that the people of the 
old world, on behalf of whom I am especially speaking, feel when landing in the United 
States? The amplitude and grandeur of all that strikes the eye are only equalled by the 
activity and energy of the men who have created these wonderful things. 

When, after New Yoric, the croe»-roads of the Universe, with its gigantic structures 
and that fascinating allurement which is characteristic of a commercial city stirring with 
life, Boston is reached, one experiences an intense feeling of quieting, intellectual com- 
fort, for this City of Boston, aude from its industries, its water front and harbor, possesses 
educational institutions of the first order. It is the pearl of the United States; and it was 
to us a keen satisfaction to hold there our Fifth Congress of the Chambers of Commerce. 

To the prosperity of this admirable city I invite you to empty your glasses; but I wish 
to join therewith — and I shall do it in your beautiful language — the prosperity of 
the mighty Chamber of Commerce of Boston, of its 5000 members, and of its distin- 
guished President, Mr. Russell. 

(Ccmiinuinf in Englitk) 

This Chamber of Commerce of Boston spends more than $150,000 a year not only on 
commerce and trade, but on such things as education, the prevention of disease and acci- 
dent, city planning and many social things that are inseparably connected with business in 
the city, state or nation. 

We have been welcomed with such a courtesy, such a kindness, even in the sUghtest 
details our hosts have striven to render our stay so agreeable, that I find no words to thank 
appropriately tlie Boston Chamber of Commerce, its President and all its members. 

The lovely ladies who have so kindly attended to the feminine portion of the congrese- 
ists, are entitled to a specially gracious mentitm of gratitude which I am delighted to address 
to them. 



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300 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 

Of the few deya we have spent together, a profound souvenir will linger in our heaita. 
Our discussions among ourselves will bear fruit, we shall carry with us the memory of your 
methods and ways of doing, and the result will be beneficial and will make for progress. 

Peace, honor and good will amongst men is the motto tj] remember. 

I propose the health of the City of Boston, coupled with that of the Chamber of Com- 
merce and of President RuBsell. (AjtpUatst.) 

President Russell, BotUm Chamber of Commerce 

Among our many distinguished guests is one from It&ly, a Senator of that kingdom, 
Preeident of the Chamber of Commerce of hifi own city of Milan, and a former President of 
the International Congress of Chambers of Commerce; an eminent statesman, a noted engi- 
neer, a man of large affairs and much public service, he wears the coveted decorations of his 
own and other countries. 

I am happy to present to you the Honorable ksawia SAUfomAOHi. (AppIouM.) 



ADDRESS OF SENATOR ANGELO SALHOIRAGHI • 

Pretident tA ai« HUan Chamber <A Commerce Representiiig the Hosts of dke Milan 

CongresB 

Mr. President, Gentlemen, I am both honored and glad to speak upon this solemn occa- 
sion when the moat important commercial repreeentativee of all nations are gathered here in 
such a great number in the name of human soUdarity, in the name of the progress of tjie com- 
mercial world and of its civilisation. 

I am honored and glad, and also proud, to represent here the government of my beloved 
country and particidarly His Excellency the Minister of Commerce, Honorable Nitti. He, 
like m^elf, feels that it is true and sincere patriotism to give to Italy the opportunity to yxa 
all her sister nations and have with them the friendliest relations. 

In the name of the Government of His Majesty the King of Italy, in the name of the dd- 
^atea of the Commercial Associations of Italy, I salute and pay respectfully homage, first 
to the great Republic of the United States of America and to its Preaident, Mr. Taft; to the 
State of Massachusetts; to the Authorities of this City, the Athena of America, which wel- 
comes UB with such a splendid courtesy; to the diligent Organising Committee of the Congress 
which is going to make us spend an unforgetable period in our lives. I salute and thank every 
one of them and most particularly the President, Mr. Smith, and Vice-President, Mr. fllene. 
In the name of our ladies I thank the "Ladies' Committee" for the splendid reception that 
they have had here. 

I drink to the ever increasing prosperity of this great nation, — a nation of the boldest 
initiative, of the highest and noblest conceptions, to which she knows how to dedicate the b«st 
part of her marvelous atrength. (AppIatM«.) 

President Russell, BoiUm Chamber of Commerce 

And last but not least in our list for this evening is a noted citisen of Great Britain. Of 
old Scotch Calvinistic stock, he, like so many of his countrymen, eariy in life left home and be- 
gan his very successful career in the then far-diatant New Zealand. Coming home he engaged 
in banking and other business, entered Parliament, and became identified with the leading 
measures and developmenta of our time. Always progressive, ever active, he has made for 
himself an honored name; a work! traveler, a keen observer, deeply interested in commercial 
affairs and commercial bodies, his assistance and advice are eagerly sou|^t and always free^ 

I present to you Mr. F. Faithtdu. Bnaa. (AppIauM.) 



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CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 



ADDRESS OF HS. F. FATTHFULL BEGG 

Chalmuui of the Coundl of the London Chamber of Commerce Representiog the Hosts of 

the Iiondon Congress 

Mr. Preakient, Mr. Governor, Mr. Mayor, Lodiee and Oentlemen: 

I have selected the Engliah language as the medium of my speech but 1 wish it to be under- 
stood that when I have finished I shaU be glad to repeat my remariu in all the other languages 
spoken at tlte Congrees, if you desire to listen to me. (Laughter.) 

My fiiBt word must be an egression of r^ret that my old friend, Mr. Charles Charleton, 
owing to illnesa, is not present to diHchorge the duty which thus falls, however unworthily, 
upon me. We, in the London Chamber of Commerce, had the great privilege in 1910 of wel- 
comii^ the Fourth International Congress, and many of thoee present know well bow ably Mr. 
Charleton discharged the duties which fell to his lot on that oecaaion. 

The present Congrees far exceeds in importance any Congrees which has preceded it, 
and we owe it to the energy of our kind hosts in Boston that it has proved a magnificent 
BuccesB. It is true that you have not been able to give universal satisfaction. There are, for 
example, I understaikd, dd^catea who are indignant because their bathrooms are several 
inches shorter than they had been led to expect before undertaking to cross the Atlantic. 
(Laughler.) 

NevertlielesB we are experiencing a reception in Boston as hearty and as sincere as any 
that has hitherto been extended to previous Congresses by the crowned heads and poten- 
tates Igr which tbtj have been welcomed. 

We were led to expect much, but I think I cannot better express our feelings with regard 
to our reception than in the words of the Queen of Sheba, when she made her historic visit 
to King Solomon, "Behold the half has not been told us." (AppiauM.) 

We find ouraelvea greeted here in this historic city not only by the merchants of the city 
itself, but we are honored by the presence of the head of the Government of the United Stat«8, 
by the Governor of the state of Massachusetts and by the Mayor of the city. And if we have 
not been greeted by crowds in the streets as great as those which have welcomed the return 
of the Red Sox, the photographers at least have done their best to make our visit comfort- 
able. {Laughter.) 

You have even gone so far as to armnge for a contested election to take place during the 
period of our visit especially, so I understand the Mayor to say in hia address of welcome, 
especially in order that we might have an opportunity of examining the wooing of American 
institutions at the polling booths. {Lauglder.) 

This reception, in spite of the shortcomings to which I have referred, cannot but have a 
powerful effect in building up the vitality of our organisation and rendering it more effective 
for the purposes for which it was designed. 

The rapid development in the importance of these Congresses has more than justified 
the faith of those who a few yeara ago formulated the idea upon which they are founded. 
The root, or fundamental idea, was to form a federation of commercial men throughout the 
countries of the world, having for its object to induce or even compel governments to de- 
vote their attention less to the arts of war and more to the arts of peace. In this ambition 
the organisation has met with a considerable measure of success, but much remains to be 
done. Govenunents have not yet accepted the theory that embassies and chancelleries 
should concern themselves leas than they have done with the organisation of national re- 
sources for the purposes of destruction, and that commerce is not carried on merely to pro- 
vide a treasure fuikd destined chiefly to provide means for the carrying on of war. We 
deeire that governments should regard commerce as an end and not merely as a means. 

To our hosts on this occasion may I say that whilst here on this vast continent you have 
had, more or less in the past, little to concern yourselves with except the development of your 
wonderful resources, even you are not now free from the complications of a foreign policy or 



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302 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS 

from questions of difficulty which tend to increase in number and must so increase as time 
goes on. 

You are meeting these questions with characteristic slcill. To this end you have even 
been able to add weapons to the already well-stocked annory of diplomatists. There is, for 
example, that famous doctrine specially applicable to this continent, which, from the name 
of its author, I take to have been evolved by a countryman of my own poseessiDg that q>ecial 
talent for met^hysics that characteriies the Scottish race. (Laughter,) 

But if you will turn your eyes from this hemisidiere to the Continent of Europe what wilt 
you find? You will find the nations massed in anned camps, every nerve being strained for 
the increase of armaments on land and minoue expenditure being incurred on an ever in- 
creasing scale in preparation for warfare at sea. We read in the pages of histoiy of great 
world-movements by which the nations of antiquity were shaken to their foundation and 
in many cases perished utterly by the operations of war. Nothing remains of many of these 
nations but moldering relics of departed greatness, vast mounds of Grumbling dust marking 
irtiere great cities oitce Stood, now surrounded by desolation. 

Are we sure that we have not questions to solve in the future, and it may be in the im- 
mediate future, of magnitude as great, or even greater, than those which convulsed the em- 
pires of the past? We are men of business whose interests lie in the solution of such queeti<»ts 
without resort to war. Should we not see to it that our influence should ever be brought to 
bear upon govenunents of whatever description to secure by every means in our power a 
peaceful solution in every case, and may we not hope that our influence properly exerted 
may be sufficient to secure that end? (i4pplauce.) 

In conclusioD, I trust that I shall not be r^^arded as greatly daring if I refer to a question 
which is much in the minds of commercial men at the present time. The great nation whose 
guesto we are is en^ged at the present moment in the completion of a work of unexanqiled 
magnitude and destined to revolutionise the trade routes of the world. The necessity for 
that great woric has long been evident, but it has been left to the United States of America 
to undertake its completion. We must all accord the highest honor to this country for the 
magnificent spirit in which the task has been undertaken and the scientific skill which has 
been displayed in carrying it out. 

Incidentally there has arisen in connection with this matter a question of high politics 
in r^ard to which the counti? to which I have the honor to belong, aiul the great Republic 
whose gueste we are, do not at the moment see eye to eye. Far be it from me to say a 
single word on this occasion on the merits of that diBerence of opinion, but I do desire to 
say this (and I speak with full concurrence of all my associates from London here present], 
that I have confidence that the great common-sense and well-known capacity for adjusting 
difficult problems which characterises both nations will find a solution by peaceful means 
which will be honorable to both parties concerned. (Applauae.) 

We are now approaching the date when one hundred years of unbroken peace will have 
existed between the two countries. Our past struggles are long ago forgiven and forgotten. 
We no longer remember the Boston Tea Party witli resentment and Bunker Hill has become 
a historic memory. 

That these harmonious relations will continue I confidently believe and it is my earnest 
prayer and hope that nothing may ever occur to disturb them. (_Applautt.) 

Adjourned. 



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The rulM governing the International Congrese of Chambers of Commerce are as foUows: 

1. The Intemational Congress of Chambers of Commerce and Commercial and Indus- 
trial Aasociatioiu ahall meet at intervals which, generally speaking, shall not exceed two 
jrears. 

2. The following shall be admitted to the Congress — Delegates of any corporation 
legally representing commercial and iitdustrial interests, and of voluntary industrial and 
commercial associations; also, delegates of federations of such corporations and cmnmercial 
and industiial unions- 
Individuals not being nominated delegates, but who are members of any such corpora* 

tion or union, shall also be admitted. 

3. The subscription shall be 20 franca for individuals, and 50 francs for corporations or 
unions. The latter shall, on payment of the GO francs, be entitled to nominate three dele* 
gates; for each additional del^ate 20 francs shall be payable. 

4. The Congress itself shall decide questions of internal organisation. The Congress 
may, besides, vote on any question which it discusses, if the majority so desire. 

Participants admitted in accordance with Rule 2 (Paragraph 2) shall not be entitled to 
vote; those nominated in accordance with Rule 2 (Paragraph 1) shall each have a vote. The 
decision shall be made by a majority vote. At the request of not less than ten members, 
who must in addition represent three different countries, the vote shall be taken by 
eouniriet; such request must be made before the commencement of the voting. Should a 
vote be taken b]/ eountriei, the decision shall be arrived at by a majority of voters present, 
in addition to the majority by countries, and otherwise the vote shall be declared void; a 
dettul of the vote record by each country shall be included in the Minutes. 

5. The Congress itself shall elect its executive cheers for the duration of its meetii^. 

6. A Permanent Committee shall be formed for the purpose of making arrangements 
for the meetings and carrying out the decisions of &e Congress. 

Each country shall be represented on this Committee by at most three delegates. To 
this effect, three regular members and three alternates (mppUanta) shall be nominated by 
each country. 

7. The r^ular members and alternates shall be nominated by the delegates to the Con- 
gress of the different countries; delegates of countries having a national federation of Chambers 
of Commerce or of industrial and conuoereial sssociations may abandon the right of nomi- 
nating representatives on the Pennanent Committee in favor of such federation; members 
of the Permanent Committee shall exercise the authority thus conferred upon them until the 
succeeding Congress. 

303 



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304 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS 

8. Every member of the Perm&nent Committee, unless absent, sh&U h&ve & vote, and 
queationH shall be decided by a majority of votes, provided that half of the countries are 

represented at the sitting. 

9. The Pennanent Committee ehall elect from tunongat it« own membera a President 
and Vice-President and, in addition, an administrator, who may be the General Seoetaiy, 
but need not be a member of the Conmiittee. Such appointments shall remain in force dur- 
ing the interval separating two Congresses. 

Tlie Permanent Committee shall decide upon the place at which the next Congress shall 
be held in the event of the previous Congress not having done so. 

Pending any further decision on the matter, the headquarteta of the Permanent Committee 
shall be in Brussels. 

10. The Permanent Committee shall be convened by the President. The Utter tmut 
call the Committee together if so requested by at least a fourth of ite members. 

11. The expenses shall be defrayed by means of the aubeoriptions referred to in Rule 3, 
and by contributions which may eventually be made by States, corporations, unions or in- 
dividuils. 



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